Generalization of Knowledge: Multidisciplinary Perspectives

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-05-19
  • Publisher: Psychology Pres

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While the notion of generalization fits prominently into cognitive theories of learning, there is surprisingly little research literature that takes an overview of the issue from a broad multifaceted perspective. This volume remedies this by taking a multidisciplinary perspective on generalization of knowledge from several fields associated with Cognitive Science, including Cognitive Neuroscience, Computer Science, Education, Linguistics, Developmental Science, and Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences.Researchers from each perspective explain how their field defines generalization -- and what practices, representations, processes, and systems in their field support generalization. They also examine when generalization is detrimental or not needed. A principal aim is the identification of general principles about generalization that can be derived from triangulation across different disciplines and approaches.Collectively, the contributors' multidisciplinary approaches to generalization provide new insights into this concept that will, in turn, inform future research into theory and application, including tutoring, assistive technology, and endeavors involving collaboration and distributed cognition.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
List of Contributorsp. xi
Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Generalization
Generalization and Specialization of Conditioned Learningp. 3
Transfer and Interference in Perceptual Expertise: When Expertise Helps and When It Hurtsp. 31
Flexibility and Generalization in Memory Systemsp. 53
Developmental Perspectives on Generalization
Three Observations about Infant Generalization and Their Implications for Generalization Mechanismsp. 73
Mechanisms of Induction Early in Developmentp. 89
Prior Experience Shapes Abstraction and Generalization in Language Acquisitionp. 113
Representations that Support Generalization
Bayesian Models as Tools for Exploring Inductive Biasesp. 135
Representing American Sign Language Classifier Predicates Using Spatially Parameterized Planning Templatesp. 157
Generalization in Higher Order Cognition: Categorization and Analogy as Bridges to Stored Knowledgep. 175
Educational and Training Appoaches to Generalization
Computer Learning Environments With Agents That Support Deep Comprehension and Collaborative Reasoningp. 201
How Does Cognition Get Distributed? Case Studies of Making Concepts General in Technical and Scientific Workp. 225
Generalization in Language Learning: The Role of Structural Complexityp. 247
Technological Approaches to Generalization
Generalization in Human-Computer Interaction Researchp. 277
Supporting Student Learning With Adaptive Technology: Personalized Conceptual Assessment and Remediationp. 297
Beyond Human-Computer Interaction: Metadesign in Support of Human Problem-Domain Interactionp. 331
In Summaryp. 351
Indexp. 355
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