9780340742310

Greenfield's Neuropathology

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780340742310

  • ISBN10:

    0340742313

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-07-18
  • Publisher: Hodder Education Publishers
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Announcing the new edition of the world's leading neuropathology reference. Building on the many changes introduced in the acclaimed 6th edition, the two-volume 7th edition of Greenfield's Neuropathology will continue to provide THE definitive account of neuropathology -encompassing all aspects from prenatal and developmental, through the major diseases including tumors, to degeneration and dementia. Coverage of the subject combines descriptive morphology with molecular biology, genetics, protein chemistry, and pathophysiology. Over 2000 high quality color and black and white illustrations complement the text throughout. Substantial changes have been made to this new edition, including a brand new chapter on Metabolic and Neurodegenerative Diseases of Childhood, and a completely new review of the neuropathology of psychiatric disorders. Many new contributors provide new insights and expertise -over 25% of the chapters have been written by a completely new author team, and 70% of chapters feature at least one new author. In addition to this, 40% of the illustrations are new to this edition.

Table of Contents

Contents of Volume I v
Contents of Volume II xii
List of contributors
xix
Foreword xxiii
Preface xxvii
Abbreviations xxix
The central neuron
1(74)
Constantino Sotelo
Antoine Triller
Introduction
1(1)
Life history of the neuron: the origin of the neuron and its maturation
1(12)
Neuronal proliferation during development
1(1)
Neuronal proliferation in adult nervous system: the neural stem cells
2(1)
Neuronal cell migration
3(9)
Neuronal cell migration and neuropathology
12(1)
The neuron as a polarized cell
13(17)
Soma, dendrite and axon: the three neuronal compartments
13(7)
Biochemical polarization of the neuron
20(7)
Axonal transport
27(3)
The synapse: historical background
30(1)
Chemical synapses
31(32)
The presynaptic element
31(3)
The synaptic cleft
34(1)
The postsynaptic element
34(3)
Synaptic taxonomy
37(2)
Synaptic release
39(5)
Synaptic receptors
44(12)
Paracrine signalling: volume transmission
56(1)
Coexistence of neuroactive substances in neurons
56(1)
Electrical synapses
57(6)
References
63(12)
Structure and function of glia in the central nervous system
75(48)
Martin Berry
Arthur M. Butt
Graham Wilkin
V. Hugh Perry
Introduction
75(1)
Macroglia
75(29)
Oligodendrocytes
75(11)
NG-2 glia
86(3)
Astrocytes
89(13)
Ependymal cells
102(2)
Microglia
104(7)
References
111(12)
Cellular pathology of the central nervous system
123(70)
Manuel B. Graeber
William F. Blakemore
Georg W. Kreutzberg
The neuron
123(14)
Neuronal cell death
123(3)
Regenerative response of motor neurons
126(6)
Pathology of dendrites
132(2)
Pathology of axons
134(1)
Neuronal vacuolation
135(1)
Physiological changes in neurons associated with ageing
136(1)
Molecular genetic basis of neuronal and glial pathology
136(1)
Reaction and responses of oligodendrocytes to injury
137(14)
Morphological changes associated with oligodendrocyte and myelin pathology
137(4)
oligodendrocyte pathology
141(2)
Common myelin artefacts
143(1)
The genesis of myelin pathology
144(4)
Schwann cell myelination of CNS axons
148(2)
The relationship of oligodendrocytes to other cells
150(1)
Astrocytes
151(6)
Basic cell biological parameters of reactive astrocytes
151(1)
Pathophysiology of astrocytes
151(6)
Ependyma
157(1)
Microglia
158(13)
The resting microglial cell
158(1)
Microglial turnover
158(1)
The general activation concept
159(8)
Microglial involvement in CNS diseases
167(4)
Perivascular cells and other brain macrophages
171(1)
Effects of irradiation on the nervous system
172(1)
Artefacts
173(1)
References
174(19)
Raised intracranial pressure, oedema and hydrocephalus
193(40)
James W. Ironside
John D. Pickard
Introduction
193(2)
Raised intracranial pressure
195(1)
ICP in the steady state
195(1)
Effects of changes in cerebral blood volume and CSF pressure
196(1)
Intracranial pressure-volume relationships
197(3)
Cerebral perfusion pressure
198(1)
The 'split brain'
198(1)
Waves of ICP
198(2)
Intracranial gradients of pressure
200(1)
The blood-brain barrier
200(3)
Brain swelling and oedema
203(6)
Congestive brain swelling
204(1)
Cerebral oedema
205(1)
Vasogenic oedema
205(1)
Cytotoxic or cellular oedema
206(1)
Hydrostatic oedema
206(1)
Interstitial oedema
207(1)
Hypo-osmotic oedema
207(1)
Spread and resolution of cerebral oedema
208(1)
Effects of cerebral oedema on neuronal function
208(1)
Papilloedema
209(1)
The pathology of intracranial expanding lesions
209(7)
Supratentorial expanding lesions
210(1)
Supracallosal subfalcine (or cingulate) hernia
211(1)
Tentorial (uncal or lateral transtentorial) hernia
211(2)
Central transtentorial herniation
213(1)
Haemorrhage and infarction of the midbrain and pons
213(1)
Tonsillar hernia (foraminal impaction, cerebellar cone)
214(1)
Diffuse brain swelling
215(1)
Infratentorial expanding lesions
215(1)
External cerebral herniae
215(1)
Other cranial effects of raised ICP
216(1)
Bony changes
216(1)
Clinical symptoms and signs of raised ICP and herniation
216(1)
Systemic sequelae of raised ICP
217(1)
Hydrocephalus
217(8)
Definitions
217(1)
Functional anatomy and physiology of the CSF pathway
