Global Marketing Management, 4th Edition

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: WILEY
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Global Marketing Management prepares the reader to become an effective manager, overseeing global marketing activities in an increasingly competitive environment. The approach presents marketing with an interdisciplinary, cross-functional perspective, where the marketer has a sound understanding of how the various functional areas interface with marketing.

Author Biography

Masaaki "Mike" Kotabe holds the Washburn Chair Professorship in International Business and Marketing and is Director of Research at the Institute of Global Management Studies at the Fox School of Business and Management at Temple University. Prior to joining Temple University in 1998, he was Ambassador Edward Clark Centennial Endowed Fellow and Professor of Marketing and International Business at the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Kotabe also served as the Vice President of the  Academy of International Business in the 1997-1998 term. He received his Ph.D. in Marketing and International Business from Michigan State University. Dr. Kotabe teaches international marketing, global sourcing strategy, and Asian business practices at the undergraduate and MBA levels and theories of international business at the doctoral level. He has lectured widely at various business schools around the world. For his research, he has worked closely with leading companies such as AT&T, NEC, Nissan, Philips, Sony, and Ito-Yokado (parent of 7-eleven stores), and served as adviser to the United Nations' and World Trade Organization's Executive Forum on National Export Strategies.
Dr. Kotabe has written many scholarly publications. His research has appeared in numerous journals including Journal of Marketing, Journal of International Business Studies, Strategic Management Journal, and Academy of Management Journal. His books include Global Sourcing Strategy: R&D Manufacturing, Marketing Interfaces (1992), Japanese Distribution System (1993), Anticompetitive Practices in Japan (1996), MERCOSUR and Beyond (1997), Marketing Management (2001), Market Revolution in Latin America: Beyond Mexico (2001), and Emerging Issues in International Business Research (2002).
He currently serves as the Editor of the Journal of International Management and is or has been on the editorial boards of numerous other journals. He also serves as an Adviser to the Institute of Industrial Policy Studies (IPS) National Competitiveness Report.
In the 1997 issue of Journal of Teaching in International Business, Dr. Kotabe was ranked the most prolific international marketing researcher in the world in the last 10 years. He has been recently elected a Fellow of the Academy of International Business for his significant contribution to international business research and education. He is also an elected member of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Kristiaan Helsen has been Associate Professor of Marketing at the Hong Kong University of Science and technology (HKUST) since 1995. Prior to joining HKUST, he was on the faculty of the University of Chicago for five years. He has lectured at Nijenrode University (Netherlands), Purdue University, the Catholic University of Lisbon, and CEIBS (Shanghai). Dr. Helsen received his Ph.D. in Marketing from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
    His research areas include promotional strategy, competitive strategy, and hazard rate modeling. His articles have appeared in journals such as Marketing Science, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, and European Journal of Operations research,  among others. Dr. Helsen is on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Research in Marketing and the Journal of Marketing.

Table of Contents

