Global Issues

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-02-08
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Updated in its 4thedition, Global Issuesis a current and topical look at the forces driving globalization. From democratization, human rights, and global finance to terrorism, pandemics, and climate change, this texts surveys global problems that transcend boundaries and are challenging the international system. This is the only text of its kind to place complex issues into comprehensive context and thus explain the growing political, economic, and cultural interdependence visible in the headlines and in readers' lives.

Author Biography

Richard J. Payne is Distinguished Professor of Politics and Government at Illinois State University.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Mapsp. xviii
Global Issues: Challenges of Globalizationp. 1
Introductionp. 2
From International Relations to Global Issuesp. 2
Pluralism and Interdependencep. 3
The Growth of the Modern Statep. 4
Sovereigntyp. 6
The Decline of Sovereigntyp. 7
The European Union: Redefining Sovereigntyp. 7
The Rise of Nonstate Actorsp. 8
The Catholic Churchp. 8
Transnational Corporationsp. 9
Interdependence and Globalizationp. 9
Causes of Globalizationp. 10
Forms of Globalizationp. 12
Economic Globalizationp. 12
Financial Globalizationp. 12
Political Globalizationp. 14
Military Globalizationp. 15
Cultural Globalizationp. 15
Environmental Globalizationp. 26
Criminal Globalizationp. 16
Periods of Globalization16
Resistance to Globalizationp. 17
Debating Globalizationp. 18
Case Study Challenges Facing the Catholic Churchp. 19
Summary and Reviewp. 20
The Struggle for Primacy in a Global Societyp. 24
Introductionp. 25
Power and Leadershipp. 25
The Rise and Fall of Great Powersp. 26
Strategies for Maintaining Powerp. 27
Americap. 28
Challenging American Hegemonyp. 32
Chinap. 32
Threats to U.S. Power: Emerging Powers and Nonstate Actorsp. 35
Domestic Threats to American Hegemonyp. 36
Will the United States Remain the Dominant Power?p. 37
Case Study Challenges Facing Chinap. 38
Summary and Reviewp. 40
Human Rightsp. 43
Introductionp. 44
Globalization and Human Rightsp. 44
Nongovernmental Organizations and Human Rightsp. 45
Global Companies and Human Rightsp. 45
Development of Human Rightsp. 46
Social Contract Theories and Human Rightsp. 46
Utilitarianism, Libertarianism, and Marxismp. 47
Legal Positivism and Human Rightsp. 48
Globalization of Human Rights: The Universal Declaration of Human Rightsp. 48
Philosophical Controversies Over Human Rightsp. 50
Universalism Versus Cultural Relativisp. 50
Individuals and Communitiesp. 50
Relationship Between Rights and Obligationsp. 50
Prioritizing Human Rightsp. 51
Absolutism Versus Consequentialismp. 51
Human Rights Regimesp. 51
Enforcing Human Rights Globallyp. 52
Sanctionsp. 53
Humanitarian Intervention: Responsibility to Protectp. 54
Responding to Genocidep. 55
The International Criminal Courtp. 56
Women and Human Rightsp. 57
Sexual Violence: Rape as a Weapon of Warp. 58
Islam and Human Rightsp. 59
Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Human Rightsp. 61
The Death Penalty and Human Rightsp. 62
Case Study Homosexuals and Human Rightsp. 63
Summary and Reviewp. 64
Promoting Democracyp. 67
Introductionp. 68
Democracyp. 68
Political Participation and Democracyp. 69
Women's Political Participation and Democracyp. 70
Factors Conducive to Democracyp. 72
Promoting Democracyp. 73
Global Civil Society and the Promotion of Democracyp. 73
The Promotion of Democracy by the United Statesp. 75
Imposing Democracy by Force in Iraqp. 76
Transitions to Democracyp. 77
Latin Americap. 80
Russiap. 80
Islam and Democracy in the Middle Eastp. 82
Global Governance and Democracyp. 83
International Regimesp. 83
Making Global Institutions More Democraticp. 84
Case Study Democratic Transitions in the Middle East and North Africap. 84
Summary and Reviewp. 86
Global Terrorismp. 90
Introductionp. 91
Defining Terrorismp. 91
Factors Conducive to Terrorismp. 92
Goals, Strategies, and Weapons of Terrorismp. 94
Financing Terrorismp. 95
The Costs of Terrorismp. 96
Costs to Individualsp. 97
Economic Costsp. 97
Costs to Governmentsp. 97
Foreign Policy Costsp. 97
Costs to Democracyp. 97
Kinds of Terrorismp. 98
Domestic Terrorismp. 99
Nationalist Terrorismp. 100
Religious Terrorismp. 105
Box Notes of Religious Terrorists Who Attacked Americap. 106
State Terrorismp. 107
Global Terrorismp. 107
Responding to Terrorismp. 108
Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Democracyp. 110
Case Study Terrorism in Pakistanp. 111
Summary and Reviewp. 112
Weapons Proliferationp. 116
Introductionp. 117
The Proliferation of Weaponsp. 118
Reasons for the Proliferation of Weaponsp. 118
The Proliferation of Small Armsp. 119
The Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponsp. 121
China and Japanp. 122
India and Pakistanp. 123
The Middle Eastp. 124
North Koreap. 125
America's Nuclear Response to Nuclear Proliferationp. 126
Chemical and Biological Weaponsp. 127
Nonproliferation Regimesp. 129
