Fundamentals of Lte

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-09-10
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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The expert guide to the future of global cellular communications: Long-Term Evolution (LTE), for every business and technical decision-maker bull; bull;A complete framework for understanding LTE, by the authors of our recent bestseller, Fundamentals of WiMAX. bull;Covers technical foundations, standards, and even the latest experimental results. bull;A multi-layered approach: thorough enough for wireless experts, but basic enough for managers, marketers, software developers, and other non-specialists. Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is rapidly emerging as the future of global communications: the single global cellular, data, and voice standard that will replace both CDMA and TDMA. Companies ranging from Verizon Wireless to Vodafone and China Mobile have committed to it, and ABI Research estimates that there will be 32,000,000 LTE subscribers by 2013. However, LTE is radically different from traditional cellular networks. Professionals will need new skills to plan, build, and deploy LTE networks, and non-technical specialists will need new understanding to make intelligent decisions about them. In this book, four leading experts bring together all the information both groups need in order to move forward. Following the same approach that made their recent Fundamentals of WiMAX so successful, the authors offer a complete framework for understanding and evaluating LTE. Readers will learn how and why LTE has evolved; review its technical foundations and radio standards; compare its performance with 3G cellular and WiMAX; and even review late-breaking experimental results from the authors' own work at AT and T Laboratories. They will also find practical tutorials on essential LTE-related technologies such as OFDM, SC-FDMA, and MIMO. LTE is the one technology every cellular network professional and manager needs to master -- and this is the one book they can all use to master it

Author Biography

Arunabha Ghosh is a lead member of technical staff in the Wireless Communications Group in AT&T Laboratories. He received his B.S. with highest distinction from the Indian Institute of Technology at Kanpur in 1992 and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign in 1998. As a technical member at AT&T Labs, Dr. Ghosh’s primary area of research is mobile wireless systems, with particular emphasis on MIMO-OFDM systems. Dr. Ghosh has worked extensively in the area of closed-loop single-user and multiuser MIMO solutions for technologies such as LTE and WiMAX and has been an active participant in many standards bodies such as 3GPP, IEEE, and WiMAX Forum.


Jun Zhang is a visiting assistant professor in the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He received his B.Eng. in electronic engineering from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in 2004, his M.Phil. in information engineering from the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in 2006, and his Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Texas at Austin in 2009. He was an intern at AT&T Labs in the summers of 2007 and 2008.


Jeffrey G. Andrews is an associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, where he is the director of the Wireless Networking and Communications Group. He received his B.S. in engineering with high distinction from Harvey Mudd College, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University. Dr. Andrews has industry experience at companies including Qualcomm, Intel, and Microsoft, and is the co-recipient of three IEEE best paper awards and the National Science Foundation CAREER Award.


Rias Muhamed is a director of business development with the AT&T Corporate Strategy and Development Team. His area of focus is on developing and incubating new business applications and services for AT&T using emerging technologies. He was previously with AT&T Labs, where he led technology assessment of a variety of wireless communication systems. He received his B.S. in electrical engineering from Pondicherry University, India in 1990; his M.S. in electrical engineering from Virginia Tech in 1996; and his M.B.A. from St. Edward University in Austin in 2000.

