Great Philosophical Arguments An Introduction to Philosophy

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-07-11
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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A great deal of the satisfaction of studying philosophy lies in exploring its landmark arguments. Working from this premise,Great Philosophical Arguments: An Introduction to Philosophyfocuses on the debates that define and drive the field. Editor Lewis Vaughn presents seventy-eight readings--both classic selections and contemporary works--that are topically organized into six chapters: the existence of God, knowledge and skepticism, mind and body, free will and determinism, ethics, and contemporary ethical debates. The readings are grouped by argument into pro/con dialogues within each chapter. Each of the thirty-four arguments is introduced with a brief outline, which is followed by two to four essays presenting the classic statement of the argument, critiques and defenses of it, and discussions of related debates. FEATURES: * A substantial introductory chapter and extensive chapter introductions * Essay questions at the end of each argument section and chapter * Pedagogical features including boldfaced key terms, biographical text boxes, suggestions for further reading, and a glossary * An appendix on how to read and write argumentative essays * AnInstructor's Manual and Test Bank on CDfeaturing chapter summaries, reading summaries, PowerPoint-based lecture outlines, and test questions * ACompanion Website at www.oup.com/us/vaughncontaining study questions, interactive quizzes, flashcards, and helpful links

Author Biography

Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of numerous books, including Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Eighth Edition (2011), Classics of Philosophy, Third Edition (2010), Contemporary Moral Arguments (2010), The Power of Critical Thinking, Third Edition (2009), Bioethics (2008), and Writing Philosophy (2005), all published by Oxford University Press.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Philosophical Workp. 1
Back to Basicsp. 1
The Consolations of Philosophyp. 3
Box: Socratesp. 5
Philosophy and Argumentsp. 5
Key Termsp. 14
Plato: Socrates' Examined Lifep. 17
Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophyp. 32
Chapter 1 Essay Questionsp. 35
The Existence of Godp. 36
Key Termsp. 39
The Cosmological Argumentp. 39
Box: Thomas Aquinasp. 40
Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologicap. 42
J. L. Mackie: Critique of Cosmological Argumentsp. 43
William Lane Craig: The Kalam Cosmological Argumentp. 51
Avicenna: On the Nature of Godp. 57
Argument 1 Essay Questionsp. 58
The Design Argument from Analogyp. 59
William Paley: The Watch and the Watchmakerp. 60
David Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religionp. 62
Argument 2 Essay Questionsp. 72
The Design Argument from the Best Explanationp. 73
Richard Swinburne: The Best Explanation of Apparent Designp. 74
Lewis Vaughn: The Failure of Supernatural Hypothesesp. 81
Michael J. Behe: Intelligent Designp. 85
Philip Kitchen Living with Darwinp. 91
Argument 3 Essay Questionsp. 95
The Ontological Argumentp. 96
St. Anselm: Anselm's Proofp. 97
Immanuel Kant: Of the Impossibility of an Ontological Proofp. 100
William L. Rowe: The Problem with the Ontological Argumentp. 102
René Descartes: On the Ontological Argumentp. 112
Argument 4 Essay Questionsp. 113
The Argument from Miraclesp. 114
J. L. Mackie: Miracles and Testimonyp. 115
David Hume: Of Miraclesp. 125
Richard Swinburne: Miraclesp. 129
Argument 5 Essay Questionsp. 135
The Argument from Evilp. 135
William L. Rowe: The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheismp. 137
H. J. McCloskey: God and Evilp. 145
Alvin Plantinga: The Free Will Defensep. 157
John Hick: The Soul-Making Defensep. 160
Argument 6 Essay Questionsp. 165
Chapter 2 Essay Questionsp. 165
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 166
Knowledge and Skepticismp. 167
Key Termsp. 170
Descartes' Dream and Evil Genius Argumentsp. 171
René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation I)p. 172
Christopher Grau: Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The Matrixp. 175
Argument 7 Essay Questionsp. 182
Descartes Argument against Skepticismp. 182
René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation IV)p. 183
David Hume: Of Skepticism with Regard to the Sensesp. 188
Robert Audi: Against Skepticismp. 202
Argument 8 Essay Questionsp. 213
Berkeley's Argument against the Existence of Material Objectsp. 214
George Berkeley: Principles of Human Knowledgep. 215
John Locke: An Essay concerning Human Understandingp. 223
Bertrand Russell: Berkeley's Idealismp. 227
Argument 9 Essay Questionsp. 230
Hume's Argument against Inductionp. 230
Box: David Humep. 231
David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understandingp. 232
Wesley C. Salmon: The Problem of Inductionp. 242
