Glass Ceramic Technology

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-07-03
  • Publisher: Wiley-American Ceramic Society

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Glass-ceramic materials share many properties with both glass and more traditional crystalline ceramics. This new edition examines the various types of glass-ceramic materials, the methods of their development, and their countless applications. With expanded sections on biomaterials and highly bioactive products (i.e., Bioglass and related glass ceramics), as well as the newest mechanisms for the development of dental ceramics and theories on the development of nano-scaled glass-ceramics, here is a must-have guide for ceramic and materials engineers, managers, and designers in the ceramic and glass industry.

Author Biography

Wolfram Hland, PhD, is the Head of the Department of Research and Development, Inorganic Chemistry Technical Fundamentals, at Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Liechtenstein. He is also a Lecturer in the Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule (ETH Zurich) in Switzerland. Dr. Hland is the recipient of several awards, including the Whler Prize of the German Chemical Society and the Turner Award of the International Commission on Glass. George H. Beall, PhD, received his PhD in geology from MIT in 1962 and was a Research Fellow in the Science and Technology Division of Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York. Until 1995, Dr. Beall was a Courtesy Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Cornell University, and has authored or coauthored approximately eighty technical papers and one book, and holds more than 100 U.S. patents.

Table of Contents

Introduction To The Second Editionp. xi
Introduction To The First Editionp. xiii
Historyp. xvii
Principles of Designing Glass-Ceramic Formationp. 1
Advantages of Glass-Ceramic Formationp. 1
Processing Propertiesp. 2
Thermal Propertiesp. 3
Optical Propertiesp. 3
Chemical Propertiesp. 3
Biological Propertiesp. 3
Mechanical Propertiesp. 3
Electrical and Magnetic Propertiesp. 4
Factors of Designp. 4
Crystal Structures and Mineral Propertiesp. 5
Crystalline Silicatesp. 5
Nesosilicatesp. 6
Sorosilicatesp. 7
Cyclosilicatesp. 7
Inosilicatesp. 7
Phyllosilicatesp. 8
Tectosilicatesp. 8
Phosphatesp. 32
Apatitep. 32
Orthophosphates and Diphosphatesp. 34
Metaphosphatesp. 36
Oxidesp. 37
TiO2p. 37
ZrO2p. 38
MgAl2O4 (Spinel)p. 39
Nucleationp. 39
Homogeneous Nucleationp. 42
Heterogeneous Nucleationp. 43
Kinetics of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleationp. 45
Examples for Applying the Nucleation Theory in the Development of Glass-Ceramicsp. 48
Volume Nucleationp. 49
Surface Nucleationp. 54
Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagramsp. 57
Crystal Growthp. 59
Primary Growthp. 60
Anisotropic Growthp. 62
Surface Growthp. 68
Dendritic and Spherulitic Crystallizationp. 70
Phenomenologyp. 70
Dendritic and Spherulitic Crystallization Applicationp. 72
Secondary Grain Growthp. 72
Composition Systems for Glass-Ceramicsp. 75
Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Silicatesp. 75
SiO2-Li2O (Lithium Disilicate)p. 75
Stoichiometric Compositionp. 75
Nonstoichiometric Multicomponent Compositionsp. 77
SiO2-BaO (Sanbornite)p. 88
Stoichiometric Barium-Disilicatep. 88
