Good Reasons : Researching and Writing Effective Arguments

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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Engaging and accessible to all students,Good Reasonsis a brief, very readable introduction to argument by two of the country's foremost rhetoricians. By stressing the rhetorical situation and audience, this rhetoric avoids complicated schemes and terminology in favor of providing students with the practical means to find "good reasons" for the positions they want to advocate to their audiences.Good Reasonshelps students write and understand various types of arguments, including visual as well as verbal arguments. Supporting the authors'instruction are numerous readings by professional and student writers and over 50 photographs. Good Reasonsis distinctive in providing the most thorough coverage of rhetorical analysis and visual analysis. It has a new emphasis on visual argument throughout that responds to the need for greater visual literacy in a media-saturated culture. Good Reasons is also distinctive in beginning with why people write arguments.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
Introduction: Persuading with Good Reasonsp. 1
What Do We Mean by Argument?p. 1
What Does Argument Mean for College Writers?p. 2
How Can You Argue Responsibly?p. 3
How Can You Argue Respectfully?p. 4
Reading and Discovering Arguments
Why Argue?p. 9
Why Do People Write Arguments?p. 9
Finding Good Reasonsp. 10
Why Do Some Arguments Succeed?p. 12
What Are the Goals of Arguments?p. 16
What Are Rhetorical Appeals?p. 17
Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endurep. 19
Reading Argumentsp. 22
Read Criticallyp. 22
Read Activelyp. 22
Finding Good Reasonsp. 24
Recognize Fallaciesp. 26
Respond as a Writerp. 28
Finding Argumentsp. 30
Find Arguments in Everyday Conversationsp. 30
Find a Topic that Interests Youp. 33
Find a Claim by Exploringp. 37
Finding Good Reasonsp. 39
Find a Claim by Readingp. 40
Find Good Reasonsp. 44
Find Evidence to Support Good Reasonsp. 50
Drafting and Revising Argumentsp. 52
State and Evaluate Your Thesisp. 52
Think about Your Readersp. 54
Finding Good Reasonsp. 55
Organize Your Argumentp. 57
Write an Engaging Title and Introductionp. 58
Write a Strong Conclusionp. 59
Evaluate Your Draftp. 60
Respond to the Writing of Othersp. 62
Edit and Proofread Carefullyp. 64
Analyzing Arguments
Analyzing Written Argumentsp. 69
What Is Rhetorical Analysis?p. 69
Build a Rhetorical Analysisp. 69
Analyze the Rhetorical Featuresp. 70
Analyze the Rhetorical Contextp. 75
Write a Rhetorical Analysisp. 79
Barbara Jordan, Statement on the Articles of Impeachmentp. 80
T. Jonathan Jackson (student), An Argument of Reason and Passion: Barbara Jordan's "Statement on the Articles of Impeachment"p. 84
Steps to Writing a Rhetorical Analysisp. 87
Analyzing Visual Argumentsp. 90
What Is a Visual Argument?p. 90
Analyze Visual Persuasionp. 92
Analyze Visual Evidencep. 93
Build a Visual Analysisp. 96
Write a Visual Analysisp. 100
Angela Yamashita (student), Got Roddick?p. 101
Steps to Writing a Visual Analysisp. 104
Writing Arguments
Putting Good Reasons into Actionp. 109
Use Different Approaches to Construct an Argumentp. 110
Finding Good Reasonsp. 111
Definition Argumentsp. 113
Understand How Definition Arguments Workp. 113
Recognize Kinds of Definitionsp. 114
Finding Good Reasonsp. 117
Build a Definition Argumentp. 118
Scott McCloud, Setting the Record Straightp. 121
Chris Nguyen (student), Speech Doesn't Have to Be Pretty to Be Protectedp. 129
Steps to Writing a Definition Argumentp. 134
Causal Argumentsp. 137
Understand How Causal Arguments Workp. 137
Find Causesp. 138