Argument 10 Essay Questionsp. 255
Chapter 3 Essay Questionsp. 255
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 256
Mind and Bodyp. 257
Box: René Descartesp. 258
Key Termsp. 262
Descartes' Conceivability Argument for Dualismp. 262
René Descartes: Discourse on Methodp. 263
Paul M. Churchland: Dualismp. 264
Buddhist Writings: There Is No Egop. 273
Argument 11 Essay Questionsp. 275
Nagel's Bat Argument against Mind-Body Identityp. 275
Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?p. 276
J. J. C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processesp. 283
Argument 12 Essay Questionsp. 291
Chalmers' Zombie Argument against Materialismp. 292
David Chalmers: The Logical Possibility of Zombiesp. 293
Daniel C. Dennett: "Epiphenomenal" Qualia?p. 296
Argument 13 Essay Questionsp. 301
Block's Chinese Brain Argument against Functionalismp. 302
Ned Block: Troubles with Functionalismp. 303
Jerry A. Fodor: The Mind-Body Problemp. 308
Argument 14 Essay Questionsp. 316
Searle's Chinese Room Argument against Strong AIp. 317
John R. Searle: Is the Brains Mind a Computer Program?p. 318
William G. Lycan: Machine Consciousnessp. 326
Argument 15 Essay Questionsp. 331
Chapter 4 Essay Questionsp. 331
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 331
Free Will and Determinismp. 333
Key Termsp. 337
Argument for Hard Determinismp. 337
Baron d'Holbach: Of the System of Man's Free Agencyp. 339
Richard Taylor: Freedom and Determinismp. 343
Jean-Paul Sartre: Absolute Freedomp. 356
Argument 16 Essay Questionsp. 361
Indeterminist Argument for Free Willp. 361
Box: William Jamesp. 362
William James: The Dilemma of Determinismp. 363
Robert Kane: Free Will and Modern Sciencep. 371
Argument 17 Essay Questionsp. 373
Argument against Compatibilismp. 374
W. T. Stace: The Problem of Free Willp. 375
William L. Rowe: Two Concepts of Freedomp. 380
Harry G. Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Personp. 394
Peter van Inwagen: The Incompatibility of Free Will and Determinismp. 404
Argument 18 Essay Questionsp. 408
Argument against Libertarianismp. 408
Randolph Clarke: Toward a Credible Agent-Causal Account of Free Willp. 409
Galen Strawson: Libertarianism, Action, and Self-Determinationp. 419
Timothy O'Connor: Agent Causationp. 423
Argument 19 Essay Questionsp. 425
Chapter 5 Essay Questionsp. 425
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 425
Ethicsp. 427
Key Termsp. 437
Argument for Cultural Relativismp. 437
Ruth Benedict: The Case for Moral Relativismp. 438
Russ Shafer-Landau: Ethical Relativismp. 443
Argument 20 Essay Questionsp. 449
Argument against Ethical Egoismp. 449
Thomas Hobbes: Leviathanp. 450
Louis P. Pojman: A Critique of Ethical Egoismp. 457
Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoismp. 471
Argument 21 Essay Questionsp. 483
Argument against the Divine Command Theoryp. 483
Plato: Euthyphrop. 484
Russ Shafer-Landau: The Divine Command Theoryp. 486
Argument 22 Essay Questionsp. 489
Argument against Utilitarianismp. 489
Box: John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianismp. 490
E. F. Carritt: Criticisms of Utilitarianismp. 493
Argument 23 Essay Questionsp. 495
Argument against Kantian Ethicsp. 495
Immanuel Kant: Foundations of the Metaphysic of Moralsp. 496
William K. Frankena: Kant's Theoryp. 506
Virginia Held: The Ethics of Carep. 508
Argument 24 Essay Questionsp. 527
Chapter 6 Essay Questionsp. 527
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 527
Philosophy at Work: Contemporary Ethical Debatesp. 529
Abortionp. 529
Key Termsp. 532
Two Arguments against Abortionp. 532
John T. Noonan, Jr.: An Almost Absolute Value in Historyp. 534
Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoralp. 539
Two Arguments for Abortionp. 551
Mary Anne Warren: On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortionp. 553
Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortionp. 557
Abortion Essay Questionsp. 568
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 569
Euthanasiap. 569
Key Termsp. 572
Two Arguments against Euthanasiap. 572
Leon R. Kass: Why Doctors Must Not Killp. 574
Daniel Callahan: When Self-Determination Runs Amokp. 579
Two Arguments for Euthanasiap. 584
Dan W. Brock: Voluntary Active Euthanasiap. 586
James Rachels: Active and Passive Euthanasiap. 601
Euthanasia Essay Questionsp. 604
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 605
Global Hungerp. 605
Key Termsp. 607
Hardin's Argument against Aiding the Poorp. 608
Garrett Hardin: Living on a Lifeboatp. 609
William W. Murdoch and Allan Oaten: A Critique of Lifeboat Ethicsp. 620
Singer's Argument for Aiding the Poorp. 629
Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Moralityp. 630
Louis P. Pojman: World Hunger and Populationp. 638
Global Hunger Essay Questionsp. 649
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 649
Appendix: How to Read and Write Argumentative Essaysp. 651
Glossaryp. 661
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