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Robert J. Houghtalen, Ph.D., P.E., is Professor and Head of the Civil Engineering Department at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana. Dr. Houghtalen specializes in the areas of hydrology, hydraulics, and stormwater management. He has taught national seminars for ASCE on a number of computer models including HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, and EPA-SWMM. Apart from his academic assignments at Rose-Hulman and Old Dominion University, he has worked for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Wright Water Engineers, Inc. (Denver), the Federal Emergency Management Agency in Washington D.C., and a humanitarian organization in the Sudan. He is co-author of the Federal Highway Administration’s culvert design manual (HDS #5). Prior to this textbook, he has co-authored two others: Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems, 3Ed. (1996 - Prentice Hall) and Urban Hydrology, Hydraulics, and Stormwater Quality (Wiley).
Prof. Ned H C Hwang received his BSCE from Cheng-kung University in Taiwan, MSCE from UC Berkeley, and PhD in fluid mechanics from Colorado State University. He served as a faculty in Civil Engineering, University of Houston for 25 years. In early 1980s, he developed interests in the flow of blood in cardiovascular systems. He was appointed the Herbert H Herff Chair Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, TN.; 1991-2000, the James L Knight Chair Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL; Since 2000, he was appointed the Director of Biomedical Engineering Division, the National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan until his retirement in 2007. During his tenure, his also served four times as the Director of the NATO-ASI (Advanced Study Institutes) in Cardiovascular Engineering; Honorary Professor of Biomedical Engineering at the King’s College Medical School, University of London; the Technion, Haifa, Isreal;
First Nanyang Chair Professor, the Nanyang University of Science and Technology, Singapore; the West China Medical University, Chengdu, China; etc. Professor Hwang has published four books in cardiovascular engineering, and holds five US patents. He is also a founding fellow of AIBME; fellow of ASME.
A. Osman Akan holds a B.S. degree in Civil Engineering from Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, and M.S. and PhD degrees in Civil Engineering from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He has over 30 years of teaching, research, and consulting experience in water resources engineering. His research is documented in 35 journal articles, and numerous conference papers, reports, and book chapters. He received an outstanding journal paper award from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) in 1987. He published three earlier books titled, “Urban Hydrology,” “Urban Hydrology, Hydraulics, and Stormwater Quality, “and “Open Channel Hydraulics.” Professor Akan is an ASCE Fellow and a registered Professional Engineer (PE) in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Currently he serves as Associate Dean in the Batten College of Engineering and Technology at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.
Preface | p. ix |
Acknowledgments | p. xiii |
Introduction | p. xix |
Fundamental Properties of Water | p. 1 |
The Earth's Atmosphere and Atmospheric Pressure | p. 2 |
The Three Phases of Water | p. 2 |
Mass (Density) and Weight (Specific Weight) | p. 3 |
Viscosity of Water | p. 5 |
Surface Tension and Capillarity | p. 7 |
Elasticity of Water | p. 8 |
Forces in a Fluid Field | p. 9 |
Problems | p. 10 |
Water Pressure and Pressure Forces | p. 14 |
The Free Surface of Water | p. 14 |
Absolute and Gauge Pressures | p. 14 |
Surfaces of Equal Pressure | p. 17 |
Manometers | p. 18 |
Hydrostatic Forces on Flat Surfaces | p. 22 |
Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces | p. 27 |
Buoyancy | p. 30 |
Flotation Stability | p. 31 |
Problems | p. 35 |
Water Flow in Pipes | p. 51 |
Description of Pipe Flow | p. 51 |
The Reynolds Number | p. 52 |
Forces in Pipe Flow | p. 54 |
Energy in Pipe Flow | p. 56 |
Loss of Head from Pipe Friction | p. 60 |
Friction Factor for Laminar Flow | p. 60 |
Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow | p. 62 |
Empirical Equations for Friction Head Loss | p. 67 |
Friction Head Loss-Discharge Relationships | p. 70 |
Loss of Head in Pipe Contractions | p. 71 |
Loss of Head in Pipe Expansions | p. 73 |
Loss of Head in Pipe Bends | p. 75 |
Loss of Head in Pipe Valves | p. 76 |
Method of Equivalent Pipes | p. 80 |
Pipes in Series | p. 80 |
Pipes in Parallel | p. 81 |
Problems | p. 83 |
Pipelines and Pipe Networks | p. 88 |
Pipelines Connecting Two Reservoirs | p. 88 |
Negative Pressure Scenarios (Pipelines and Pumps) | p. 92 |
Branching Pipe Systems | p. 97 |
Pipe Networks | p. 104 |
