9780072322095

Fundamentals of Graphics Communication

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780072322095

  • ISBN10:

    0072322098

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-01-17
  • Publisher: MCG (Manual)
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Summary

Fundamentals of Graphics Communication presents a modern approach to engineering and technical graphics. It covers drawing techniques from a modern, CAD-oriented perspective, as well as a traditional perspective. The engineering design process receives special attention throughout this text, through the use of design case studies, a consistent problem-solving methodology, many real examples taken from industry, and a selection of design problems for the student to try. The text is supported by a rich assortment of supplements, including CAD workbooks, additional drawing problems, animation, tutorials, and a dynamic On-Line Learning center for students and instructors.

Table of Contents

Foreword xv
Preface xvi
Design in Industry: CAE in Action: Skate Blades on the Cutting Edge xxi
Introduction to Graphics Communication and Sketching
1(72)
Objectives and Overview
1(1)
Introduction
2(2)
The Importance of Graphics in the Design Process
4(4)
Visualization
5(2)
Communication
7(1)
Documentation
7(1)
The Traditional Design Process
8(1)
The Design Process Using Concurrent Engineering
9(2)
Standards and Conventions
11(1)
CAD Database Standards
12(1)
Alphabet of Lines
12(1)
Specialists and Technical Drawings
13(1)
Traditional Tools
13(14)
Pencils
14(1)
Historical Highlight Leonardo da Vinci
15(1)
Drawing Paper
16(1)
Scales
17(1)
Civil Engineer's Scale
17(2)
Mechanical Engineer's Scale
19(4)
Metric Scale
23(1)
Compass
24(1)
Dividers
25(1)
Templates
26(1)
What You Will Learn
27(1)
Technical Drawing Tools
27(2)
3-D Modeling Project Chapter 1: Stapler Modeling Project
28(1)
Future Trends
29(1)
Visualization Tools
29(1)
Computer-Aided Drawing Tools
29(3)
Technical Sketching
32(4)
Freehand Sketching Tools
35(1)
CAD Sketching Tools
36(1)
Sketching Technique
36(9)
Seeing, Imaging, Representing
37(1)
Contour Sketching
38(2)
Negative Space Sketching
40(1)
Upside-Down Sketching
40(1)
Straight Lines
40(3)
Curved Lines
43(2)
Proportions and Construction Lines
45(4)
Lettering
49(6)
Lettering Standards
49(1)
Hand Lettering
50(1)
Alternate Text Styles
50(3)
CAD Lettering Technique
53(2)
Text on Drawings
55(1)
Summary
56(17)
Design Case Study 3-D Design Pays Off for Bose Corporation
57(1)
Goals Review
58(1)
Questions for Review
58(1)
Further Reading
59(1)
Design in Industry Virtual Reality Changes the Face of Design
59(1)
Problems
60(12)
Classic Problems
72(1)
The Engineering Design Process
73(61)
Objectives and Overview
73(1)
Design
74(2)
The Engineering Design Process
76(8)
Traditional Engineering Design
77(1)
Concurrent Engineering Design
77(1)
Collaborative Engineering
78(1)
Virtual Product Representation
78(1)
Prototyping
78(1)
Productivity Tools
79(1)
EDM/PDM
79(3)
Internet, Intranet, and Extranet
82(1)
The Digital Enterprise
82(1)
e-Business
82(1)
Design Teams
82(2)
Members of Design Teams
84(1)
Types of Design Projects
84(1)
Ideation
84(5)
Problem Identification
84(3)
Preliminary Ideas Statement
87(1)
Preliminary Design
87(2)
Ideation Resources
89(1)
The Designer's Notebook
89(1)
Refinement
89(12)
Modeling
93(3)
Computer Simulation and Animation
96(1)
Design Analysis
97(4)
Design Review Meetings
101(1)
Implementation
101(12)
Planning
101(1)
Production
102(1)
Marketing
103(1)
Finance
104(1)
Management
105(1)
Service
106(1)
Documentation
106(1)
Historical Highlight Standards
107(6)
Drawing Control
113(4)
Product Data Control
113(1)
3-D Modeling Project Chapter 2 Stapler Modeling Project
114(2)
File Management
116(1)
ISO 9000
116(1)
Other Engineering Design Methods
117(17)
Design Case Study The Motorola i1000 Handset Communicator