Globalization Imperativep. 1
Why Global Marketing is Imperativep. 2
Globalization of Markets: Convergence and Divergencep. 8
International Trade versus International Businessp. 10
Who Manages International Trade?p. 11
Evolution of Global Marketingp. 12
What is Marketing?p. 12
Domestic Marketingp. 13
Export Marketingp. 15
International Marketingp. 16
Multinational Marketingp. 16
Global Marketingp. 17
The Impact of Economic Geography and Climate on Global Marketingp. 18
Short Casesp. 22
Theories of International Trade and the Multinational Enterprisep. 23
Economic Environmentp. 31
Intertwined World Economyp. 32
Foreign Direct Investmentp. 35
Portfolio Investmentp. 36
Country Competitivenessp. 38
Changing Country Competitivenessp. 38
Human Resources and Technologyp. 38
Emerging Economiesp. 40
Chinap. 42
Indiap. 46
Russiap. 51
Evolution of Cooperative Global Trade Agreementsp. 55
General Agreements on Tariffs and Tradep. 55
World Trade Organizationp. 56
Information Technology and the Changing Nature of Competitionp. 61
Value of Intellectual Property in Information Agep. 61
Proliferation of E-Commerce and Regulationsp. 63
Regional Economic Arrangementsp. 64
Free Trade Areap. 64
Customs Unionp. 67
Common Marketp. 67
Monetary Unionp. 67
Political Unionp. 67
Multinational Corporationsp. 68
Short Casesp. 72
Financial Environmentp. 75
Historical Role of The U.S. Dollarp. 76
Development of the Current International Monetary Systemp. 77
The Bretton Woods Conferencep. 77
The International Monetary Fundp. 78
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Developmentp. 79
Fixed versus Floating Exchange Ratesp. 80
Currency Blocsp. 80
Foreign Exchange And Foreign Exchange Ratesp. 82
Purchasing Power Parityp. 82
Forecasting Exchange Rate Fluctuationp. 84
Coping with Exchange Rate Fluctuationsp. 84
Spot versus Forward Foreign Exchangep. 86
Exchange Rate Pass-Throughp. 87
Balance of Paymentsp. 89
The Internal and External Adjustmentsp. 91
Economic and Financial Turmoil Around the Worldp. 93
Asian Financial Crisis and Its Aftermathp. 93
The South American Financial Crisis and Its Aftermathp. 95
Financial Crises in Perspectivep. 96
Responses to the Regional Financial Crisesp. 96
Marketing in Euro-Landp. 99
Historical Backgroundp. 99
Ramifications of the Euro for Marketersp. 102
Short Casesp. 107
Global Cultural Environment and Buying Behaviorp. 110
Definition of Culturep. 112
Elements of Culturep. 113
Material Lifep. 113
Languagep. 114
Social Interactionsp. 117
Aestheticsp. 118
Religionp. 121
Educationp. 123
Value Systemsp. 124
Cross-Cultural Comparisonsp. 127
High- versus Low-Context Culturesp. 127
Hofstede's Classification Schemep. 128
Project Globep. 131
World Value Survey (Wvs)p. 131
Adaptation To Culturesp. 133
Culture and The Marketing Mixp. 135
Product Policyp. 135
Pricingp. 136
Distributionp. 137
Promotionp. 137
Organizational Culturesp. 138
Global Account Management (GAM)p. 140
Global Accounts' Requirementsp. 140
Managing Global Account Relationshipsp. 141
Global Customer Relationship Management (CRM)p. 142
Motivationsp. 143
Gains from CRMp. 143
Challengesp. 144
Guidelines for Successful CRM Implementationp. 144
Short Casesp. 147
Political and Legal Environmentsp. 149
Political Environment-Individual Governmentsp. 150
Home Country versus Host Countryp. 150
Structure of Governmentp. 152
Government Policies and Regulationsp. 153
Political Environment-Social Pressures and Political Riskp. 161
Social Pressures and Special Interestsp. 162
Management of the Political Environmentp. 163
Terrorism and The World Economyp. 168
International Agreementsp. 170
Group of Seven (G-7) and Group of Eight (G-8)p. 171
Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Controls (COCOM)p. 172
International Law and Local Legal Environmentp. 172
International Lawp. 173
Local Legal Systems and Lawsp. 173
Jurisdictionp. 177
Issues Transcending National Boundariesp. 177