The Hardy-Cross Method | p. 105 |
The Newton Method | p. 116 |
Water Hammer Phenomenon in Pipelines | p. 119 |
Surge Tanks | p. 127 |
Problems | p. 130 |
Water Pumps | p. 143 |
Centrifugal (Radial Flow) Pumps | p. 143 |
Propeller (Axial Flow) Pumps | p. 149 |
Jet (Mixed-Flow) Pumps | p. 152 |
Centrifugal Pump Characteristic Curves | p. 153 |
Single Pump and Pipeline Analysis | p. 154 |
Pumps in Parallel or in Series | p. 157 |
Pumps and Branching Pipes | p. 161 |
Pumps and Pipe Networks | p. 164 |
Cavitation in Water Pumps | p. 165 |
Specific Speed and Pump Similarity | p. 169 |
Selection of a Pump | p. 171 |
Problems | p. 175 |
Water Flow in Open Channels | p. 184 |
Open-Channel Flow Classifications | p. 186 |
Uniform Flow in Open Channels | p. 188 |
Hydraulic Efficiency of Open-Channel Sections | p. 194 |
Energy Principles in Open-Channel Flow | p. 197 |
Hydraulic Jumps | p. 203 |
Gradually Varied Flow | p. 206 |
Classifications of Gradually Varied Flow | p. 208 |
Computation of Water Surface Profiles | p. 211 |
Standard Step Method | p. 212 |
Direct Step Method | p. 214 |
Hydraulic Design of Open Channels | p. 221 |
Unlined Channels | p. 223 |
Rigid Boundary Channels | p. 225 |
Problems | p. 226 |
Groundwater Hydraulics | p. 232 |
Movement of Groundwater | p. 234 |
Steady Radial Flow to a Well | p. 237 |
Steady Radial Flow in Confined Aquifers | p. 238 |
Steady Radial Flow in Unconfined Aquifers | p. 240 |
Unsteady Radial Flow to a Well | p. 242 |
Unsteady Radial Flow in Confined Aquifers | p. 242 |
Unsteady Radial Flow in Unconfined Aquifers | p. 245 |
Field Determination of Aquifer Characteristics | p. 248 |
Equilibrium Test in Confined Aquifers | p. 248 |
Equilibrium Test in Unconfined Aquifers | p. 250 |
Nonequilibrium Test | p. 252 |
Aquifer Boundaries | p. 256 |
Surface Investigations of Groundwater | p. 261 |
The Electrical Resistivity Method | p. 261 |
Seismic Wave Propagation Methods | p. 262 |
Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Areas | p. 263 |
Seepage Through Dam Foundations | p. 267 |
Seepage Through Earth Dams | p. 270 |
Problems | p. 271 |
Hydraulic Structures | p. 281 |
Functions of Hydraulic Structures | p. 281 |
Dams: Functions and Classifications | p. 282 |
Stability of Gravity and Arch Dams | p. 284 |
Gravity Dams | p. 284 |
Arch Dams | p. 288 |
Small Earth Dams | p. 289 |
Weirs | p. 291 |
Overflow Spillways | p. 296 |
Side-Channel Spillways | p. 299 |
Siphon Spillways | p. 302 |
Culverts | p. 305 |
Stilling Basins | p. 310 |
Problems | p. 314 |
Water Pressure, Velocity, and Discharge Measurements | p. 321 |
Pressure Measurements | p. 321 |
Velocity Measurements | p. 323 |
Discharge Measurements in Pipes | p. 326 |
Discharge Measurements in Open Channels | p. 331 |
Sharp-Crested Weirs | p. 331 |
Broad-Crested Weirs | p. 334 |
Venturi Flumes | p. 335 |
Problems | p. 340 |
Hydraulic Similitude and Model Studies | p. 345 |
Dimensional Homogeneity | p. 346 |
Principles of Hydraulic Similitude | p. 347 |
Phenomena Governed by Viscous Forces: Reynolds Number Law | p. 352 |
Phenomena Governed by Gravity Forces: Froude Number Law | p. 355 |
Phenomena Governed by Surface Tension: Weber Number Law | p. 357 |
Phenomena Governed by Both Gravity and Viscous Forces | p. 358 |
Models for Floating and Submerged Bodies | p. 358 |
Open-Channel Models | p. 360 |
The Pi Theorem | p. 362 |
Problems | p. 366 |
Hydrology for Hydraulic Design | p. 371 |
The Hydrologic Cycle | p. 372 |
Precipitation | p. 376 |
Design Storm | p. 380 |
Surface Runoff and Stream Flow | p. 385 |
Rainfall-Runoff Relationships: The Unit Hydrograph | p. 387 |
Rainfall-Runoff Relationships: SCS Procedures | p. 393 |
Losses from Rainfall and Rainfall Excess | p. 393 |
Time of Concentration | p. 396 |
SCS Synthetic Unit Hydrograph | p. 398 |
SCS Design Hydrograph | p. 401 |
Storage Routing | p. 402 |
Hydraulic Design: The Rational Method | p. 410 |
Design of Stormwater-Collection Systems | p. 412 |
Design of Stormwater Pipes | p. 415 |
Problems | p. 418 |
Statistical Methods in Hydrology | p. 430 |
Concepts of Probability | p. 431 |
Statistical Parameters | p. 431 |
Probability Distributions | p. 435 |
Normal Distribution | p. 435 |
Log-Normal Distribution | p. 436 |
Gumbel Distribution | p. 436 |
Log-Pearson Type III Distribution | p. 437 |
Return Period and Hydrologic Risk | p. 439 |
Frequency Analysis | p. 440 |
Frequency Factors | p. 440 |
Testing Goodness of Fit | p. 443 |
Confidence Limits | p. 445 |
Frequency Analysis Using Probability Graphs | p. 448 |
Probability Graphs | p. 448 |
Plotting Positions | p. 448 |
Data Plotting and Theoretical Distributions | p. 450 |
Estimating Future Magnitudes | p. 451 |
Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships | p. 452 |
Applicability of Statistical Methods | p. 455 |
Problems | p. 455 |
Symbols | p. 461 |
Answers to Selected Problems | p. 463 |
Index | p. 469 |
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