General Chemistry, Enhanced Edition (with Enhanced WebAssign with eBook Printed Access Card)

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-07-06
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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CHEMISTRY PRINCIPLES ENHANCED EDITION has been specially updated to include instant access to ENHANCED WEBASSIGNŽ, the most widely-used and reliable homework system. Also, as an added bonus, the Start Smart Guide has been bound into this book. This guide contains instructions to help users learn the basics of WebAssign quickly. This market-leading book meets the rapidly changing instructional demands of General Chemistry professors. Known for its carefully developed, thoroughly integrated, step-by-step approach to problem solving, General Chemistry helps users master quantitative skills and build a lasting conceptual understanding of key chemical concepts. The Ninth Edition retains this hallmark approach and builds upon the conceptual focus through key new features and revisions.

Table of Contents

Basics Of Chemistry
Chemistry and Measurement
An Introduction to Chemistry
Modern Chemistry: A Brief Glimpse
Experiment and Explanation
A Chemist Looks at The Birth of the Post-it Note
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter: Physical State and Chemical Constitution
Physical Measurements
Measurement and Significant Figures
Instrumental Methods Separation of Mixtures by Chromatography
SI Units
Derived Units
Units and Dimensional Analysis (Factor-Label Method)
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure
Atomic Theory of Matter
The Structure of the Atom
Nuclear Structure
Atomic Masses
Periodic Table of the Elements
Chemical Substances: Formulas and Names
Chemical Formulas
Molecular and Ionic Substances
A Chemist Looks at Thirty Seconds on the Island of Stability
Organic Compounds
Naming Simple Compounds
Chemical Reactions: Equations
Writing Chemical Equations
Balancing Chemical Equations
Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
Mass and Moles of Substance
Molecular Mass and Formula Mass
The Mole Concept
Determining Chemical Formulas
Mass Percentages from the Formula
Elemental Analysis: Percentages of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Determining Formulas
Instrumental Methods Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Formula
Stoichiometry: Quantitative Relations in Chemical Reactions
Molar Interpretation of a Chemical Equation
Amounts of Substances in a Chemical Reaction
Limiting Reactant
Theoretical and Percentage Yields
Chemical Reactions
Ions in Aqueous Solution
Ionic Theory of Solutions and Solubility Rules
Molecular and Ionic Equations
Types of Chemical Reactions
Precipitation Reactions
Acid-Base Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Balancing Simple Oxidation-Reduction Equations
Working with Solutions
Molar Concentration
Diluting Solutions
Quantitative Analysis
Gravimetric Analysis
Volumetric Analysis
The Gaseous State
Gas Laws
Gas Pressure and Its Measurement
Empirical Gas Laws
The Ideal Gas Law
A Chemist Looks at Nitrogen Monoxide Gas and Biological Signaling
Stoichiometry Problems Involving Gas Volumes
Gas Mixtures
Law of Partial Pressures
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
Molecular Speeds
Diffusion and Effusion
Real Gases
A Chemist Looks at Carbon Dioxide Gas and the Greenhouse Effect
Understanding Heats of Reaction
Energy and Its Units
Heat of Reaction
Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change
Thermochemical Equations
A Chemist Looks at Lucifers and Other Matches
Applying Stoichiometry to Heats of Reaction
Measuring Heats of Reaction Using Heats of Reaction
Hess's Law
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Fuels--Foods, Commercial Fuels, and Rocket Fuels
Atomic and Molecular Structure
Quantum Theory of the Atom
Light Waves, Photons, and the Bohr Theory
The Wave Nature of Light
Quantum Effects and Photons
A Chemist Looks at Zapping Hamburger with Gamma Rays
The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
A Chemist Looks at Lasers and Compact Disc Players
Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Numbers
Quantum Mechanics
Instrumental Methods Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals
Electron Configurations and Periodicity
Electronic Structure of Atoms
Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