ISO 9000 and 14000p. 177
Intellectual Property Protectionp. 178
International Treaties for Intellectual Property Protectionp. 183
Antitrust Laws of the United Statesp. 184
Antitrust Laws of the European Unionp. 187
U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977p. 187
Short Casesp. 193
Global Marketing Researchp. 196
Research Problem Formulationp. 198
Secondary Global Marketing Researchp. 200
Secondary Data Sourcesp. 200
Problems with Secondary Data Researchp. 202
Primary Global Marketing Researchp. 203
Focus Groupsp. 204
Survey Methods for Cross-Cultural Marketing Researchp. 205
Market Size Assessmentp. 209
Method of Analogyp. 209
Trade Auditp. 212
Chain Ratio Methodp. 212
Cross-Sectional Regression Analysisp. 213
New Market Information Technologiesp. 214
Management of Global Marketing Researchp. 217
Selecting a Research Agencyp. 217
Coordination of Multicountry Researchp. 217
Global Segmentation and Positioningp. 222
Reasons For International Market Segmentationp. 223
Country Screeningp. 223
Global Marketing Researchp. 224
Entry Decisionsp. 224
Positioning Strategyp. 224
Resource Allocationp. 225
Marketing Mix Policyp. 225
International Market Segmentation Approachesp. 227
Segmentation Scenariosp. 229
Bases For Country Segmentationp. 230
Demographicsp. 231
Socioeconomic Variablesp. 231
Behavior-Based Segmentationp. 235
Lifestylep. 235
International Positioning Strategiesp. 237
Uniform versus Localized Positioning Strategiesp. 237
Universal Positioning Appealsp. 240
Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer Culture Positioningp. 241
Short Casesp. 245
Segmentation Toolsp. 246
Global Marketing Strategiesp. 248
Information Technology and Global Competitionp. 249
Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce)p. 249
Real-Time Managementp. 251
Online Communicationp. 251
E-Companyp. 252
Faster Product Diffusionp. 252
Global Citizenshipp. 253
Global Strategyp. 253
Global Industryp. 253
Competitive Structurep. 256
Gaining Competitive Advantagep. 259
Interdependencyp. 263
Global Marketing Strategyp. 263
Benefits of Global Marketingp. 264
Limits to Global Marketingp. 266
Regionalization of Global Marketing Strategyp. 269
Cross-Subsidization of Marketsp. 269
Identification of Weak Market Segmentsp. 272
Use of the "Lead Market" Conceptp. 272
Marketing Strategies for Emerging Marketsp. 274
Competitive Analysisp. 275
Short Casesp. 279
Global Market Entry Strategiesp. 283
Selecting The Target Marketp. 284
Choosing The Mode of Entryp. 286
Decision Criteria for Mode of Entryp. 286
Mode-of-Entry Choice: A Transaction Cost Explanationp. 290
Exportingp. 291
Licensingp. 293
Benefitsp. 293
Caveatsp. 294
Franchisingp. 295
Benefitsp. 295
Caveatsp. 295
Contract Manufacturing (Outsourcing)p. 296
Benefitsp. 297
Caveatsp. 297
Expanding Through Joint Venturesp. 298
Benefitsp. 299
Caveatsp. 299
Drivers Behind Successful International Joint Venturesp. 300
Entering New Markets Through Wholly Owned Subsidiariesp. 302
Benefitsp. 303
Caveatsp. 303
Acquisitions and Mergersp. 303
Greenfield Operationsp. 305
Creating Strategic Alliancesp. 305
Types of Strategic Alliancesp. 305
The Logic behind Strategic Alliancesp. 306
Cross-Border Alliances That Succeedp. 306
Timing of Entryp. 307
Exit Strategiesp. 309
Reasons for Exitp. 309
Risks of Exitp. 310
Guidelinesp. 311
Short Casesp. 315
Alternative Country Screening Procedurep. 317
Global Sourcing Strategyp. 318
Extent and Complexity of Global Sourcing Strategyp. 320
Trends In Global Sourcing Strategyp. 323
The Decline of the Exchange Rate Determinism of Sourcingp. 324
New Competitive Environment Caused by Excess Worldwide Capacityp. 324
Innovations in and Restructuring of International Trade Infrastructurep. 324
Enhanced Role of Purchasing Managersp. 325
Trend toward Global Manufacturingp. 325
Value Chain and Functional Interfacesp. 327
R&D/Manufacturing Interfacep. 328