Multicomponent Glass-Ceramicsp. 89
Aluminosilicatesp. 90
SiO2-Al2O3 (Mullite)p. 90
SiO2-Al2O3-Li2O (▀-Quartz Solid Solution, ▀-Spodumene Solid Solution)p. 92
▀-Quartz Solid Solution Glass-Ceramicsp. 93
▀-Spodumene Solid-Solution Glass-Ceramicsp. 97
SiO2-Al2O2-Na2O (Nepheline)p. 99
SiO2-Al2O3-Cs2O (Pollucite)p. 102
SiO2-Al2O3-MgO (Cordierite, Enstatite, Forsterite)p. 105
Cordierite Glass-Ceramicsp. 105
Enstatite Glass-Ceramicsp. 110
Forsterite Glass-Ceramicsp. 112
SiO2-Al2O3-CaO (Wollastonite)p. 114
SiO2-Al2O3-ZnO (Zn-Stuffed ▀-Quartz, Willemite-Zincite)p. 116
Zinc-Stuffed ▀-Quartz Glass-Ceramicsp. 116
Willemite and Zincite Glass-Ceramicsp. 119
SiO2-Al2O3-ZnO-MgO (Spinel, Gahnite)p. 120
Spinel Glass-Ceramic Without ▀-Quartzp. 120
▀-Quartz-Spinel Glass-Ceramicsp. 122
SiO2-Al2O3-CaO (Slag Sital)p. 123
SiO2-Al2O3-K2O (Leucite)p. 126
SiO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3-Li2O-Na2O-K2O (Li-Al-Gallate Spinel)p. 130
SiO2-Al2O3-SrO-BaO (Sr-Feldspar-Celsian)p. 131
Fluorosilicatesp. 135
SiO2-(R3+)2O3-MgO-(R2+)O-(R+)2O-F (Mica)p. 135
Alkaline Phlogopite Glass-Ceramicsp. 135
Alkali-Free Phlogopite Glass-Ceramicsp. 141
Tetrasilicic Mica Glass-Ceramicp. 142
SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaO-ZrO2-F (Mica, Zirconia)p. 143
SiO2-CaO-R2O-F (Canasite)p. 145
SiO2-MgO-CaO-(R+)2O-F (Amphibole)p. 151
Silicophosphatesp. 155
SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 (Apatite)p. 155
SiO2-MgO-CaO-P2O5-F (Apatite, Wollastonite)p. 157
SiO2-MgO-Na2O-K2O-CaO-P2O5 (Apatite)p. 157
SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-F (Mica, Apatite)p. 159
SiO2-MgO-CaO-TiO2-P2O5 (Apatite, Magnesium Titanate)p. 164
SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-F (Needlelike Apatite)p. 165
Formation of Needlelike Apatite as a Parallel Reaction to Rhenanitep. 169
Formation of Needlelike Apatite from Disordered Spherical Fluoroapatitep. 173
SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-F/Y2O3, B2O3 (Apatite and Leucite)p. 173
Fluoroapatite and Leucitep. 175
Oxyapatite and Leucitep. 177
SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5-F (Rhenanite)p. 179
Iron Silicatesp. 182
SiO2-Fe2O3-CaOp. 182
SiO2-Al2O3-FeO-Fe2O3-K2O (Mica, Ferrite)p. 182
SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-(R+)2O-(R2+)O (Basalt)p. 185
Phosphatesp. 187
P2O5-CaO (Metaphosphates)p. 187
P2O5-CaO-TiO2p. 191
P2O5-Na2O-BaO and P2O5-TiO2-WO3p. 191
P2O5-Na2O-BaO Systemp. 191
P2O5-TiO2-WO3 Systemp. 192
P2O5-Al2O3-CaO (Apatite)p. 192
P2O5-B2O3-SiO2p. 194
P2O5-SiO2-Li2O-ZrO2p. 196
Glass-Ceramics Containing 16 wt% ZrO2p. 197
Glass-Ceramics Containing 20 wt% ZrO2p. 197
Other Systemsp. 199
Perovskite-Type Glass-Ceramicsp. 199
SiO2-Nb2O5-Na2O-(BaO)p. 199
SiO2-Al2O3-TiO2-PbOp. 201
SiO2-Al2O3-K2O-Ta2O5-Nb2O5p. 203
Ilmenite-Type (SiO2-Al2O3-Li2O-Ta2O5) Glass-Ceramicsp. 204
B2O3-BaFe12O19 (Barium Hexaferrite) or (BaFe10O15) Barium Ferritep. 204
SiO2-Al2O3-BaO-TiO2 (Barium Titanate)p. 205
Bi2O3-SrO-CaO-CuOp. 206
Microstructure Controlp. 207
Solid-State Reactionsp. 207
Isochemical Phase Transformationp. 207
Reactions between Phasesp. 208
Exsolutionp. 208
Use of Phase Diagrams to Predict Glass-Ceramic Assemblagesp. 209
Microstructure Designp. 209
Nanocrystalline Microstructuresp. 210
Cellular Membrane Microstructuresp. 211
Coast-and-Island Microstructurep. 214
Dendritic Microstructuresp. 216