Instrumental Methods Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Building-Up Principle and the Periodic Table
Instrumental Methods X Rays, Atomic Numbers, and Orbital Structure (Photoelectron. Spectroscopy)
Writing Electron Configurations Using the Periodic Table
Orbital Diagrams of Atoms
Hund's Rule
A Chemist Looks at Levitating Frogs and People
Periodicity of the Elements
Mendeleev's Predictions from the Periodic Table
Some Periodic Properties
Periodicity in the Main-Group Elements
Ionic and Covalent Bonding
Ionic Bonds
Describing Ionic Bonds
A Chemist Looks at Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry
Electron Configurations of Ions
Ionic Radii
Covalent Bonds
Describing Covalent Bonds
A Chemist Looks at Chemical Bonds in Nitroglycerin
Polar Covalent Bonds
Writing Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas
Delocalized Bonding: Resonance
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Formal Charge and Lewis Formulas
Bond Length and Bond Order
Bond Energy
Instrumental Methods Infrared Spectroscopy and Vibrations of Chemical Bonds
Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory
Molecular Geometry and Directional Bonding
The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model
Dipole Moment and Molecular Geometry
A Chemist Looks at Left-Handed and Right-Handed Molecules
Valence Bond Theory
Description of Multiple Bonding
Molecular Orbital Theory
Principles of Molecular Orbital Theory
Electron Configurations of Diatomic Molecules of the Second-Period Elements
Molecular Orbitals and Delocalized Bonding
A Chemist Looks at Human Vision
A Chemist Looks at Stratospheric Ozone (An Absorber of Ultraviolet Rays)
States of Matter and Solutions
States of Matter
Liquids and Solids Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
Changes of State
Phase Transitions
Phase Diagrams
A Chemist Looks at Removing Caffeine from Coffee
Liquid State
Properties of Liquids: Surface Tension and Viscosity
Intermolecular Forces
Explaining Liquid Properties
A Chemist Looks at Gecko Toes, Sticky But Not Tacky
Solid State
Classification of Solids by Type of Attraction of Units
Crystalline Solids
Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
Structures of Some Crystalline Solids
A Chemist Looks at Liquid-Crystal Displays
Calculations Involving Unit-Cell Dimensions
Determining Crystal Structure by X-Ray Diffraction
Instrumental Methods Automated X-Ray Diffractometry
A Chemist Looks at Water (A Special Substance for Planet Earth)
Solution Formation
Types of Solutions
Solubility and the Solution Process
A Chemist Looks at Hemoglobin Solubility and Sickle-Cell Anemia
Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility
Colligative Properties
Ways of Expressing Concentration
Vapor Pressure of a Solution
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression
Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions
Colloid Formation
A Chemist Looks at The World's Smallest Test Tubes
Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium
Rates of Reaction
Reaction Rates
Definition of Reaction Rate
Experimental Determination of Rate
Dependence of Rate on Concentration
Change of Concentration with Time
Temperature and Rate
Collision and Transition-State Theories
Arrhenius Equation
Reaction Mechanisms
Elementary Reactions
The Rate Law and the Mechanism
A Chemist Looks at Seeing Molecules React
Chemical Equilibrium
Describing Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium--A Dynamic Equilibrium
The Equilibrium Constant
Heterogeneous Equilibria
Solvents in Homogeneous Equilibria
A Chemist Looks at Slime Molds and Leopards' Spots
Using the Equilibrium Constant
Qualitatively Interpreting the Equilibrium Constant
Predicting the Direction of Reaction
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations
Changing the Reaction Conditions
Le Ch?telier's Principle
Removing Products or Adding Reactants
Changing the Pressure and Temperature
Effect of a Catalyst
Acids and Bases
Acid-Base Concepts
Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases
Bronsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases
Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases
A Chemist Looks at Taking Your Medicine
Acid and Base Strengths
Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
Molecular Structure and Acid Strength
Self-Ionization of Water and pH
Self-Ionization of Water
Solutions of a Strong Acid or Base
The pH of a Solution
A Chemist Looks at Unclogging the Sink and Other Chores