Table of Contents

Foreword         xvii

Preface         xix

Acknowledgments         xxi

About the Authors         xxiii

List of Acronyms         xxv


Chapter 1: Evolution of Cellular Technologies         1

1.1 Introduction   1

1.2 Evolution of Mobile Broadband   3

1.3 The Case for LTE/SAE   23

1.4 Key Enabling Technologies and Features of LTE   28

1.5 LTE Network Architecture   33

1.6 Spectrum Options and Migration Plans for LTE   35

1.7 Future of Mobile Broadband—Beyond LTE   39

1.8 Summary and Conclusions   41


Part I: LTE Tutorials          45

Chapter 2: Wireless Fundamentals          47

2.1 Communication System Building Blocks   47

2.2 The Broadband Wireless Channel: Path Loss and Shadowing   48

2.3 Cellular Systems   56

2.4 The Broadband Wireless Channel: Fading   62

2.5 Modelling Broadband Fading Channels   69

2.6 Mitigation of Narrowband Fading   82

2.7 Mitigation of Broadband Fading   92

2.8 Chapter Summary   94


Chapter 3: Multicarrier Modulation         99

3.1 The Multicarrier Concept   100

3.2 OFDM Basics   103

3.3 OFDM in LTE   109

3.4 Timing and Frequency Synchronization   110

3.5 The Peak-to-Average Ratio   116

3.6 Single-Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization (SC-FDE)   124

3.7 The Computational Complexity Advantage of OFDM and SC-FDE   127

3.8 Chapter Summary   130


Chapter 4: Frequency Domain Multiple Access: OFDMA and SC-FDMA         133

4.1 Multiple Access for OFDM Systems   134

4.2 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)   138

4.3 Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)   142

4.4 Multiuser Diversity and Opportunistic Scheduling   144

4.5 OFDMA and SC-FDMA in LTE   152

4.6 OFDMA System Design Considerations   155

4.7 Chapter Summary   160


Chapter 5: Multiple Antenna Transmission and Reception         167

5.1   Spatial Diversity Overview   168

5.2   Receive Diversity   171

5.3   Transmit Diversity   174

5.4   Interference Cancellation Suppression and Signal Enhancement   186

5.5   Spatial Multiplexing 192

5.6   How to Choose Between Diversity, Interference Suppression, and Spatial Multiplexing   200

5.7   Channel Estimation and Feedback for MIMO and MIMO-OFDM   202

5.8   Practical Issues That Limit MIMO Gains   208

5.9   Multiuser and Networked MIMO Systems   209

5.10 An Overview of MIMO in LTE   213

5.11 Chapter Summary   215


Part II: The LTE Standard 225

Chapter 6: Overview and Channel Structure of LTE         227

6.1 Introduction to LTE   228

6.2 Hierarchical Channel Structure of LTE   234

6.3 Downlink OFDMA Radio Resources   241

6.4 Uplink SC-FDMA Radio Resources   251

6.5 Summary and Conclusions   255


Chapter 7: Downlink Transport Channel Processing         257

7.1 Downlink Transport Channel Processing Overview   257

7.2 Downlink Shared Channels   268

7.3 Downlink Control Channels   276

7.4 Broadcast Channels   283

7.5 Multicast Channels   284

7.6 Downlink Physical Signals   285

7.7 H-ARQ in the Downlink   290

7.8 Summary and Conclusions   293


Chapter 8: Uplink Transport Channel Processing         295

8.1 Uplink Transport Channel Processing Overview   296

8.2 Uplink Shared Channels   298

8.3 Uplink Control Information   301

8.4 Uplink Reference Signals   309

8.5 Random Access Channels   313

8.6 H-ARQ in the Uplink   315

8.7 Summary and Conclusions   317


Chapter 9: Physical Layer Procedures and Scheduling         319

9.1   Hybrid-ARQ Feedback   319

9.2   Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) Feedback   322

9.3   Precoder for Closed-Loop MIMO Operations   333

9.4   Uplink Channel Sounding   337

9.5   Buffer Status Reporting in Uplink   337

9.6   Scheduling and Resource Allocation   339

9.7   Semi-persistent Scheduling for VoIP   344

9.8   Cell Search 346

9.9   Random Access Procedures 348

9.10 Power Control in Uplink 350

9.11 Summary and Conclusions 352


Chapter 10: Data Flow, Radio Resource Management, and Mobility Management         355

10.1 PDCP Overview   359

10.2 MAC/RLC Overview   363

10.3 RRC Overview   369

10.4 Mobility Management   371

10.5 Inter-cell Interference Coordination   377

10.6 Summary and Conclusions   380


Index          383

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