218(1)
The meninges
218(2)
Distribution, formation and absorption of CSF
220(1)
Pathogenesis of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy
221(1)
Causes of hydrocephalus in man
222(1)
Normal-pressure hydrocephalus
222(2)
Benign intracranial hypertension (idiopathic, intracranial hypertension; pseudotumour, cerebri)
224(1)
References
225(8)
Hypoxia and related conditions
233(48)
Roland N. Auer
Garnette R. Sutherland
Introduction
233(1)
Oxygen delivery and metabolism
234(5)
Ventialtion
234(2)
Circulation
236(1)
Respiration
237(2)
Classification of hypoxia
239(10)
Hypoxaemia
240(1)
High-altitude hypoxia and brain damage
240(1)
Severe hypoxia other than at altitude
241(1)
Anaemia
241(1)
Stagnant hypoxia (cardiac arrest encephalopathy; transient global ischaemia)
242(1)
Transient global ischaemia: density and distribution of damage
242(2)
Hypoxia and ischaemia compared
244(3)
Non-perfused brain (respirator brain; permanent global ischaemia)
247(1)
Histotoxic hypoxia
248(1)
Carbon monoxide poisoning
249(1)
Mechanisms of brain damage in CO poisoning
249(1)
White-matter damage in CO poisoning
250(1)
Brain appearance in CO poisoning
250(1)
Air embolism and decompression sickness
250(1)
Selective neuronal necrosis
251(7)
Neurons and glia compared
251(1)
Excitotoxicity
252(1)
Molecular chaperone and heat-shock proteins
253(1)
Ischaemic preconditioning
253(1)
Nitric oxide
254(1)
Morphology of selective neuronal necrosis and infarction
254(1)
Dark neurons
255(1)
Delayed neuronal death
256(1)
Ischaemic apoptosis, caspases and neuronal cell suicide
257(1)
Relationship of selective neuronal necrosis to infaction
258(1)
Ischaemic neuroprotection
258(2)
Excitatory amino acid antagonism
258(1)
Hypothermia
258(1)
Insulin
259(1)
Hyperoxia
259(1)
Other measures protecting against ischaemia
259(1)
Hypoglycaemic brain damage
260(2)
History of hypoglucaemic brain damage
260(1)
Biochemical basis of hypoglycaemic brain damage
261(1)
Pharmacology of hypoglycaemic brain damage
261(1)
Morphology of hypoglycaemic brain damage
261(1)
Selective vulnerability
262(2)
Theories attempting to explain selective vulnerability
263(1)
References
264(17)
Vascular diseases
281(76)
Hannu Kalimo
Markku Kaste
Matti Haltia
Introduction
281(1)
Development and anatomy
281(5)
Development of cerebral vasculature
281(1)
Arterial blood supply
282(2)
Venous drainage
284(2)
Physiology of the cerebral circulation
286(1)
Definitions and epidemiology of vascular disorders of the central nervous system
286(2)
Stroke in general
286(1)
Stroke incidence rates
287(1)
Stroke mortality rates
287(1)
Risk factors for stroke
288(1)
Diseases affecting the blood vessels
288(29)
Atherosclerosis
288(4)
Hypertensive angiopathy
292(4)
Inflammatory diseases
296(6)
Aneurysms
302(6)
Vascular malformations
308(2)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy
310(2)
CADASIL
312(3)
Miscellaneous diseases of blood vessels
315(2)
Haematological disorders
317(4)
Thrombosis and antithrombosis
318(1)
Thrombophilia
318(1)
Antiphospholipid antibodies
319(1)
Polycythaemia and hyperviscosity
320(1)
Anaemias
320(1)
Platelet abnormalities
320(1)
Consequences of cerebrovascular disorders
321(21)
Cerebral ischaemia
321(13)
Intracranial haemorrhages
334(5)
Subarachnoid haemorrhage
339(3)
References
342(15)
Malformations
357(128)
Brian N. Harding
Andrew J. Copp
Introduction
357(1)
Principles of nervous system development
357(17)
Aetiology
358(8)
Pathogenesis
366(8)
A guide to interpreting the pathogenesis of malformations
374(2)
Pathology of malformations
376(85)
Neural tube defects: dysraphic disorders
376(6)
Chiari malformations
382(4)
disorders of forebrain induction
386(10)
Neuronal migration disorders
396(21)
Encephaloclastic defects
417(4)
Microcephaly
421(3)
Environmental factors
424(2)
Megalencephaly
426(1)
Hemimegalencephaly
426(1)
Anomalies of the wall of the lateral ventricles
427(1)
Malformations of the cerebellum
427(11)
Brainstem malformations
438(5)
Malformations of the spinal cord
443(2)
Syringobulbia
445(2)
Vascular malformations
447(4)
Arachnoid cysts
451(1)
Phakomatosis
452(5)
Hydrocephalus
457(4)
References
461(24)
Metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases of childhood
485(34)
Brian N. Harding
Robert Surtees
Introduction
485(1)
Grey-matter disorders
485(16)
Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood with liver disease)
485(4)
Rett's syndrome
489(1)
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD)
489(1)
Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome (neuroaxonal dystrophy with iron deposition or neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type I)
489(2)
Leukoencephalopathy
491(1)
Alexander's disease
491(3)
spongy leukodystrophy (Canavan's or van Bogaert-Bertrand disease)
494(1)
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
495(1)
Cockayne's syndrome
495(2)
Aicardi-Goutiers leukoencephalopathy
497(2)
Megalencephalic systic leukoencephalopathy
499(1)
Childhood ataxia with central hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome /vanishing white-matter disease
499(2)
Pigmentary type of orthochromatic leukodystrophy
501(1)
Inborn errors of intermediary metabolism
501(10)
The hyperphenylalaninaemic syndromes
501(1)
Phenylketonuria (phenylalanine 4-mono-oxygenase deficiency)
501(2)
Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiencies
503(1)
Non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia
503(1)