118(5)
Goals Review
123(1)
Questions for Review
123(1)
Design in Industry FEA and the America's Cup
124(2)
Further Reading
126(8)
Engineering Geometry
134(51)
Objectives and Overview
134(1)
Engineering Geometry
135(1)
Shape Description
135(1)
Coordinate Space
136(6)
Right-Hand Rule
137(3)
Polar Coordinates
140(1)
Cylindrical Coordinates
140(1)
Spherical Coordinates
140(1)
Absolute and Relative Coordinates
141(1)
World and Local Coordinate Systems
142(1)
Geometric Elements
142(1)
Points, Lines, Circles, and Arcs
143(7)
Points
143(1)
Historical Highlight Gaspard Monge
143(2)
Lines
145(2)
Tangencies
147(2)
Circles
149(1)
Conic Curves
150(6)
Parabolas
151(1)
Hyperbolas
151(1)
Ellipses
152(4)
Roulettes
156(3)
Design in Industry New Tools Help Link Computer-Aided Industrial Design with Mechanical CAD
156(1)
Spirals
157(1)
Cycloids
157(1)
Involutes
158(1)
Double-Curved Lines, Including Helixes
159(1)
Freeform Curves
159(2)
Spline Curves
160(1)
Bezier and B-Spline Curves
160(1)
Angles
161(1)
Planes
162(1)
Surfaces
162(10)
Two-Dimensional Surfaces
164(2)
Ruled Surfaces
166(5)
Fractal Curves and Surfaces
171(1)
3-D Modeling
172(13)
Wireframe Modeling
174(1)
Surface Modeling
175(1)
Goals Review
176(1)
3-D Modeling Project Chapter 3: Stapler Modeling Project
177(1)
Questions for Review
177(1)
Further Reading
177(1)
Problems
178(5)
Classic Problems
183(2)
Design Visualization
185(49)
Objectives and Overview
185(1)
Visualization for Design
185(4)
Problem Solving
186(1)
Vision
187(2)
Solid Object Features
189(2)
General Visualization Techniques
191(8)
Solid Object Combinations and Negative Solids
191(1)
Planar Surfaces
192(3)
Symmetry
195(1)
Surface Models (Developments)
196(3)
Visualization Techniques for Engineering Drawings
199(2)
Image Planes
199(1)
Object-Image Plane Orientation
200(1)
Multiple Image Planes
200(1)
Choosing a View to Describe an Object
201(1)
Graphical Analysis of Engineering Data
201(10)
Data Visualization Elements
202(4)
Visualizations for One Independent Variable
206(3)
Visualizations for Two Independent Variables
209(1)
Design in Industry Sikorsky Helibus
210(1)
Future Directions
211(1)
Summary
212(22)
Questions for Review
213(1)
Further Reading
213(1)
Problems
214(20)
3-D Solid Modeling
234(63)
Objectives
234(1)
Introduction
235(1)
Model Definition
235(1)
Primitive Modeling
235(1)
Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) Modeling
236(4)
Boundary Representation (B-Rep) Modeling
240(1)
Hybrid Modeling
240(1)
Constraint-Based Modeling
241(1)
Planning
241(1)
Sources of Data
241(1)
Eventual Model Use
242(1)
Modeling Standards
242(1)
Feature Analysis
242(2)
Feature Definition
244(18)
Features from Generalized Sweeps
244(1)
Construction Geometry
245(3)
Sketching the Profile
248(1)
Constraining the Profile
249(5)
Completing the Feature Definition
254(4)
Feature Planning Strategies
258(2)
Design in Industry Design of Tollway Extension
260(2)
Editing Part Features
262(3)
Understanding Feature Order
262(2)
Editing Feature Properties
264(1)
Duplicating Part Features
265(1)
Viewing the Part Model
266(6)
View Camera Operation
266(4)
View Camera Strategy
270(2)
Application of Part Model Data
272(9)
Model Data Associativity
273(1)
Documentation
273(2)
Assembly Modeling
275(4)
Analysis
279(2)
Summary
281(16)
Goals Review
281(2)
Further Reading
283(1)
Questions for Review
283(1)
Problems
284(13)
Multiviews and Auxiliary Views
297(96)
Objectives and Overview
297(2)
Projection Theory
299(2)
Line of Sight (LOS)
299(1)
Plane of Projection
299(1)
Parallel versus Perspective Projection
299(2)
Multiview Projection Planes
301(1)
Frontal Plane of Projection
301(1)
Horizontal Plane of Projection
301(1)
Profile Plane of Projection
302(1)
Orientation of Views from Projection Planes
302(1)
Advantages of Multiview Drawings
302(4)
Historical Highlight Ivan Sutherland (1938- )