Manufacturing/Marketing Interfacep. 330
Marketing/R&D Interfacep. 332
Procurement: Types of Sourcing Strategyp. 333
Intrafirm Sourcingp. 334
Outsourcing (Contract Manufacturing)p. 335
Long-Term Consequences of Global Sourcingp. 338
Sustainable versus Transitory Core Competenciesp. 339
Benefits of Virtual Networkp. 340
Outsourcing of Service Activitiesp. 341
Short Casesp. 346
Global Product Policy Decisions I: Developing New Products for Global Marketsp. 349
Global Product Strategiesp. 351
Product and Communication Extension-Dual Extensionp. 351
Product Extension-Communications Adaptationp. 351
Product Adaptation-Communications Extensionp. 352
Product and Communications Adaptation-Dual Adaptationp. 352
Product Inventionp. 353
Standardization Versus Customizationp. 353
Multinational Diffusionp. 357
Development of New Products for Global Marketsp. 359
Identifying New Product Ideasp. 359
Screeningp. 360
Concept Testingp. 362
Test Marketingp. 365
Timing of Entry: Waterfall versus Sprinkler Strategiesp. 366
Truly Global Innovationp. 369
Global Product Policy Decisions II: Marketing Products and Servicesp. 373
Global Branding Strategiesp. 374
Global Brandingp. 374
Local Brandingp. 378
Global or Local Branding?p. 379
Brand-Name Changeover Strategiesp. 383
Private Label Branding (Store Brands)p. 386
Umbrella Brandingp. 387
Brand Name Protectionp. 388
Management of Multinational Product Linesp. 389
Product Piracyp. 393
Strategic Options against Product Piracyp. 393
Country-of-Origin (COO) Stereotypesp. 395
Country-of-Origin Influences on Consumersp. 397
Strategies to Cope with COO Stereotypesp. 398
Global Marketing of Servicesp. 399
Challenges in Marketing Services Internationallyp. 399
Opportunities in the Global Service Industriesp. 400
Global Service Marketing Strategiesp. 401
Short Casesp. 404
Global Pricingp. 407
Drivers of Foreign Market Pricingp. 408
Company Goalsp. 408
Company Costsp. 409
Customer Demandp. 410
Competitionp. 410
Distribution Channelsp. 412
Government Policiesp. 413
Managing Price Escalationp. 413
Pricing In Inflationary Environmentsp. 414
Global Pricing and Currency Movementsp. 416
Currency Gain/Loss Pass Throughp. 417
Currency Quotationp. 420
Transfer Pricingp. 420
Determinants of Transfer Pricesp. 420
Setting Transfer Pricesp. 421
Minimizing the Risk of Transfer Pricing Tax Auditsp. 422
Global Pricing and Antidumping Regulationp. 424
Price Coordinationp. 425
Global-Pricing Contracts (GPCs)p. 426
Aligning Pan-Regional Pricesp. 427
Implementing Price Coordinationp. 429
Countertradep. 429
Forms of Countertradep. 429
Motives behind Countertradep. 431
Shortcomings of Countertradep. 432
Short Casesp. 436
Communicating With The World Consumerp. 438
Global Advertising and Culturep. 439
Language Barriersp. 439
Other Cultural Barriersp. 441
Global Advertising Budgetp. 443
Percentage of Sales Methodp. 443
Competitive Parity Methodp. 443
Objective-and-Task Methodp. 444
Resource Allocationp. 445
Creative Strategyp. 446
The Standardization versus Adaptation Debatep. 446
Merits of Standardizationp. 446
Barriers to Standardizationp. 448
Approaches to Creating Advertising Copyp. 449
Global Media Decisionsp. 452
Media Infrastructurep. 452
Media Limitationsp. 453
Recent Developments in the Global Media Landscapep. 454
Advertising Regulationsp. 457
Choice of An Advertising Agencyp. 460
Coordination of International Advertisingp. 461
Monetary Incentives (Cooperative Advertising)p. 462
Advertising Manualsp. 462
Lead-Country Conceptp. 462
Global or Pan-Regional Meetingsp. 462
Other Forms of Communicationp. 463
Sales Promotionsp. 464
Direct Marketingp. 465
Event Sponsorshipsp. 466
Trade Showsp. 467
Globally Integrated Marketing Communications (GIMC)p. 469
Short Casesp. 472
Sales Managementp. 475
Market Entry Options and Salesforce Strategyp. 477
Role of Foreign Governmentsp. 480
Cultural Considerationsp. 480
Personal Sellingp. 480