The homocystinurias
504(1)
Cystathionine β-synthase deficiency
504(1)
Remethylation defects
504(1)
Organic acid disorders
505(1)
Propionic acidaemias
506(1)
Methylmalonic acidaemias
506(1)
Maple syrup urine disease (branched chain oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex deficiency)
506(1)
Glutaric acidurial type 1
507(1)
Urea cycle disorders
507(2)
Congenital disorders of glycosylation
509(1)
CDG-la (phosphomannomutase deficiency)
509(1)
CDG-lla (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II deficiency)
509(2)
References
511(8)
Perinatal neuropathology
519(88)
Hannah C. Kinney
Dawan Duncan Armstrong
Introduction
519(1)
Brain growth
520(1)
Cellular reactions in the developing human CNS
521(14)
Neurons
521(8)
Astrocytes
529(1)
Oligodendrocytes and CNS myelination
530(3)
Microglia
533(2)
The ependyma
535(1)
Toxic and metabolic damage
535(1)
Hypoxia-ischaemia
535(1)
Grey-matter lesions
536(7)
Hypoxic-ischaemic neuronal cell injury
536(7)
White-matter lesions
543(8)
Periventricular leukomalacia
543(8)
Combined grey-and white-matter Lesions
551(3)
Parasagittal cerebral injury
551(1)
Neonatal 'stroke'
551(1)
Porencephaly
551(1)
Multicystic encephalopathy
551(1)
Prenatal exposure to maternal cocaine and intrauterine brain lesions
552(1)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and vascular-related lesions
552(1)
Congenital heart disease and vascular-related lesions
553(1)
Kernicterus
554(3)
Cerebral haemorrhages
557(3)
Intraventricular haemorrhage
557(3)
Infection
560(3)
Neonatal meningitis
560(2)
Meningitis in the infant
562(1)
Fungal infections
562(1)
TORCH infections
562(1)
Trauma
563(4)
Birth trauma
563(3)
Nerve injury
566(1)
Spinal cord injury
567(1)
Child abuse
567(3)
Neoplasia
570(3)
Musculoskeletal disorders
573(7)
Congenital myopathies
575(1)
Myasthenic syndromes
576(1)
Metabolic myopathies
576(1)
Muscular dystrophies
576(3)
Inflammatory myopathies
579(1)
Spinal muscular and neurogenic atrophies
580(1)
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
581(2)
Sudden infant death syndrome
583(3)
Neuropathology of the stillborn
586(4)
References
590(17)
Nutritional and metabolic disorders
607(46)
Clive Harper
Roger Butterworth
Malnutrition
607(2)
Vitamin deficiencies
609(23)
Thiamine
610(16)
Niacin
626(2)
Vitamin B12
628(2)
Folic acid
630(1)
Pyridoxine
631(1)
Riboflavin
632(1)
Systemic disorders
632(5)
Hepatic encephalopathy
632(5)
Uraemic encephalopathy
637(1)
Inherited metabolic defects
637(4)
Disorder of amino acid metabolism
637(3)
Prophyria
640(1)
References
641(12)
Lysosomal diseases
653(84)
Kinuko Suzuki
Kunihiko Suzuki
Introduction
653(1)
Sphingolipidoses
653(30)
Gangliosidoses
654(10)
Niemann-Pick disease types A and B
664(2)
Niemann-Pick disease types C and D
666(4)
Gaucher's disease
670(3)
Farber's disease
673(1)
Fabry's disease
673(2)
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) and multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD)
675(5)
Krabbe's disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy, GLD)
680(3)
Sphingolipid activator protein (SAP) deficiencies
683(1)
Mucopolysaccharidoses
683(10)
Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I, Hurler-Scheie)
684(1)
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II, Hunter)
685(4)
Mucopolysaccharidosis III (MPS III, Sanfilippo)
689(2)
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio A)
691(1)
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI, Maroteaux-Lamy)
692(1)
Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII, Sly)
692(1)
Glycoprotein disorders
693(7)
Sialidase (neuraminidase) deficiency (sialidosis, mucolipidosis)
693(1)
α-Mannosidosis and β-mannosidosis
694(2)
Fucosidosis
696(1)
Aspartylglycosaminuria (aspartylglucosaminuria)
697(1)
Schindler's disease (α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency)
697(2)
Galactosialidosis
699(1)
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL, Batten's disease)
700(8)
Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, Haltia-Santavuori disease)
701(2)
Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL, Jansky-Bielschowsky disease)
703(3)
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinolsis (JNCL, Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease)
706(1)
Adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscionsis ``(ANCL, Kufs' disease)
707(1)
Other variant types of NCL
708(1)
Miscellaneous lysosomal disorders
708(7)
I-Cell disease and pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy (mucolipidosis II and III)
708(1)
Mucolipidosis IV (ML IV)
709(2)
Disorders of lysosomal transporters
711(2)
Sialuria
713(1)
Glycogen storage disease type II: acid α-glucosidase (acid maltase) deficiency (Pompe's disease)
713(1)
Acid lipase deficiency (Wolman's disease, cholesteryl ester storage disease)
714(1)
References
715(22)
Peroxisonal and mitochondrial disorders
737(62)
James M. Powers
Darryl C. De Vivo
Introduction
737(1)
Peroxisomes and peroxisomal disorders
738(20)
Diagnosis
741(1)
General pathology and neuropathological overview of peroxisomal disorders
742(16)
Mitochondria and mitochondrial disorders
758(28)
Inheritance patterns
762(1)
Diagnosis
763(2)
General pathology and neuropathological overview of mitochondrial disorders
765(21)
References
786(13)
Neurotoxicology
799(24)
Doyle Graham
Thomas J. Montine
Introduction
799(1)
Neurotoxicants
799(2)
Catalogue of human neurotoxicants
800(1)
Neurotoxins
801(9)
