Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2009-05-27
  • Publisher: Chapman & Hall/

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  Answering the ethical dilemma faced by the developers and users of autonomous robots in military and combat zones, this book provides the basis, motivation, theory, and design recommendations for the implementation of an ethical control and reasoning system suitable for constraining lethal actions of autonomous robotic systems. Based upon extensions of existing deliberative/reactive autonomous robotic architectures, it includes recommendations for the suppression of unethical behavior. Through issues regarding the ultimate responsibility for the deployment of such systems, readers will gain a background on past, present, and possible future outcomes for autonomous robotic systems.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Introductionp. 1
Trends toward Lethalityp. 7
Weaponized Unmanned Ground Vehiclesp. 10
Weaponized Unmanned Aerial Vehiclesp. 21
Prospectsp. 26
Human Failings in the Battlefieldp. 29
Related Philosophical Thoughtp. 37
What People Think: Opinions on Lethal Autonomous Systemsp. 49
Survey Backgroundp. 50
Responsep. 51
Comparative Resultsp. 52
Discussionp. 55
Formalization for Ethical Controlp. 57
Formal Methods for Describing Behaviorp. 58
Range of Responses: Rp. 58
The Stimulus Domain: Sp. 58
The Behavioral Mapping: p. 60
Ethical Behaviorp. 62
Specific Issues for Lethality: What to Representp. 69
What Is Requiredp. 70
Laws of Warp. 71
Rules of Engagementp. 81
Standing Rules of Engagementp. 82
Rules of Engagement (Non-SROE)p. 84
Rules for the Use of Forcep. 86
ROE for Peace Enforcement Missionsp. 91
Representational Choices: How to Represent Ethics in a Lethal Robotp. 93
Underpinningsp. 95
Generalism-Reasoning from Moral Principlesp. 99
Deontic Logicp. 99
Utilitarian Methodsp. 102
Kantian Rule-Based Methodsp. 103
Particularism: Case-Based Reasoningp. 104
Ethical Decision Makingp. 108
Architectural Considerations for Governing Lethalityp. 115
Architectural Requirementsp. 119
Design Optionsp. 125
Ethical Governorp. 127
Ethical Behavioral Controlp. 133
Ethical Adaptorp. 138
After-Action Reflectionp. 138
Affective Restriction of Behaviorp. 140
Responsibility Advisorp. 143
Command Authorization for a Mission Involving Autonomous Lethal Forcep. 146
Design for Mission Command Authorizationp. 148
The Use of Ethical Overridesp. 149
Design for Overriding Ethical Controlp. 152
Example Scenarios for the Ethical Use of Forcep. 155
Taliban Muster in Cemeteryp. 157
"Apache Rules the Night"p. 162
Korean Demilitarized Zonep. 167
Urban Sniperp. 171
A Prototype Implementationp. 177
Infrastructurep. 177
A Prototype Implementation of the Ethical Governorp. 178
Ethical Constraintsp. 179
Evidential Reasoningp. 182
Constraint Applicationp. 182
Proportionality and Battlefield Carnagep. 185
Demonstration Scenario Overviewp. 188
Scenario 1-Suppressing Unethical Behaviorp. 190
Scenario 2-Maintaining Ethical Behavior While Minimizing Collateral Damagep. 192
Implementing the Responsibility Advisorp. 196
Establishing Responsibility When Tasking an Autonomous System Capable of Lethal Forcep. 196
Run-Time Responsibility Advising and Operator Overridesp. 202
Continuous Presentation of the Status of the Ethical Governorp. 203
Negative Overrides: Denying Permission to Fire in the Presence of Obligating Constraintsp. 205
Positive Overrides: Granting Permission to Fire in the Presence of Forbidding Ethical Constraintsp. 206
Summaryp. 209
Epiloguep. 211
Referencesp. 213
Relevant Laws of Warp. 225
Acronymsp. 243
Notationp. 245
Indexp. 247
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