Relict Microstructuresp. 218
House-of-Cards Microstructuresp. 219
Nucleation Reactionsp. 221
Primary Crystal Formation and Mica Precipitationp. 221
Cabbage-Head Microstructuresp. 222
Acicular Interlocking Microstructuresp. 228
Lamellar Twinned Microstructuresp. 231
Preferred Crystal Orientationp. 232
Crystal Network Microstructuresp. 235
Nature as an Examplep. 236
Nanocrystalsp. 237
Control of Key Propertiesp. 239
Methods and Measurementsp. 240
Chemical System and Crystalline Phasesp. 240
Determination of Crystal Phasesp. 240
Kinetic Process of Crystal Formationp. 242
Determination of Microstructurep. 246
Mechanical, Optical, Electrical, Chemical, and Biological Propertiesp. 247
Optical Properties and Chemical Composition of Glass-Ceramicsp. 248
Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of Glass-Ceramicsp. 249
Electrical Propertiesp. 249
Chemical Propertiesp. 250
Biological Propertiesp. 250
Applications of Glass-Ceramicsp. 252
Technical Applicationsp. 252
Radomesp. 252
Photosensitive and Etched Patterned Materialsp. 252
Fotoform« and Fotoceram«p. 253
Foturan«p. 254
Additional Productsp. 259
Machinable Glass-Ceramicsp. 260
MACOR« and DICOR«p. 260
Vitronit™p. 264
Photovee™p. 264
Magnetic Memory Disk Substratesp. 265
Liquid Crystal Displaysp. 269
Consumer Applicationsp. 269
▀-Spodumene Solid-Solution Glass-Ceramicp. 269
▀-Quartz Solid-Solution Glass-Ceramicp. 271
Optical Applicationsp. 277
Telescope Mirrorsp. 277
Requirements for Their Developmentp. 277
Zerodur« Glass-Ceramicsp. 277
Integrated Lens Arraysp. 279
Applications for Luminescent Glass-Ceramicsp. 281
Cr-Doped Mullite for Solar Concentratorsp. 281
Cr-Doped Gahnite Spinel for Tunable Lasers and Optical Memory Mediap. 285
Rare-Earth Doped Oxyfluorides for Amplification, Upconversion, and Quantum Cuttingp. 288
Chromium (Cr4+-Doped Forsterite, ▀-Willemite, and Other Orthosilicates for Broad Wavelength Amplificationp. 293
Ni2+-Doped Gallate Spinel for Amplification and Broadband Infrared Sourcesp. 297
YAG Glass-Ceramic Phosphor for White LEDp. 301
Optical Componentsp. 301
Glass-Ceramics for Fiber Bragg Grating Athermalizationp. 301
Laser-Induced Crystallization for Optical Gratings and Waveguidesp. 309
Glass-Ceramic Ferrule for Optical Connectorsp. 310
Applications for Transparent ZnO Glass-Ceramics with Controlled Infrared Absorbance and Microwave Susceptibilityp. 310
Medical and Dental Glass-Ceramicsp. 311
Glass-Ceramics for Medical Applicationsp. 312
Glass-Ceramics for Dental Restorationp. 315
Moldable Glass-Ceramics for Metal-Free Restorationsp. 317
Machinable Glass-Ceramics for Metal-Free Restorationsp. 327
Glass-Ceramics on Metal Frameworksp. 330
Glass-Ceramic Veneering Materials on High Toughness Polycrystalline Ceramicsp. 335
Electrical and Electronic Applicationsp. 342
Insulatorsp. 342
Electronic Packagingp. 344
Requirements for Their Developmentp. 344
Properties and Processingp. 344
Applicationsp. 346
Architectural Applicationsp. 346
Coatings and Soldersp. 350
Glass-Ceramics for Energy Applicationsp. 351
Components for Lithium Batteriesp. 351
Cathodesp. 351
Electrolytesp. 351
Joining Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Componentsp. 352
Epilogue: Future Directionsp. 354
Appendix: Twenty-One Figures of 23 Crystal Structuresp. 355
Referencesp. 378
Indexp. 407
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