Free radicals
801(1)
Excitatory amino acids
801(7)
Trace elements
808(1)
Lipid peroxidation products
808(1)
Advanced glycation endproducts
809(1)
Catechol metabolites
810(1)
Biochemical mechanisms of selected neurotoxicants
810(4)
Histotoxicants
811(1)
Neuronal cytotoxicants
812(1)
Axonotoxicants
813(1)
Toxicants as risk factors for neurological disease
814(1)
References
815(8)
Trauma
823(76)
David I. Graham
Tom A. Gennarelli
Tracy K. Mclntosh
Introduction
823(1)
Blunt head injury
824(58)
The genesis of blunt head injuries
824(1)
Experimental models of human blunt TBI
825(2)
The important models
827(1)
Current concepts of the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury
828(2)
Cellular and molecular consequences of TBI
830(6)
Investigation of head-injury patients
836(1)
Pathology of head injury
837(39)
Head injury in infancy and childhood
876(1)
Outcome after blunt head injury
877(3)
Missile head injury
880(2)
References
882(17)
Epilepsy
899(44)
Mrinalini Honavar
Brian S. Meldrum
Introduction
899(1)
Classification
899(1)
Epidemiology
900(1)
Death in epilepsy
901(1)
Genetics
902(2)
Symptomatic epilepsy
904(8)
Cerebral malformations
904(1)
Cortical dysplasia
905(3)
Vascular malformations
908(1)
Infections
909(1)
Parasitic infections
909(1)
Rasmussen's syndrome
909(2)
Trauma
911(1)
Tumours
911(1)
Changes secondary to epilepsy
912(10)
Epileptic brain damage
913(1)
Status epilepticus
914(4)
Febrile convulsions
918(1)
Mesial temporal sclerosis and complex partial seizures
919(1)
Epileptic focus studied by immunocytochemistry and molecular probes
920(2)
Pathogenesis and physiology of epilepsy
922(1)
Myoclonus epilepsy
922(2)
Neurosurgery and neurosurgical pathology
924(7)
Temporal lobectomy
925(3)
Cortical resection
928(1)
Neuroimaging
929(2)
References
931(12)
Ophthalmic neuropathology
943(40)
Philip J. Luthert
Susan Lightman
Introduction
943(1)
Practical issues
943(1)
Developmental abnormalities
944(5)
Normal development
944(1)
Malformations of the retina
945(1)
Malformations of the optic nerve
946(1)
Malformations of the orbit
946(1)
Vascular malformations
947(2)
Trauma
949(6)
Non-accidental injury
949(2)
Neoplasia
951(1)
Retinoblastoma
951(1)
Tumours of the optic nerve and nerve sheath
952(1)
Lymphoma
953(2)
Vascular disease
955(4)
Retinal ischaemia and neovascularization
955(3)
Retinal haemorrhages
958(1)
Cystoid macular oedema
958(1)
Ischaemic optic neuropathy and papilloedema
958(1)
Inflammatory and immune disease
959(4)
Infective retinitis
959(2)
Sarcoid
961(1)
Behcet's disease
961(1)
Optic neuritis and demyelination
962(1)
Vasculitis
962(1)
Paraneoplastic disease
962(1)
Degenerative disease
963(12)
Glaucoma
963(2)
Non-glaucomatous optic neuropathies
965(1)
Primary photoreceptor cell degeneration
966(4)
Acquired retinal degenerations
970(2)
Age-related macular degeneration
972(2)
Miscellaneous retinal and vitreo-retinal degenerations
974(1)
References
975(8)
Hypothalamus and pituitary
983(80)
Eva Horvath
Bernd W. Scheithauer
Kalman Kovacs
Ricardo V. Lloyd
Introduction
983(1)
Morphology and hormones of the normal hypothalamus and pituitary
983(19)
Embryology
983(3)
Regional anatomy
986(7)
Normal morphological variations
993(1)
Age-related changes in the pituitary and hypothalamus
994(1)
Functional cytomorphology of the normal adenohypophysis
995(5)
Hypothalamic hormones and their release
1000(1)
Hypothalamic posterior lobe-associated hormones
1000(1)
Anterior pituitary hormones
1001(1)
Pathology of the hypothalamus and pituitary
1002(49)
Disorders of hypothalamic and posterior pituitary hyperfunction
1002(1)
Hypothalamic and posterior pituitary hypofunction
1003(3)
Malformations and hamartomas of the pituitary and hypothalamus
1006(3)
Neoplasms and related lesions of the hypothalamus, posterior pituitary and sellar region
1009(5)
Inflammatory lesions
1014(5)
Infectious disease
1019(1)
Metabolic disorders
1020(2)
Haemochromatosis
1022(1)
Degenerative diseases
1022(1)
Vascular diseases
1022(2)
Physical injury
1024(3)
Pituitary adenomas
1027(15)
Clinically non-functioning adenomas
1042(1)
Plurihormonality in pituitary adenomas
1043(3)
Pituitary carcinomas
1046(3)
Pituitary hyperplasia
1049(2)
References
1051(12)
Regional neuropathology: diseases of the spinal cord and vertebral column
1063(40)
Umberto De Girolami
Matthew P. Frosch
Charles H. Tator
Vascular disease of the spinal cord
1063(10)
Normal anatomy of the blood supply of the spinal cord
1063(1)
Occlusive vascular disease: ischaemic myelopathy
1064(9)
Compression of the spinal cord
1073(1)
Diseases of the vertebral column affecting the spinal cord
1074(8)
Intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis
1074(5)
Bony abnormalities of the region of the foramen magnum
1079(1)
Rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis
1079(1)
Other diseases of bone with spinal cord involvement
1080(1)
Infectious and other disease of the spine with spinal cord involvement
1081(1)
Trauma
1082(11)
General remarks, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of spinal cord trauma
1082(1)
Pathophysiology of experimental and human acute spinal cord injury
1083(9)
Chronic adhesive spinal arachnoiditis
1092(1)
Additional diseases of the spinal cord discussed elsewhere
1093(1)
References
1093(10)
Index 1103
Contents of Volume I v
Contents of Volume II xii
List of contributors
xix
Foreword xxiii
Preface xxvii
Abbreviations xxix
Viral diseases
1(106)
Seth Love
Clayton A. Wiley
Introduction