Nuclear Nonproliferationp. 130
Curbing Chemical and Biological Weaponsp. 131
CASE STUDY Countries That Abandoned Nuclear Weapons Programsp. 133
Summary and Reviewp. 134
The Global Financial Crisisp. 138
Introductionp. 139
Causes of the Global Financial Crisisp. 140
Deregulation of Financial Marketsp. 141
Financial Innovationsp. 142
Executive Compensationp. 143
Low Interest Ratesp. 144
Subprime Loansp. 144
Speculationp. 145
The Impact of the Global Financial Crisisp. 146
Foreclosuresp. 147
Decline in Manufacturing and Tradep. 148
Global Power Shiftp. 148
Global Responses to the Financial Crisisp. 149
America's Responsep. 149
European Responsesp. 150
China's Responsep. 151
Financial Regulationsp. 151
CASE STUDY Ireland: The Decline of the Celtic Tigerp. 152
Summary and Reviewp. 153
Global Tradep. 156
Introductionp. 157
The Globalization of Free Tradep. 158
Exchange Rates, Budget Deficits, and Tradep. 162
Barriers to Free Tradep. 163
Do Trade Deficits Matter?p. 163
Global Companies and Global Factoriesp. 164
Global Trade and Low Wagesp. 165
Global Companies Promote Equalityp. 165
Labor Unions and Global Tradep. 166
Global Trade Disputesp. 166
Tariffsp. 167
Quotasp. 167
Subsidiesp. 168
Genetically Modified Foodp. 169
Global Trade and the Environmentp. 170
Diseases and Global Tradep. 171
Regional Trade Blocsp. 172
The European Unionp. 172
The North American Free Trade Agreementp. 174
The Association of Southeast Asian Nationsp. 174
The South American Common Marketp. 175
Case Study The Growing Power of Emerging Markets: Brazilp. 176
Summary and Reviep. 177
Global Inequality and Povertyp. 180
Introductionp. 181
Does Inequality Matter?p. 181
The Globalization and Inequality Debatep. 183
Globalists Make Their Casep. 183
Antiglobalists Make Their Casep. 184
Global Inequalityp. 185
Inequality Between Developed and Developing Countriesp. 187
Causes of Inequality Between Rich and Poor Countriesp. 189
Inequality Within Rich Countriesp. 191
The United Statesp. 191
Other Industrialized Countriesp. 192
Inequality Within Poor Countriesp. 194
Gender Inequalityp. 195
Global Povertyp. 196
Closing the Gapp. 199
Case Study Food Insecurity and Rising Food Pricesp. 201
Summary and Reviewp. 203
Environmental Issuesp. 206
Introductionp. 207
The Globalization of Environmental Problemsp. 207
Nongovernmental Organizations and the Environmentp. 210
Women and the Environmentp. 210
Indigenous Peoples and the Environmentp. 210
Strategies Used by Nongovernmental Organizationsp. 211
Biodiversityp. 212
Endangered Species and Wildlife Protectionp. 213
Deforestationp. 215
Causes of Deforestationp. 215
Efforts to Prevent Deforestationp. 216
Ocean Resources-Fishingp. 217
Ocean Pollutionp. 218
Global Warming and Climate Changep. 219
Water Scarcityp. 223
Military Activities and the Environmentp. 224
Case Study The Earthquake and Tsunami in Japanp. 226
Summary and Reviewp. 228
Population and Migrationp. 231
Introductionp. 232
Populationp. 232
Population Issues in Developing Countriesp. 233
Population Issues in Developed Countriesp. 235
Global Migrationp. 237
Gender and Migrationp. 237
Types of Migrationp. 238
Causes of Migrationp. 239
Push Factorsp. 239
Refugeesp. 241
Pull Factorsp. 243
Case Studiesp. 245
The United Statesp. 245
Western Europep. 246
Social, Economic, and Political Implications of Migrationp. 249
The Impact of Migration on Sending Countriesp. 249
The Impact of Migration on Receiving Countriesp. 250
Case Study Global Aging and Pensionsp. 251
Summary and Reviewp. 252
Global Crimep. 255
Introductionp. 256
The Globalization of Crimep. 256
The Global Drug Problemp. 257
Efforts to Control the Drug Problemp. 258
Global Smuggling of Migrantsp. 261
Contemporary Slavery and Human Traffickingp. 262
Criminal Gangs and Kidnappingp. 264
Illegal Trade in Endangered Animals and Plantsp. 266
Cybercrimes and Piracyp. 267
Global Responses to Crimep. 270
Case Study Government Corruption in Indiap. 271
Summary and Reviewp. 272
The Globalization of Diseasep. 275
Introductionp. 276
Globalization of Infectious Diseasesp. 276
Global Travel and Communicationsp. 277
Human Security and Infectious Diseasesp. 278
Infectious Diseasesp. 279
Influenza and Avian Flup. 281
Malaria, Dengue, and Yellow Feverp. 282
Malariap. 282
Tuberculosisp. 284
HIV/AIDSp. 285
Africap. 286
Global Responses to Aidsp. 287
SARSp. 289
Global Responses to Infectious Diseasesp. 290
Case Study Obesity: A Global Epidemicp. 292
Summary and Reviewp. 293
Cultural Clashes and Conflict Resolutionp. 296
Introductionp. 297
Cultural Influences on Conflictsp. 297
Clashing Civilizationsp. 298
The West and the Muslim Worldp. 299
The United States and Islamp. 300
Clashes Among Nationsp. 302
Ethnic Conflictsp. 303
Ethnicity and Ethnic Identityp. 304
The Causes of Ethnic Conflictp. 305
Ethnic Clashesp. 307
Resolving Cultural Conflictsp. 310
Negotiationp. 311
Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Interventionp. 312
Peacemakingp. 312
Peacebuildingp. 312
Case Study War in Afghanistanp. 313
Summary and Reviewp. 315
Photo Creditsp. 318
Indexp. 319
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