305(1)
The Six Principal Views
306(8)
Conventional View Placement
307(2)
First- and Third-Angle Projection
309(1)
Adjacent Views
309(2)
Related Views
311(1)
Central View
311(1)
Line Conventions
311(3)
Multiview Sketches
314(7)
One-View Sketches
314(1)
Two-View Sketches
314(5)
Three-View Sketches
319(1)
Multiviews from 3-D CAD Models
320(1)
View Selection
321(4)
Fundamental Views of Edges and Planes for Visualization
325(4)
Edges (Lines)
325(1)
Principal Planes
326(3)
Inclined Planes
329(1)
Oblique Planes
329(1)
Multiview Representations for Sketches
329(11)
Points
329(1)
Planes
329(3)
Change of Planes (Edge)
332(1)
Angles
332(1)
Curved Surfaces
332(1)
Holes
333(3)
Fillets, Rounds, Finished Surfaces, and Chamfers
336(2)
Runouts
338(1)
Intersecting Cylinders
338(1)
Cylinders Intersecting Prisms and Holes
339(1)
Multiview Drawings Visualization
340(9)
Projection Studies
341(1)
Physical Model Construction
341(2)
Adjacent Areas
343(1)
Similar Shapes
344(1)
Surface Labeling
345(1)
Missing Lines
345(1)
Vertex Labeling
345(1)
Analysis by Solids
345(3)
Analysis by Surfaces
348(1)
ANSI Standards for Multiview Drawings and Sketches
349(2)
Partial Views
349(1)
Revolution Conventions
350(1)
Removed Views
351(1)
Auxiliary View Projections
351(5)
Fold-Line Method
352(1)
Reference Plane Method
352(2)
Design in Industry Using Parametrics with an Agile Manufacturing Strategy
354(2)
Auxiliary View Classifications
356(1)
Auxiliary Views Using CAD
356(1)
3-D Modeling Project
357(1)
Summary
357(36)
Goals Review
357(1)
Questions for Review
358(1)
Problems
359(29)
Classic Problems
388(5)
Pictorial Projections
393(46)
Objectives and Overview
394(1)
Axonometric Projection
394(3)
Axonometric Projection Classifications
394(3)
Isometric Axonometric Projections
397(3)
Isometric Axonometric Drawings
398(1)
Standards for Hidden Lines, Center Lines, and Dimensions
399(1)
Isometric Pictorial Sketches
400(3)
Historical Highlight Thomas Ewing French (1871-1944)
401(2)
Isometric Ellipses
403(3)
Isometric Grid Paper
406(2)
Design in Industry Design for the Environment (DFE)
407(1)
Oblique Planes in Isometric Views
408(1)
Angles in Isometric Views
409(1)
Irregular Curves in Isometric Views
409(1)
Isometric Ellipses Templates
410(2)
Section Views in Isometric Views
412(1)
Isometric Assembly Drawings
413(1)
Design in Industry Concept to Victory in 7 Months
413(1)
Oblique Projections
414(4)
Oblique Projection Theory
414(3)
Oblique Drawing Classifications
417(1)
Object Orientation Rules
418(1)
Oblique Pictorial Sketching
418(2)
Perspective Projections
420(1)
Perspective Projection Terminology
421(3)
Perspective Projection Classifications
424(1)
Perspective Drawing Variables Selection
425(1)
CAD Perspective Drawings
425(14)
3-D Modeling Project
428(1)
Summary
428(1)
Goals Review
428(1)
Questions for Review
428(1)
Further Reading
429(1)
Problems
430(6)
Classic Problems
436(3)
Section Views
439(38)
Introduction and Objectives
439(2)
Sectioning Basics
441(4)
CAD Technique
443(1)
Visualization of Section Views
444(1)
Cutting Plane Lines
445(3)
Placement of Cutting Plane Lines
447(1)
Section Line Practices
448(3)
Material Symbols
449(1)
Sketching Techniques
449(1)
Outline Sections
450(1)
Thin Wall Sections
451(1)
Section View Types
451(9)
Full Sections
452(1)
Half Sections
452(1)
Broken-Out Sections
453(1)
Revolved Sections
454(1)
Removed Sections
454(2)
Offset Sections
456(1)
Assembly Sections
457(1)
Auxiliary Sections
457(3)
Historical Highlight Doug Engelbart (1925- )
460(1)
Special Sectioning Conventions
460(5)
Ribs, Webs, and Other Thin Features
461(1)
Aligned Sections
462(1)
Design in Industry Adjustable Mountain Bike Suspension
463(2)
Conventional Breaks
465(1)
3-D CAD Techniques
465(1)
Summary
466(11)
3-D Modeling Project
467(1)
Goals Review
467(1)
Questions for Review
467(1)
Problems
468(9)