1(1)
General principles
1(9)
Viral taxonomy
2(1)
Biochemical and biophysical properties
2(1)
General strategies of viral replication
2(5)
General pathological features of viral infections of the CNS
7(3)
Acute viral infections
10(40)
Aseptic meningitis
10(1)
Poliomyelitis and polioencephalitis
10(6)
Post-polio syndrome
16(1)
Herpes viruses
16(2)
Herpes simplex virus
18(7)
Varicella-zoster virus
25(4)
Epstein-Barr virus
29(2)
Cytomegalovirus
31(3)
Herpesvirus
34(2)
Adenovirus
36(1)
Paramyxoviruses
36(2)
Rubella
38(2)
Rabies
40(3)
Arboviruses
43(7)
Subacute and chronic viral infections
50(1)
Chronic enteroviral encephalomyelitis
50(1)
Subacute measles encephalitides
51(19)
Measles inclusion body encephalitis
51(1)
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
52(3)
Progressive rubella panencephalitis
55(1)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
55(2)
Retroviruses
57(9)
Encephalitis lethargica and postencephalitic parkinsonism
66(2)
Borna
68(2)
References
70(37)
Parasitic and fungal diseases
107(44)
Gareth Turner
Francesco Scaravilli
Introduction
107(1)
Protozoal infections
107(14)
Section 1: Amoebiasis
108(2)
Section 2: Cerebral malaria
110(4)
Section 3: Toxoplasmosis
114(5)
Section 4: Trypanosomiasis
119(2)
Metazoal infections
121(11)
Cestodes
122(4)
Trematode infections
126(3)
Nematodes
129(3)
Infections by fungi
132(9)
Aspergillosis
133(1)
Blastomycosis
134(1)
Candidiasis
135(1)
Chromoblastomycosis
135(1)
Coccidioidomycosis
136(1)
Cryptococcosis
137(2)
Histoplasmosis
139(1)
Pseudoallescheriosis
140(1)
Zygomycosis
140(1)
Other mycoses
141(1)
References
141(10)
Bacterial infections of the central nervous system
151(44)
Francoise Gray
Jean-Michel Alonso
Introduction
151(1)
Anatomy
151(1)
Pathogenesis of bacterial infection
152(4)
Primary versus opportunistic bacterial infections
152(1)
Virulence and pathogenicity
153(1)
Extracellular and intracellular bacterial pathogens
154(1)
Pathophysiology of bacterial infections of the CNS
155(1)
Predisposing factors to bacterial infections
156(1)
Pyogenic infections
156(15)
Purulent leptomeningitis or acute bacterial meningitis
156(9)
Subdural abscess or empyema
165(1)
Epidural abscess
166(1)
Brain abscess
167(4)
Septic embolism
171(1)
Suppurative intracranial phlebitis
171(1)
Actinomycetal infections
171(7)
Tuberculous infection
171(4)
Atypical mycobacteriosis
175(1)
Whipple's disease
176(1)
Actinomycosis
177(1)
Nocardiosis
178(1)
Spirochaetal infections
178(7)
Neurosyphilis
178(6)
Borreliosis
184(1)
Leptospirosis
184(1)
Brucellosis
185(1)
Mycoplasma infections
185(1)
Sarcoidosis
186(1)
Toxin-induced neurological disease
187(2)
Diphtheria
187(1)
Infection by bacteria of the genus Clostridium: tetanus and botulism
187(1)
Shigellosis
188(1)
Miscellaneous
188(1)
References
189(6)
Ageing and dementia
195(78)
Suzanne S. Mirra
Bradley T. Hyman
Ageing of the brain
195(3)
Gross changes, cortical atrophy and white-matter changes
196(1)
Microscopic changes in old age
196(2)
Dementia
198(2)
Definition of dementia
198(1)
Epidemiological factors
198(1)
Ageing and AD
199(1)
Alzheimer's disease
200(26)
Biomarkers
200(1)
Neurotransmitters and neurotropic factors
200(1)
Gross or external changes in Alzheimer's disease
201(2)
Histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy
203(15)
Early pathology in AD and clinical correlates
218(1)
Neuropathological diagnosis of AD
218(3)
Effect of coexisting pathologies
221(1)
Pathogenic considerations
221(1)
Genetic factors
221(5)
Tau-associated disorders (tauopathies)
226(7)
Tau
226(1)
Pick's disease
227(3)
Progressive supranuclear palsy
230(1)
Corticobasal degeneration
231(1)
Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17
232(1)
Other frontotemporal dementias
233(2)
Hereditary dysphasic dementia
233(1)
Primary progressive aphasia
233(1)
Frontal lobe dementia
234(1)
Motor neuron disease with dementia
234(1)
Dementia lacking distinctive histology
234(1)
Progressive subcortical gliosis
234(1)
Hippocampal sclerosis
235(1)
Argyrophilic grain disease (dementia with grains)
235(1)
Disorders with Lewy bodies
235(4)
Nosological considerations
235(1)
DLB and overlap with AD
235(1)
Parkinson's disease (PD) with dementia
236(1)
Lewy bodies
237(1)
α-Synuclein
238(1)
Lewy neurites
239(1)
ALS-parkinsonism-dementia complex
239(1)
Familial dementia associated with neuroserpin mutations
240(1)
Thalamic dementia
241(1)
Vascular dementia
241(4)
Confounding factors
241(1)
Epidemiological considerations
241(1)
Dementia associated with infarcts, multi-infarct dementia and ischaemic vascular dementia
241(1)
Lacunes and etat lacunaire
242(1)
Binswanger's disease
243(1)
Overlap between vascular dementia and AD
243(2)
Standardization of approach to neuropathological evaluation
245(1)
Vascular dementia and minority elders
245(1)
Familial disorders with CAA
245(1)
Hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis, Duth type (HCHWA-D)
245(1)
Hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis, Icelandic type (HCHWA-I)
246(1)
Gelsolin-related amyloidosis (familial amyloidosis, Finnish type)
246(1)
British dementia with amyloid angiopathy
246(1)
Familial Danish dementia
246(1)
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
246(1)
References
247(26)
Prior diseases
273(52)
Stephen J. DeArmond
Hans A. Kretzschmar
Stanley B. Prusiner
Introduction and overview
273(5)
Overview
273(3)
Terminology
276(1)
Categories of prion disease
277(1)
Why do prion diseases occur?
