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Genetic Analysis An Integrated Approach

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2019-11-21
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Informed by many years of genetics teaching and research expertise, authors Mark Sanders and John Bowman use an integrated approach that helps contextualize three core challenges of learning genetics: solving problems, understanding evolution, and understanding the connection between traditional genetics models and more modern approaches.


Genetic Analysis: An Integrated Approach , 2/e is extensively updated with relevant, cutting-edge coverage of modern genetics and is supported by MasteringGenetics, the most widely-used homework and assessment program in genetics. Featuring expanded assignment options, MasteringGenetics complements the book’s problem-solving approach, engages students, and improves results by helping them master concepts and problem-solving skills.

Author Biography

<>Mark F. Sanders has been a faculty member in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of California, Davis for 27 years. In that time, he has taught more than 120 genetics courses to more than 30,000 undergraduate students. Specializing in teaching the genetics course for which this book is written, Dr. Sanders also teaches a genetics laboratory course, an advanced human genetics course for biology majors, and a human heredity course for non-science majors.  His teaching experience also includes introductory biology, and courses in population genetics and evolution. 


Dr. Sanders received his Bachelors degree in Anthropology from San Francisco State University and his Master’s and Ph.D. degrees in Biological Anthropology from the University of California, Los Angeles.  Following graduation, he spent four years at the University of California, Berkeley as a post-doctoral researcher studying inherited susceptibility to human breast and ovarian cancer. At UC Berkeley he also taught his first genetics courses. Since coming to the University of California, Davis, Dr. Sanders has maintained a full-time teaching schedule and promotes academic achievement by undergraduate students in numerous ways, including as an active student advisor, through his on-going role as the director of a long-standing undergraduate student program, and by past service as the Associate Dean for Undergraduate Academic Programs in the College of Biological Sciences.


John L. Bowman is a Professor in the School of Biological Sciences at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia and an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Plant Biology at the University of California, Davis in the US. He received a B.S. in Biochemistry at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois in 1986 and a Ph.D. in Biology from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California.  His Ph.D. research focused on how the identities floral organs are specified in Arabidopsis (described in Chapter 20).  He conducted postdoctoral research at Monash University on the regulation of floral development.  From 1996-2006 his laboratory at UC Davis focused on the developmental genetics of plant development, focusing on how leaves are patterned. From 2006-2011 he was a Federation Fellow at Monash University where his laboratory is studying land plant evolution using a developmental genetics approach.  At UC Davis he taught genetics, 'from Mendel to cancer', to undergraduate students, and continues to teach genetics courses at Monash University.

Table of Contents


1          The Molecular Basis of Heredity, Variation, and Evolution  

1.1       Modern Genetics Is in Its Second Century  

1.2       The Structure of DNA Suggests a Mechanism for Replication  

1.3       DNA Transcription and Messenger RNA Translation Express Genes  

1.4       Evolution Has a Molecular Basis  

Case Study The Modern Human Family Mystery  

Summary • Keywords  • Problems  

2          Transmission Genetics  

2.1       Gregor Mendel Discovered the Basic Principles of Genetic Transmission

2.2       Monohybrid Crosses Reveal the Segregation of Alleles  

2.3       Dihybrid and Trihybrid Crosses Reveal the Independent Assortment of

2.4       Probability Theory Predicts Mendelian Ratios  

2.5       Chi-Square Analysis Tests the Fit between Observed Values and
            Expected Outcomes  

2.6       Autosomal Inheritance and Molecular Genetics Parallel the Predictions
            of Mendel’s Hereditary Principles  

Case Study Inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease in Humans  

Summary  • Keywords   • Problems  

3          Cell Division and Chromosome Heredity  

3.1       Mitosis Divides Somatic Cells  

3.2       Meiosis Produces Gametes for Sexual Reproduction  

3.3       The Chromosome Theory of Heredity Proposes That Genes Are
            Carried on Chromosomes  

3.4       Sex Determination Is Chromosomal and Genetic  

3.5       Human Sex-Linked Transmission Follows Distinct Patterns  

3.6       Dosage Compensation Equalizes the Expression of Sex-Linked


Case Study The (Degenerative) Evolution of the Mammalian Y Chromosome  

Summary  • Keywords  • Problems  

4          Inheritance Patterns of Single Genes and Gene Interaction  

4.1       Interactions between Alleles Produce Dominance Relationships  

4.2       Some Genes Produce Variable Phenotypes  

4.3       Gene Interaction Modifies Mendelian Ratios  

4.4       Complementation Analysis Distinguishes Mutations in the Same Gene
            from Mutations in Different Genes  