Acid-Base Equilibria
Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base
Acid-Ionization Equilibria
Polyprotic Acids
A Chemist Looks at Acid Rain
Base-Ionization Equilibria
Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions
Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base with Another Solute
Common-Ion Effect
Acid-Base Titration Curves
Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria
Solubility Equilibria
The Solubility Product Constant
Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect
Precipitation Calculations
Effect of pH on Solubility
A Chemist Looks at Limestone Caves
Complex-Ion Equilibria
Complex-Ion Formation
Complex Ions and Solubility
An Application of Solubility Equilibria
Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions
Thermodynamics and Equilibrium
First Law of Thermodynamics
Spontaneous Processes and Entropy
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Standard Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
Free-Energy Concept
Free Energy and Spontaneity
Interpretation of Free Energy
A Chemist Looks at Coupling of Reactions
Free Energy and Equilibrium Constants
18.6 Relating?G to the Equilibrium Constant
Change of Free Energy with Temperature
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Acidic and Basic Solutions
Voltaic Cells
Construction of Voltaic Cells
Notation for Voltaic Cells
Cell Potential
Standard Cell Potentials and Standard Electrode Potentials
Equilibrium Constants from Cell Potentials
Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration
Some Commercial Voltaic Cells
Electrolytic Cells
Electrolysis of Molten Salts
Aqueous Electrolysis
Stoichiometry of Electrolysis
Nuclear Chemistry and Chemistry of the Elements
Nuclear Chemistry
Radioactivity and Nuclear Bombardment Reactions
A Chemist Looks at Magic Numbers
Nuclear Bombardment Reactions
Radiations and Matter: Detection and Biological Effects
Rate of Radioactive Decay
Applications of Radioactive Isotopes
Energy of Nuclear Reactions
A Chemist Looks at Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Mass-Energy Calculations
Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements
General Observations About the Main-Group Elements
Chemistry of the Main-Group Metals
Metals: Characteristics and Production
Bonding in Metals
A Chemist Looks at Superconductivity
Group IVA: The Alkali Metals
Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth Metals
Group IIIA and Group IVA Metals
Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Group IVA: The Carbon Family
Group VA: Nitrogen and the Phosphorous Family
A Chemist Looks at Buckminsterfullerene--A Third Form of Carbon
Group VIA: Oxygen and the Sulfur Family
Group VIIA: The Halogens
Group VIIIA: The Noble Gases
The Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds
Properties of the Transition Elements
Periodic Trends in the Transition Elements
The Chemistry of Two Transition Elements
Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds
Formation and Structure of Complexes
Naming Coordination Compounds
A Chemist Looks at Salad Dressing and Chelate Stability
Structure and Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
Valence Bond Theory of Complexes
Crystal Field Theory
A Chemist Looks at The Cooperative Release of Oxygen from Oxyhemoglobin
Organic Chemistry
The Bonding of Carbon
Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Alkenes and Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Naming Hydrocarbons
Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
Polymer Materials: Synthetic and Biological
Synthetic Polymers
Synthesis of Organic Polymers
Chemist Looks at The Discovery of Nylon
Electrically Conducting Polymers
Biological Polymers
Nucleic Acids
A Chemist Looks at Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Atomic Force Microscopy
Mathematical Skills
Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures
Thermodynamic Quantities for Substances and Ions at 25 C
Electron Configurations of Atoms in the Ground State
Acid-Ionization Constants at 25 C
Base-Ionization Constants at 25 C
Solubility Product Constants at 25 C
Formation Constants of Complex Ions at 25 C
StandardElectrode (Reduction) Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25 C
Answers to Exercises
Answers to Concept Checks
Answers to Self-Assessment Questions
Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Problems
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