277(1)
Prion diseases in animals
278(2)
Scrapie
278(2)
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and related disorders
280(1)
Prion diseases in man
280(19)
Kuru
280(2)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease syndromes
282(8)
Fatal insomnia syndromes
290(2)
Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome
292(7)
Molecular classification of CJD-like diseases: human prion strains
299(2)
Physical characteristics of Prpsc: human prion strains
299(1)
Molecular classification of sporadic CJD and FI
300(1)
Definitive diagnosis of CJD and FI
301(4)
Myopathies related to the prion protein
305(1)
PrP overexpression myopathy in transgenic mice
305(1)
Inclusion body myositis in man
305(1)
Prion biology
306(7)
The 'Prion' or 'Protein-only' hypothesis
306(1)
Evolution of the prion hypothesis
306(1)
The PrP amino-acid sequence can adopt one of two different conformations
306(1)
PrPsc is derived from PrPc
307(1)
PrP conformation and the existence of multiple prion strains
307(3)
Differential targeting of neurons
310(1)
Synthetic prions
311(2)
Mechanisms of nerve cell dysfunction, degeneration and death
313(3)
Neurodegeneration requires both conversion of PrPc to PrPsc and accumulation of PrPsc
313(1)
A multistep hypothesis of neurodegeneration
313(1)
PrPsc and plasma membrance dysfunction
314(1)
Endosomal-lysosomal abnormalities and neuronal degeneration
315(1)
Selective vulnerability of neurons in prion diseases
316(1)
Neuronal dysfunction, degeneration and death occur as a multistep process
316(1)
Risk of prion disease to health-care workers
316(2)
Sites of PrPsc accumulation in the body
316(1)
CJD is not an unusual risk to health-care workers
317(1)
Precautions and decontamination procedures
317(1)
References
318(7)
Disorders of movement and system degenerations
325(106)
James S. Lowe
Nigel Leigh
Introduction
325(3)
Anatomy and function of basal ganglia
328(1)
Trauma and movement disorders
329(1)
Akinetic rigid movement disorders
329(22)
Parkinsonism
329(22)
Conditions characterized by abnormal stiffness
351(1)
Hyperkinetic movement disorders
351(8)
Chorea
351(6)
Myoclonus
357(1)
Hemiballismus and ballism
357(1)
Dystonia
357(2)
Tic disorders
359(1)
Degenerative ataxic disorders
359(13)
Classification of the spinocerebellar ataxias
359(2)
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias
361(4)
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia
365(6)
X-linked ataxias
371(1)
Sporadic degenerative ataxia
371(1)
Motor neuron disorders
372(16)
Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
372(11)
Postpolio syndrome
383(1)
X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy (Kennedy's disease)
383(1)
Spinal muscular atrophy
384(1)
Autosomal recessive SMA
384(2)
Adult-onset SMA
386(1)
Hereditary progressive bulbar palsy
386(1)
Hereditary spastic paraparesis
387(1)
Miscellaneous disorders affecting the basal ganglia
388(6)
Thalamic lesions
388(1)
Pallidal degenerations
389(1)
Neuroaxonal dystrophy and related disorders
389(2)
Secondary neuroaxonal dystrophy
391(1)
Calcification of the basal ganglia
391(2)
Striatal necrosis
393(1)
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
394(1)
Abnormalities of central autonomic systems
394(1)
Central autonomic failure
395(1)
References
395(36)
Neuropathology of psychiatric disorders
431(40)
Margaret M. Esiri
Tim J. Crow
Introduction
431(1)
Categories and dimensions: the kraepelinian dichotomy of psychosis and the significance of schneiderian symptoms
431(1)
Schizophrenic psychoses
432(21)
Epidemiology of schizophrenia
433(1)
Natural history of schizophrenia
434(1)
Aetiological and pathophysiological hypotheses
435(1)
Language and the human brain
436(2)
Brain structure in schizophrenia
438(14)
Dyskinesias in schizophrenia
452(1)
Animal models of schizophrenia
452(1)
Interpretation of the brain changes in schizophrenia
452(1)
Affective psychoses
453(2)
Brain structure
453(2)
Neurochemical changes in affective disorder
455(1)
Depression in Alzheimer's disease
455(1)
Other disorders
455(3)
Autism
455(1)
Dyslexia
456(1)
Attention deficit disorder
457(1)
Schizotypal personality disorder
457(1)
Conclusions
458(1)
References
458(13)
Demyelinating diseases
471(206)
John W. Prineas
W. Ian McDonald
Robin J.M. Franklin
Introduction
471(1)
Multiple sclerosis
472(54)
Aetiology
473(1)
Clinical features
473(1)
Diagnosis
474(1)
Pathology
475(1)
Chronic multiple sclerosis
476(20)
Acute multiple sclerosis (Marburg type)
496(10)
Balo type (concentric sclerosis)
506(3)
Schilder type
509(1)
Devic type (neuromyelitis optica; neuropticomyelite)
509(1)
Acute necrotic myelopathy
510(1)
Multiple sclerosis diagnosed by biopsy
511(1)
Clinicopathological correlation
511(4)
Pathogenesis
515(8)
Perivenous encephalomyelitis (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, postinfectious encephalomyelitis, postvaccinal encephalomyelitis, acute perivascular myelinoclasis)