Case Study Complementation Groups in a Human Cancer-Prone Disorder  

Summary  • Keywords • Problems  

5          Genetic Linkage and Mapping in Eukaryotes  

5.1       Linked Genes Do Not Assort Independently  

5.2       Genetic Linkage Mapping Is Based on Recombination Frequency
            between Genes  

5.3       Three-Point Test-Cross Analysis Maps Genes  

5.4       Recombination Results from Crossing Over  

5.5       Linked Human Genes Are Mapped Using Lod Score Analysis  

5.6       Recombination Affects Evolution and Genetic Diversity  

5.7       Genetic Linkage in Haploid Eukaryotes Is Identified by Tetrad Analysis            

5.8       Mitotic Crossover Produces Distinctive Phenotypes      

Case Study Mapping the Gene for Cystic Fibrosis  

Summary  • Keywords  • Problems  

6          Genetic Analysis and Mapping in Bacteria and Bacteriophages  

6.1       Bacteria Transfer Genes by Conjugation  

6.2       Interrupted Mating Analysis Produces Time-of-Entry Maps  

6.3       Conjugation with F¢ Strains Produces Partial Diploids  

6.4       Bacterial Transformation Produces Genetic Recombination  

6.5       Bacterial Transduction Is Mediated by Bacteriophages  

6.6       Bacteriophage Chromosomes Are Mapped by Fine-Structure Analysis  

6.7       Lateral Gene Transfer Alters Genomes   

Case Study The Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance and Change in Medical Practice  

Summary   • Keywords   • Problems

7          DNA Structure and Replication  

7.1       DNA Is the Hereditary Molecule of Life  

7.2       The DNA Double Helix Consists of Two Complementary and
            Antiparallel Strands  

7.3       DNA Replication Is Semiconservative and Bidirectional  

7.4       DNA Replication Precisely Duplicates the Genetic Material  

7.5       Molecular Genetic Analytical Methods Make Use of DNA Replication

Case Study Use of PCR and DNA Sequencing to Analyze Huntington Disease Mutations  

Summary  • Keywords  • Problems  

8          Molecular Biology of Transcription and RNA Processing 

8.1       RNA Transcripts Carry the Messages of Genes  

8.2       Bacterial Transcription Is a Four-Stage Process 

8.3       Archaeal and Eukaryotic Transcription Displays Structural Homology and Common Ancestry  

8.4       Post-Transcriptional Processing Modifies RNA Molecules  

Case Study Sexy Splicing: Alternative mRNA Splicing and Sex Determination in Drosophila  

Summary  • Keywords   • Problems  

9          The Molecular Biology of Translation  

9.1       Polypeptides Are Composed of Amino Acid Chains That Are Assembled at Ribosomes  

9.2       Translation Occurs in Three Phases  

9.3       Translation Is Fast and Efficient  

9.4       The Genetic Code Translates Messenger RNA into Polypeptide 

9.5       Experiments Deciphered the Genetic Code  

9.6     Translation Is Followed by Polypeptide Folding, Processing, and Protein Sorting        

Case Study Antibiotics and Translation Interference  

Summary  • Keywords  • Problems  

10        The Integration of Genetic Approaches: Understanding Sickle Cell

10.1     An Inherited Hemoglobin Variant Causes Sickle Cell Disease  

10.2     Genetic Variation Can Be Detected by Examining DNA, RNA, and

10.3     Sickle Cell Disease Evolved by Natural Selection in Human Populations  

Case Study Transmission and Molecular Genetic Analysis of Thalassemia  

Summary   • Keywords • Problems  

11        Chromosome Structure  

11.1     Viruses Are Infectious Particles Containing Nucleic Acid Genomes  

11.2     Bacterial Chromosomes Are Organized by Proteins  

11.3     Eukaryotic Chromosomes Are Organized into Chromatin  

11.4     Chromatin Compaction Varies along the Chromosome 

11.5     Chromatin Organizes Archaeal Chromosomes  

Case Study Fishing for Chromosome Abnormalities in Cancer Cells  

Summary  • Keywords • Problems  

12        Gene Mutation, DNA Repair, and Homologous Recombination  

12.1     Mutations Are Rare and Occur at Random  

12.2     Gene Mutations Modify DNA Sequence  

12.3     Gene Mutations May Arise from Spontaneous Events  

12.4     Mutations May Be Induced by Chemicals or Ionizing Radiation  

12.5     Repair Systems Correct Some DNA Damage  

12.6     Proteins Control Translesion DNA Synthesis and the Repair of
            Double-Strand Breaks  

12.7     DNA Double-Strand Breaks Initiate Homologous Recombination  

12.8     Gene Conversion Is Directed Mismatch Repair in Heteroduplex

Case Study Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Is Caused by Inheritance of Mutations of p53  

Summary • Keywords • Problems  

13        Chromosome Aberrations and Transposition  

13.1     Nondisjunction Leads to Changes in Chromosome Number  

13.2     Changes in Euploidy Result in Various Kinds of Polyploidy  

13.3     Chromosome Breakage Causes Mutation by Loss, Gain, and
            Rearrangement of Chromosomes  

13.4     Chromosome Breakage Leads to Inversion and Translocation of

13.5     Transposable Genetic Elements Move throughout the Genome 

13.6     Transposition Modifies Bacterial Genomes  

13.7     Transposition Modifies Eukaryotic Genomes  

Case Study Human Chromosome Evolution  

Summary • Keywords • Problems  

14        Regulation of Gene Expression in Bacteria and Bacteriophage  

14.1     Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression Requires DNA—Protein