Finding Good Reasonsp. 140
Build a Causal Argumentp. 142
Annie Murphy Paul, The Real Marriage Penaltyp. 144
Emily Raine, Why Should I Be Nice to You? Coffee Shops and the Politics of Good Servicep. 147
Steps to Writing a Causal Argumentp. 153
Evaluation Argumentsp. 156
Understand How Evaluation Arguments Workp. 156
Recognize Kinds of Evaluationsp. 157
Finding Good Reasonsp. 159
Build an Evaluation Argumentp. 160
Michael Eric Dyson, Gangsta Rap and American Culturep. 162
Rashaun Giddens (student), Stop Loss or "Loss of Trust"p. 163
Steps to Writing an Evaluation Argumentp. 174
Narrative Argumentsp. 177
Understand How Narrative Arguments Workp. 178
Recognize Kinds of Narrative Argumentsp. 179
Finding Good Reasonsp. 180
Build a Narrative Argumentp. 181
Leslie Marmon Silko, The Border Patrol Statep. 182
Dagoberto Gilb, My Landlady's Yardp. 187
Steps to Writing a Narrative Argumentp. 190
Rebuttal Argumentsp. 192
Understand How Rebuttal Arguments Workp. 193
Finding Good Reasonsp. 195
Recognize Kinds of Rebuttal Argumentsp. 196
Build a Rebuttal Argumentp. 199
Dan Stein, Crossing the Linep. 200
Gregory Rodriguez, Illegal Immigrants-They're Moneyp. 202
Steps to Writing a Rebuttal Argumentp. 205
Proposal Argumentsp. 210
Understand How Proposal Arguments Workp. 211
Recognize Components of Proposal Argumentsp. 212
Finding Good Reasonsp. 213
Build a Proposal Argumentp. 214
Thomas Homer-Dixon and S. Julio Friedmann, Coal in a Nice Shade of Greenp. 216
Kim Lee (student), Let's Make It a Real Melting Pot with Presidential Hopes for Allp. 219
Steps to Writing a Proposal Argumentp. 223
Designing and Presenting Arguments
Designing Argumentsp. 229
Think About Your Readersp. 229
Know When to Use Images and Graphicsp. 230
Compose and Edit Imagesp. 231
Create Tables, Charts, and Graphsp. 234
Design Pages for Printp. 235
Design Pages for the Webp. 236
Presenting Argumentsp. 238
Plan in Advancep. 238
Design Effective Visualsp. 240
Focus on Your Deliveryp. 242
Researching Arguments
Planning Researchp. 247
Analyze the Research Taskp. 247
Find a Subjectp. 247
Ask a Research Questionp. 249
Gather Information About the Subjectp. 249
Draft a Working Thesisp. 252
Finding Sourcesp. 254
Search with Keywordsp. 255
Find Booksp. 256
Find Journal Articlesp. 256
Find Web Sourcesp. 259
Evaluating and Recording Sourcesp. 263
Evaluate Print Sourcesp. 263
Find Information to Cite Print Sourcesp. 264
Evaluate Database Sourcesp. 266
Find Information to Cite a Database Sourcep. 266
Evaluate Web Sourcesp. 267
Find Information to Cite a Web Sourcep. 269
Writing the Research Paperp. 270
Review Your Goals and Thesisp. 270
Determine Your Contributionp. 270
Determine Your Main Pointsp. 271
Avoid Plagiarismp. 271
Quote Sources Without Plagiarizingp. 273
Summarize and Paraphrase Sources Without Plagiarizingp. 274
Incorporate Quotationsp. 276
Incorporate Visualsp. 278
Documenting Sources in MLA Stylep. 280
Elements of MLA Documentationp. 280
MLA In-Text Citationsp. 284
MLA Works-Cited List: Booksp. 287
MLA Works-Cited List: Periodicalsp. 291
MLA Works-Cited List: Library Database Sourcesp. 293
MLA Works-Cited List: Online Sourcesp. 293
MLA Works-Cited List: Other Sourcesp. 295
Sample MLA Paper: Brian Witkowski (student), Need a Cure for Tribe Fever? How About a Dip in the Lake?p. 297
Documenting Sources in APA Stylep. 304
Elements of APA Documentationp. 304
APA In-Text Citationsp. 307
APA References List: Booksp. 309
APA References List: Periodicalsp. 310
APA References List: Library Database Sourcesp. 311
APA References List: Online Sourcesp. 311
APA References List: Other Sourcesp. 312
A Guide to Avoiding Plagiarismp. 313
Glossaryp. 321
Indexp. 325
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