523(1)
Pathology
524(2)
Pathogenesis
526(1)
Rabies postvaccinal encephalmyelitis
526(1)
Acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (Hurst's disease)
527(3)
Pathology
527(1)
Pathogenesis
528(1)
Relationship between multiple sclerosis and perivenous encephalomyelitis
528(2)
Experimental and naturally occurring demyelinating diseases in animals
530(1)
Models of demyelination
531(4)
Chemical models
531(1)
Viral models
532(1)
Genetic models
533(1)
Physical injury models
534(1)
References
535(16)
Peripheral nerves
Peter J. Dyck
P. James B. Dyck
Caterina Giannini
Zarife Sahenk
Anthony J. Windebank
JaNean Engelstad
Normal structure of the peripheral nervous system
551(10)
General organization
551(1)
Cell bodies
552(1)
Cell processes
553(2)
Specialized nerve endings
555(1)
Ultrastructure of peripheral nerve fibres
556(1)
Myelinated fibre structure
556(4)
Unmyelinated fibre structure
560(1)
Neurobiology
561(11)
Compound nerve action potentials of the sural nerve in vitro
561(2)
Metabolic requirements, blood flow and microenvironmental differences
563(2)
Axonal transport
565(1)
Bidirectional fast transport
566(2)
Slow transport
568(1)
Morphological correlates of transport impairment
568(3)
Growth and regulatory factors
571(1)
Nerve biopsy
572(1)
Teased fibres
573(5)
Histological technique
573(1)
Teasing technique
573(1)
Sampling
573(1)
Evaluation of teased fibres
573(2)
Frequency of pathological abnormalities of teased fibres
575(1)
Frequency of graded pathological abnormalities in control nerves
575(1)
Typical patterns of teased nerve fibre abnormalities by disease process
575(2)
Measurement of internode length and diameter
577(1)
Morphometry and stereology of neurons
578(2)
Inadequate histogical preparations and artefacts
580(2)
Clinical anatomicopathological patterns of neuropathy helpful in differential diagnosis
582(1)
Overview of the basis and classification of fibre alteration
582(5)
Unique neurobiology influencing the interpretation of pathological reactions
582(2)
Characterizing steps in the classification of pathological alterations
584(2)
What type of Schwann cell (myelin) pathological alterations are occurring?
586(1)
Axonal nerve fibre alterations
587(15)
Wallerian degeneration
587(2)
Degeneration of unmyelinated axons
589(1)
Axonal regeneration
590(1)
Axonal dystrophy
591(4)
Axonal atrophy
595(2)
Neural and axonal maldevelopment or atrophy
597(1)
Axonal dystrophy and axonal atrophy with axonal degeneration
597(2)
Retrograde axonal atrophy from permanent axotomy
599(1)
Axonal atrophy from abnormality of Schwann cells
599(3)
Schwann cell alterations
602(1)
Primary demyelination: clinical, antibody, inflammatory cell, genetic and toxic
602(1)
Secondary demyelination
602(1)
Perineurial alterations
603(2)
Epineurial alterations
605(1)
Nerve injury and repair
605(3)
Compression
607(1)
Clean transection
608(1)
Stretch and laceration injuries
608(1)
Changes in basement membrance tubes in permanent nerve transection
608(1)
Traumatic neuroma
608(1)
Infection
608(7)
Syphilis
610(1)
Leprosy
610(3)
Human immunodeficiency virus
613(1)
Cytomegalovirus
614(1)
Lyme borreliosis
614(1)
Herpes simplex and zoster
615(1)
Inflammation and altered immunity
615(13)
Classification
615(1)
Plasma autoantibodies
615(1)
Inflammatory-immune neuropathies
615(2)
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
617(2)
Atypical varieties of polyradiculoneuropathy simulating CIDP
619(1)
IgG and IgA MGUS neuropathies IgM monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (paraprotein neuropathies)
620(1)
Multifocal motor neuropathy and conduction block
620(1)
HIV and CIDP
620(1)
Immune sensory or sensorimotor neuropathy and inflammatory polyganglionopathies
620(1)
Inflammatory demyelinating sensory radiculopathy or polyneuropathy
621(1)
Immune (idiopathic) sensory polyneuropathy
621(1)
Granulomatous inflammation (sarcoidosis)
621(7)
Inherited neuropathies
628(11)
Classification
628(1)
The system atrophies
629(3)
Peroxisomal disorders
632(1)
Lysosomal storage diseases
632(5)
Lipoprotein abnormalities
637(1)
Inherited amyloidosis with neuropathy
637(2)
Glycogen storage diseases
639(1)
Inherited tumours
639(1)
Metabolic neuropathies
639(7)
Diabetic neuropathies
639(5)
Uraemic neuropathy
644(1)
Hypothyroid neuropathy
644(1)
Amyloidosis
644(1)
Hepatic neuropathy
645(1)
Porphyria
645(1)
Toxic neuropathies
646(7)
Cellular mechanisms of neurotoxic injury
646(1)
Neurotoxicity induced by therapeutic agents
647(3)
Neurotoxicity induced by industrial agents
650(3)
Ischaemic and hypoxic injury of nerves
653(5)
Pathological alterations from ischaemia are not the same as those from compression
653(1)
Three-dimensional correlative studies of occluded blood vessels and fibre injury in human neuropathy
653(1)
Experimental models of hypoxic-ischaemic injury
654(2)
Histological hallmarks of ischaemic injury
656(1)
Renaut's corpuscles are not nerve infarcts
656(1)