14.2     The lac Operon Is an Inducible Operon System under Negative and
            Positive Control  

14.3     Mutational Analysis Deciphers Genetic Regulation of the lac Operon        

14.4     Transcription from the Tryptophan Operon Is Repressible and

14.5     Bacteria Regulate the Transcription of Stress Response Genes and Translation and Archaea Regulate Transcription in a

              Bacteria-like Manner               

14.6     Antiterminators and Repressors Control Lambda Phage Infection of
            E. coli  

Case Study Vibrio cholerae–Stress Response Leads to Serious Infection  

Summary • Keywords  • Problems  

15        Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes  

15.1     Cis-Acting Regulatory Sequences Bind Trans-Acting Regulatory
            Proteins to Control Eukaryotic Transcription  

              Transcriptional Regulatory Interactions  

15.2     Chromatin Remodeling and Modification Regulates Eukaryotic Transcription   

15.3     RNA-Mediated Mechanisms Control Gene Expression   

Case Study Environmental Epigenetics  

Summary • Keywords  • Problems

16        Analysis of Gene Function via Forward Genetics and Reverse Genetics  

16.1     Forward Genetic Screens Identify Genes by Their Mutant Phenotypes  

16.2     Genes Identified by Mutant Phenotype Are Cloned Using Recombinant DNA Technology  

16.3     Reverse Genetics Investigates Gene Action by Progressing from Gene Identification to Phenotype 

16.4     Transgenes Provide a Means of Dissecting Gene Function  

    Case Study    Reverse Genetics and Genetic Redundancy in Flower Development  

Summary • Keywords • Problems  

17        Recombinant DNA Technology and Its Applications  

17.1     Specific DNA Sequences Are Identified and Manipulated Using Recombinant DNA Technology  

17.2     Introducing Foreign Genes into Genomes Creates Transgenic Organisms   

17.3     Gene Therapy Uses Recombinant DNA Technology

17.4     Cloning of Plants and Animals Produces Genetically Identical

Case Study Curing Sickle Cell Disease in Mice 

Summary • Keywords  • Problems

18        Genomics: Genetics from a Whole-Genome Perspective  

18.1     Structural Genomics Provides a Catalog of Genes in a Genome  

18.2     Annotation Ascribes Biological Function to DNA Sequences  

18.3     Evolutionary Genomics Traces the History of Genomes  

18.4     Functional Genomics Aids in Elucidating Gene Function  

Case Study Genomic Analysis of Insect Guts May Fuel the World  

Summary   Keywords  Problems  

19        Organelle Inheritance and the Evolution of Organelle Genomes  

19.1     Organelle Inheritance Transmits Genes Carried on Organelle Chromosomes  

19.2     Modes of Organelle Inheritance Depend on the Organism  

19.3     Mitochondria Are the Energy Factories of Eukaryotic Cells  

19.4     Chloroplasts Are the Sites of Photosynthesis  

19.5     The Endosymbiosis Theory Explains Mitochondrial and Chloroplast

Case Study Ototoxic Deafness: A Mitochondrial Gene—Environment Interaction  

Summary   Keywords   Problems  

20        Developmental Genetics  

20.1     Development Is the Building of a Multicellular Organism  

20.2     Drosophila Development Is a Paradigm for Animal Development 

20.3     Cellular Interactions Specify Cell Fate  

20.4     “Evolution Behaves Like a Tinkerer”  

20.5     Plants Represent an Independent Experiment in Multicellular Evolution  

Case Study Cyclopia and Polydactyly–Different Shh Mutations with Distinctive Phenotypes  

Summary  Keywords  Problems  

21        Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Traits  

21.1     Quantitative Traits Display Continuous Phenotype Variation 

21.2     Quantitative Trait Analysis Is Statistical  

21.3     Heritability Measures the Genetic Component of Phenotypic Variation  

21.4     Quantitative Trait Loci Are the Genes That Contribute to Quantitative

Case Study GWAS and Crohn’s Disease   

Summary  Keywords  Problems  

22        Population Genetics and Evolution at the Population, Species, and Molecular Levels  

22.1     The Hardy—Weinberg Equilibrium Describes the Relationship of Allele
            and Genotype Frequencies in Populations 

22.2     Natural Selection Operates through Differential Reproductive Fitness
            within a Population  

22.3     Mutation Diversifies Gene Pools  

22.4     Migration Is Movement of Organisms and Genes between

22.5     Genetic Drift Causes Allele Frequency Change by Sampling Error  

22.6     Inbreeding Alters Genotype Frequencies 

22.7     Species and Higher Taxonomic Groups Evolve by the Interplay of Four
            Evolutionary Processes  

22.8     Molecular Evolution Changes Genes and Genomes through Time

Case Study CODIS–Using Population Genetics to Solve Crime and Identify Paternity  

Summary   Keywords  Problems  


         Selected References and Readings  

         Answers to Selected Problems  





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