Graphics for Learning : Proven Guidelines for Planning, Designing, and Evaluating Visuals in Training Materials

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-11-02
  • Publisher: Pfeiffer & Co

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This second edition of the bestselling book summarizes guidelines for best use of graphics for instructional materials, including multimedia, texts, classroom aids, and slides used for briefings. These guidelines are based on updated scientific research and contain illustrative examples including examples for readers without a background in psychology. The authors help trainers tie graphics into their lesson topics and include facts, concepts, processes, procedures, and principles. The book discusses technical and environmental issues (such as bandwidth or screen size) that will influence how instructional professionals can apply the guidelines.

Author Biography

Dr. Ruth Colvin Clark is an instructional psychologist with a specialty in design and development of effective workforce learning. She is the author of e-Learning and the Science of Instruction and her book, Building Expertise, was awarded Outstanding Instructional Communication from the International Society of Performance Improvement.

Chopeta Lyons has created award-winning print and online learning products during her twenty-five years of developing training solutions. She has directed teams of designers, writers, programmers, audio talent, graphic designers, and artists to create custom solutions for the training needs of numerous corporations and organizations. She is the author of several articles on e-learning and a college textbook, Discover Writing.

Table of Contents

On the Web
Foreword to the Second Edition
Introduction: Getting the Most from This Resource
The Foundation
The Power of Visuals
The Unrealized Potential of Visuals
What Is a Graphic?
Which Visuals Are Best? No Yellow Brick Road
Graphics in the Instructional Landscape
Three Views of Instructional Visuals
Three Views of Visuals
Communication Functions of Graphics
Graphics to Support Psychological Events of Learning
Our Guiding Principles
A Visual Design Model for Planning Graphics Systematically
Three Facets of Graphics
What Can Happen Without a Systematic Approach
What Happens When Instructional Designers Follow a Systematic Process
A Visual Design Model
How to Use Visuals to Support Psychological Learning Processes
Graphics and Learning
Not All Graphics Are Equal
Graphics and Learning
A Tale of Two Memories
Unique Brain Storage for Visual Information
How Learning Happens
How Graphics Promote Learning
Plan Graphics That Direct Attention
Attention, Learning, and Graphics
Use Signals to Focus Attention
Use Color and Contrast to Focus Attention
Use Motion Cues in Animation
Use Color to Improve Job Performance
Graphics and Divided Attention
Place Text Close to the Visuals It Describes
Avoid Distracting Visuals
Plan Visuals That Leverage Prior Knowledge
Prior Knowledge, Learning, and Graphics
Use Comparative Advance Organizers
Use Expository Advance Organizers
Avoid Seductive Details in Lesson Introductions
Plan Graphics That Minimize Irrelevant Mental Load
What Is Mental Load?
Use Graphics Rather Than Text for Special Content
Use Simpler Graphics for Deeper Learning
Use Animations to Teach Hands-On Skills
Explain Complex Graphics with Words in Audio
Use Words or Graphics Alone When Information Is Self-Explanatory
Use Previews and Overlays with Complex Visuals
Plan Graphics to Help Learners Build Mental Models
Mental Modeling, Learning, and Graphics
Use Organizational Graphics to Show Quantitative Relationships
Use Charts and Graphs to Communicate Quantitative Relationships
Use Transformational Visuals to Communicate Changes in Time or Space
Use Interpretive Visuals to Communicate Abstract Cause-and-Effect. Relationships
Use Animated Online Agents to Model Thinking Processes
Plan Graphics That Support Transfer of Learning
Transfer and Work Performance
Near- Versus Far-Transfer Tasks
Context Is King for Near-Transfer Tasks
Use Dynamic Visuals That Reflect Workplace Context for Procedures
Incorporate Workplace Context in 3D Worlds
Mental Models Are King in Far-Transfer Tasks
Use Static Visuals to Illustrate How Things Work
Use Dynamic Visuals for Interpersonal Skills
Use Varied Context Visual Examples for Deeper Understanding
Use Workplace Context Visuals for Immersive Learning Environments
Plan Graphics for Motivation and Learning
Motivation and Learning
Interest and Motivation
Use Dynamic Visuals That Display Work Concepts
Leverage Social Presence Through Learning Agents in Asynchronous Multimedia
Consider Using Relevant Trigger Visuals to Catch Initial Interest
Minimize Graphics Used Soley as Eye Candy
Plan Graphics to Leverage Learner Differences
Different Strokes for Different Folks?
Drop the Myth of Visual Learning Style
Emphasize Visuals for Beginners
Provide Just-in-Time Training to Help Learners Interpret Complex Visuals
Encourage All Learners to Process Visuals Effectively
How to Visualize Lesson Content
How to Visualize Procedures
What Are Procedures?
Teaching Procedures
Combine Representational and Transformational Visuals in Demonstrations
Demonstrate Procedures with Dynamic Visuals
Manage Mental Load
Use Visuals to Draw Attention to Warnings
Design Online Practice Exercises Effectively
How to Visualize Concepts
What Are Concepts?
Teaching Concepts
How to Visualize Concepts
Display Teaching Methods in a Contiguous Manner
Create Visual Counterexamples
Use Visual Analogies
Display Related Concepts Together
Use organizational Visuals for Related Concepts
Promote Learner Engagement with Concept Visuals
How to Visualize Facts
What Are Facts?
Teaching Facts
How to Help Learners to Visualize Facts
Use Representational Visuals Displayed in Job Context
Display Facts with Visual Contiguity
Use Organizational Visuals
Use Relational Visuals for Numeric Trends
Promote Engagement with Important Factual Visuals
How to Visualize Processes
What Are Processes?
Who Needs Process Knowledge?
Teaching Processes
How to Help Learners to Visualize Processes
Use Transformational Visuals That Show State Changes
Use Simpler Visuals to Promote Understanding
Manage Load When Presenting Process Visuals
Use Interpretive Visuals to Represent Abstract Processes
Promote Engagement with Process Visuals
How to Visualize Principles
What Are Principles?
What Are Principles?
Problem-Centered Learning Environments
Components of Problem-Centered Learning Environments
When to Consider Problem-Centered Learning
Inductive Learning from Case Examples
Teaching Principles as Laws or Theories
How to Visualize Principles
Use Representational Visuals for Problem-Centered Learning Components
Use Multimedia Dynamic Visuals for Case Scenarios
Use Animated Agents to Model Critical Thinking Skills
Use Graphic Design Devices to Manage Mental Load During Problem-Centered Learning
Analyze Video or Audio Recorded Work Samples
Engage Learners with Explanatory Visuals, Including Virtual Simulations
How to Plan and Communicate Your Visuals
Determine the Context
The Realities of the Workplace
What to Decide and When
Assess the Learning Landscape
Consider Production
Design Your Visual Approach
Getting the Right Artist
Designing the Visual Approach
Treatment Meeting
What to Consider
Rough It Out-Style and Available Real Estate
A Semi-Fictional Case Study
Visualize Individual Graphics
Creating Individual Visuals That Work
A Case Study Continued: Sanji's Graphic
Communicate and Lay Out Graphic Plans
Who Needs to Know
Communicating the Visual Approach, the "Look and Feel"
Communicating Ideas for the Development of Individual Graphics
Communicating Layout Plans
Communicating Graphics to Production Staff
Case Study: Sanji Talks to the Artist
Apply the Principles
The End-User System Application Training
The Investment Club's Financial Basics Training
About the Authors
List of Figures and Tables
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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