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Practices
477(80)
Introduction and Objectives
477(1)
Dimensioning
478(1)
Size and Location Dimensions
478(10)
Terminology
480(2)
Basic Concepts
482(1)
Size Dimensions
483(1)
Location and Orientation Dimensions
483(1)
Coordinate Dimensions
483(1)
Standard Practices
484(4)
Detail Dimensioning
488(6)
Diameter versus Radius
491(1)
Holes and Blind Holes
492(1)
Counterbored Holes
492(1)
Spotfaces
492(1)
Countersinks
492(1)
Design in Industry Project Extranets Coordinate Engineering Projects across the Globe
493(1)
Screw Threads
494(1)
Grooves
494(1)
Manufacturers' Gages
494(1)
Dimensioning Techniques
494(6)
The Dimensioning Process
495(3)
Dimensioning Guidelines
498(1)
ASME Standard Dimensioning Rules
499(1)
Tolerancing
500(1)
Interchangeability
501(1)
Tolerance Representation
501(17)
General Tolerances
502(1)
Limit Dimensions
502(1)
Plus and Minus Dimensions
502(1)
Single Limit Dimensions
503(1)
Important Terms
503(1)
Fit Types
504(1)
Fit Type Determination
505(1)
Tolerance Costs
506(1)
Functional Dimensioning
506(1)
Tolerance Stack-Up
506(1)
Metric Limits and Fits
507(6)
Standard Precision Fits: English Units
513(5)
Tolerances in CAD
518(1)
Geometric Accuracy
518(1)
Associative Dimensioning
518(1)
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
518(2)
GDT Symbols
520(1)
GDT Rule 1
520(2)
Maximum Material Condition
522(1)
Material Condition Symbols
522(1)
Departure from MMC
523(1)
Perfect Form at MMC
523(1)
Separation of Control Types
523(1)
Datums and Datum Features
523(3)
Datum Uses
524(1)
Datums and Assembly
524(1)
Datum Feature Control
524(1)
Datum Reference Frame
525(1)
Primary Datum
525(1)
Secondary and Tertiary Datums
525(1)
Design in Industry Companies Collaborate to Produce Ships Faster
526(1)
Datum Feature Symbols
526(1)
Geometric Controls
526(11)
Perfection
526(1)
Tolerance Zones
526(1)
Virtual Condition
526(1)
Form Controls
527(3)
Orientation Controls
530(2)
Location Controls
532(5)
Tolerance Calculations
537(1)
Floating Fastener Tolerancing
537(1)
Fixed Fastener Tolerancing
537(1)
Hole Diameter Tolerancing
537(1)
Design Applications
537(2)
Five-Step GDT Process
537(1)
Application Example
538(1)
Summary
539(18)
Goals Review
542(1)
Questions for Review
542(2)
3-D Modeling Project
544(1)
Problems
545(12)
Working Drawings and Assemblies
557
Introduction and Objectives
557
Basic Concepts
558
Working Drawings
559
Detail Drawings
561
Assembly Drawings
561
Part Numbers
567
Drawing Numbers
567
Title Blocks
568
Parts Lists
568
Part Identification
569
Revision Block
570
Engineering Change Orders (ECO)
570
Scale Specifications
570
Tolerance Specifications
571
Zones
572
Tabular Drawings
572
Working Assembly Drawing
572
Threaded Fasteners
573
Thread Notes
573
Thread Specifications: Metric System
575
Thread Drawings
576
Standard Bolts, Studs, and Screws
580
CAD Techniques
581
Design in Industry Design for Assembly: Building a Simpler Computer
581
Nonthreaded Fasteners
582
Pins
582
Keys
582
Rivets
582
Springs
583
Mechanisms
583
Gears
584
Cams
584
Linkages
585
Bearings
586
Piping
588
Pipe Drawings
589
Welding
591
Weld Symbols
591
Reprographics
594
Reproduction Techniques
595
Digital Technologies
596
Summary
597
Goals Review
597
3-D Modeling Project Chapter 10: Stapler Modeling Project
598
Questions for Review
598
Further Reading
598
Problems
599
Classic Problems
638
APPENDIXES A-1
1. Metric Equivalents
A-3
2. Trigonometry Functions
A-4
3. ANSI Running and Sliding Fits (RC)
A-5
4. ANSI Clearance Locational Fits (LC)
A-6
5. ANSI Transition Locational Fits (LT)
A-7
6. ANSI Interference Locational Fits (LN)
A-8
7. ANSI Force and Shrink Fits (FN)
A-9
8. Description of Preferred Metric Fits
A-10
9. ANSI Preferred Hole Basis Metric Clearance Fits
A-11
10. ANSI Preferred Hole Basis Transition and Interference Fits
A-12

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