Necrotizing vasculitis
657(1)
Peripheral vascular disease of the nerves
658(1)
Carcinoma, lymphocyte and plasma cell proliferative disease, leukaemia and paraneoplastic neuropathy
658(2)
Paraneoplastic neuropathies
658(1)
Osteosclerotic myeloma and POEMS
658(1)
Castleman's disease and neuropathy
659(1)
Multiple myeloma
659(1)
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
659(1)
Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
659(1)
Leukaemia
659(1)
Cryoglobulinaemia
659(1)
References
660(17)
Diseases of muscle
677(90)
Roy O. Weller
William J.K. Cumming
Mike Mahon
David W. Ellison
Introduction
677(4)
Websites for muscle diseases
678(3)
Normal muscle
681(12)
Anatomy
681(1)
Microscopic anatomy
682(2)
Structure and function of muscle fibres
684(4)
Histology, histochemistry and muscle fibre typing
688(3)
Immunocytochemistry
691(1)
Development of muscle
691(1)
Age changes in muscle
692(1)
General pathology of muscle disease
693(8)
Denervation and reinnervation
693(2)
Disorders of neuromuscular transmission
695(1)
Muscle cell necrosis and regeneration
696(2)
Histological indicators of past muscle damage
698(2)
Cytoarchitectural changes and inclusions in muscle fibres
700(1)
Clinical aspects of neuromuscular disease
701(6)
Signs and symptoms
701(3)
Investigation of a patient with neuromuscular disease
704(3)
Pathology of specific muscle diseases Classification
707(1)
Neurogenic muscle diseases
708(7)
Disorders of motor neurons
708(6)
Peripheral neuropathies
714(1)
Disorders of neuromuscular transmission
715(2)
Myasthenia gravis
715(1)
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
716(1)
Acquired neuromyotonia (Isaac's syndrome)
717(1)
Primary muscle diseases: myopathies
717(39)
Destructive myopathies
717(14)
Non-destructive myopathies
731(25)
References
756(11)
Tumours of the nervous system
767(286)
Peter L. Lantos
David N. Louis
Marc K. Rosenblum
Paul Kleihues
Epidemiology and aetiology
767(5)
Incidence and mortality
767(1)
Survival of patients with brain tumours
768(1)
Age and sex
768(1)
Aetiology
769(3)
Experimentally induced tumours
772(7)
Chemical carcinogens
772(2)
Oncogenic viruses and viral oncogenes
774(3)
Transgenic mouse models with altered expression of transformation associated genes
777(1)
Co-operation of oncogenes and interaction with chemical carcinogens
778(1)
Significance of animal models for human neuro-oncogenesis
779(1)
Classification and grading
779(3)
Astrocytic tumours
780(1)
Oligodendroglial, ependymal and choroid plexus tumours
780(1)
Glial tumours of uncertain origin
780(1)
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours
781(1)
Embryonal tumours
781(1)
Tumours of the cranial and peripheral nerves
781(1)
Meningiomas
781(1)
Tumours of the neuroepithelial tissue
782(115)
Astrocytic tumours
782(28)
Oligodendroglial tumours
810(11)
Oligoastrocytomas and other mixed gliomas
821(3)
Ependymal tumours
824(10)
Tumours of the choroid plexus
834(5)
Glial tumours of uncertain origin
839(4)
Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours
843(25)
Tumours of the pineal region
868(1)
Pineal parenchymal tumours
868(5)
Non-neoplastic lesions
873(1)
Embryonal tumours
873(24)
Tumours of the peripheral nerves
897(38)
Schwannomas (neurilemmoma; neurinoma)
899(3)
Neurofibromas
902(2)
Perineuriomas
904(1)
Nerve sheath myxomas and neurothekeomas
905(1)
Granular cell tumours
905(1)
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours
906(3)
Other peripheral nerve sheath tumours
909(1)
Tumours of the meninges
909(1)
Tumours of the meningothelial cells
909(17)
Mesenchymal, non-meningothelial tumours
926(5)
Primary melanocytic lesions
931(2)
Tumours of uncertain histogenesis
933(2)
Hereditary tumour syndromes
935(9)
Neurofibromatosis
935(5)
Von Hippel-Lindau disease
940(1)
Tuberous sclerosis
941(1)
Li-Fraumeni syndrome
942(1)
Cowden's syndrome
943(1)
Turcot's syndrome
943(1)
Gorlin's syndrome
943(1)
Other hereditary brain tumour syndromes
944(1)
Germ-cell tumours
944(6)
Germinomas
945(2)
Teratomas
947(1)
Yolk sac tumours
947(2)
Embryonal carcinomas
949(1)
Choriocarcinomas
949(1)
Mixed germ-cell tumours
949(1)
Lymphomas
950(10)
Primary malignant lymphomas
950(8)
Secondary lymphomas
958(1)
Plasma cell tumours
959(1)
Chordomas
960(4)
Cysts and tumour-like conditions
964(7)
Epidermoid cysts
964(1)
Dermoid cysts
965(1)
Colloid cysts
966(2)
Neurenteric (enterogenous) cysts
968(1)
Neuroepithelial cysts
969(1)
Nasal glial heterotopia
970(1)
Plasma cell granuloma
971(1)
Metastatic tumours
971(4)
General aspects of metastatic tumours
971(3)
Meningeal carcinomatosis
974(1)
Paraneoplastic syndromes
975(5)
General and pathogenic issues
975(1)
Paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy/encephalomyelitis
975(3)
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration
978(1)
Paraneoplastic opsoclonus/myoclonus
978(2)
References
980(73)
Index 1053

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