Cultural Generalizationp. 481
Corporate (Organizational) Culturep. 482
Relationship Marketingp. 483
Myers-Briggs Type Indicatorp. 483
Impact of Culture On Sales Management and Personal Selling Processp. 485
Salesforce Objectivesp. 486
Salesforce Strategyp. 487
Recruitment and Selectionp. 488
Trainingp. 488
Supervisionp. 489
Evaluationp. 491
Cross-Cultural Negotiationsp. 491
Stages of Negotiation Processp. 492
Cross-Cultural Negotiation Strategiesp. 492
Expatriatesp. 495
Advantages of Expatriatesp. 496
Difficulties of Sending Expatriates Abroadp. 496
The Return of the Expatriate-Repatriationp. 500
Generalizations about When Using Expatriates Is Positive/Negativep. 501
Short Casesp. 503
Global Logistics and Distributionp. 506
Definition of Global Logisticsp. 507
Management of Global Logisticsp. 509
Modes of Transportationp. 510
Warehousing and Inventory Managementp. 512
Third-Party Logistic (3PL) Managementp. 515
Free Trade Zonesp. 518
Maquiladora Operationp. 520
Global Retailingp. 522
"Push" versus "Pull"p. 523
On-Time Retail Information Managementp. 524
Retailing Differences across the Worldp. 526
Short Casesp. 532
Export and Import Managementp. 536
Organizing for Exportsp. 538
Research for Exportsp. 538
Export Market Segmentsp. 539
Indirect Exportingp. 540
Direct Exportingp. 542
Mechanics of Exportingp. 543
Automated Export System (AES) on the Internetp. 543
Legality of Exportsp. 543
Export Transactionsp. 545
Terms of Shipment and Salep. 546
Payment Termsp. 546
Currency Hedgingp. 548
Role of the Government In Promoting Exportsp. 549
Export-Import Bankp. 550
Tariff Concessionsp. 551
Export Regulationsp. 552
Managing Imports-The Other Side of the Coinp. 553
Mechanics of Importingp. 555
Import Documents and Deliveryp. 556
Import Dutiesp. 556
Gray Marketsp. 557
Short Casesp. 566
Planning, Organization, and Control of Global Marketing Operationsp. 569
Global Strategic Marketing Planningp. 570
Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Strategic Planningp. 570
Pitfallsp. 570
Key Criteria In Global Organizational Designp. 571
Environmental Factorsp. 571
Firm-Specific Factorsp. 572
Organizational Design Optionsp. 573
International Division Structurep. 573
Global Product Division Structurep. 573
Geographic Structurep. 574
Matrix Structurep. 578
The Global Network Solutionp. 579
Organizing for Global Brand Managementp. 581
Global Branding Committeep. 581
Brand Championp. 582
Global Brand Managerp. 582
Informal, Ad Hoc Branding Meetingsp. 582
Life Cycle of Organization Structuresp. 582
Centralization Or Decentralization?p. 584
Control of Global Marketing Effortsp. 586
Formal ("Bureaucratic") Control Systemsp. 586
Informal Control Methodsp. 588
Soft" versus "Hard" Leversp. 589
Short Casesp. 592
Global Marketing and the Internetp. 594
The Internet and the Global Marketplacep. 595
Asia-Pacificp. 595
Europep. 597
Latin Americap. 598
Structural Barriers To Global E-Commercep. 598
Language Barriersp. 598
Cultural Barriersp. 599
Infrastructurep. 600
Knowledge Barrierp. 600
Access Chargesp. 602
Legal Constraints and Government Regulationsp. 603
Use of the Internet for Understanding Global Buyersp. 604
Competitive Advantage and Cyberspacep. 605
Global Internet Consumersp. 606
Internet Ramifications for Global Marketing Strategiesp. 606
Globally Integrated versus Locally Responsive Web Marketing Strategiesp. 608
One-on-One Marketingp. 609
Product Policyp. 609
Marketing of Servicesp. 610
Global Pricingp. 611
Distributionp. 612
Global Communication and the Webp. 615
Short Casesp. 618
Casesp. 621
Club Med: Making A Comebackp. 622
Honda in Europep. 627
Anheuser-Busch International, Inc.: Making Inroads into Brazil and Mexicop. 632
Volkswagen AG Navigates Chinap. 637
Wal-Mart Operations in Brazil: An Emerging Giantp. 643
Louis Vuitton in Japan: The Magic Touchp. 648
Indexp. 655
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