9781580081757

Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781580081757

  • ISBN10:

    1580081754

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2000-12-01
  • Publisher: Random House

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Summary

After years of living in awe of the mysterious fungi known as mushrooms-chefs, health enthusiasts, and home cooks alike can't get enough of these rich, delicate morsels. With updated production techniques for home and commercial cultivation, detailed growth parameters for 31 mushroom species, a trouble-shooting guide, and handy gardening tips, this revised and updated handbook will make your mycological landscapes the envy of the neighborhood.

Author Biography

PAUL STAMETS is the founder of Fungi Perfecti and codirector and founder of the Rainforest Mushroom Genome and Mycodiversity Preservation Project. He is the author of two seminal textbooks, The Mushroom Cultivator and GROWING GOURMET AND MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS, has been published in numerous journals, and is presenting more lectures on mycology than he can keep track of. An advisor and consultant to the Program for Integrative Medicine at the University of Arizona Medical School and the 1998 recipient of the Collective Heritage Institute’s Bioneers Award, Stamets lives in Kamilche Point, Washington with his collection of more than 250 medicinal mushroom cultures.

Table of Contents

Foreword xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Introduction xvii
Mushrooms, Civilization, and History
1(4)
The Role of Mushrooms in Nature
5(12)
The Mycorrhizal Gourmet Mushrooms: Matsutake, Boletus, Chanterelles, and Truffles
5(4)
Parasitic Mushrooms: Blights of the Forest
9(2)
Saprophytic Mushrooms: The Decomposers
11(2)
The Global Environmental Shift and the Loss of Species Diversity
13(1)
Catastrophia: Nature as a Substrate Supplier
14(1)
Mushrooms and Toxic Wastes
14(1)
Mushroom Mycelium and Mycofiltration
15(2)
Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation
17(4)
Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes
21(18)
Methods of Mushroom Culture
24(1)
Spore-Mass Inoculation
24(1)
Transplantation: Mining Mycelium from Wild Patches
25(1)
Inoculating Outdoor Substrates with Pure Cultured Spawn
26(3)
When to Inoculate an Outdoor Mushroom Patch
29(1)
Site Location of a Mushroom Patch
29(1)
Stumps as Platforms for Growing Mushrooms
29(4)
Log Culture
33(6)
Permaculture with a Mycological Twist: The Stametsian Model for a Synergistic Mycosphere
39(6)
Materials for Formulating a Fruiting Substrate
45(10)
Raw Materials
46(1)
Suitable Wood Types: Candidate Tree Species
46(4)
Cereal Straws
50(1)
Paper Products: Newspaper, Cardboard, Books
51(1)
Corncobs and Cornstalks
51(1)
Coffee and Banana Plants
52(1)
Sugarcane Bagasse
52(1)
Seed Hulls
52(1)
Soybean Roughage (Okara)
52(1)
Supplements
53(1)
Structure of the Habitat
54(1)
Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield
55(4)
Homemade vs. Commercial Spawn
59(2)
The Mushroom Life Cycle
61(12)
The Six Vectors of Contamination
73(6)
Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture
79(6)
Overview of Techniques for Cultivating Mushrooms
82(3)
Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media
85(12)
Preparing Nutrified Agar Media
85(2)
Pouring Agar Media
87(1)
Starting a Mushroom Strain by Cloning
88(3)
Cloning Wild vs. Cultivated Mushrooms
91(1)
How to Collect Spores
91(1)
Germinating Spores
92(3)
Purifying a Culture
95(2)
The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains
97(12)
Preserving the Culture Library
97(2)
The Stamets ``P'' Value System
99(2)
Iconic Types of Mushroom Mycelium
101(7)
The Event of Volunteer Primordia on Nutrified Agar Media
108(1)
Evaluating a Mushroom Strain
109(10)
Features for Evaluating and Selecting a Mushroom Strain
110(9)
Generating Grain Spawn
119(26)
Formulas for Creating Grain Spawn
121(2)
First-Generation Grain Spawn Masters
123(3)
Second-and Third-Generation Grain Spawn
126(3)
Autoclavable Spawn Bags
129(4)
Liquid-inoculation Techniques
133(1)
Spore-Mass Inoculation
133(4)
Liquid-inoculation Techniques: Mycelial Fragmentation and Fermentation
137(4)
Pelletized (Granular) Spawn
141(1)
Matching the Spawn with the Substrate: Critical Choices on the Mycelial Path
142(1)
Spawn Storage
143(2)
Creating Sawdust Spawn
145(4)
Growing Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust
149(18)
The Supplemented Sawdust ``Fruiting''' Formula: Creating the Production Block
150(2)
Testing for Moisture Content
152(1)
Choosing a Sterilizer, aka Retort or Autoclave
153(1)
Sterilization of Supplemented Substrates
154(3)
Post-Autoclaving
157(1)
Unloading the Autoclave
158(1)
Atmospheric Steam Sterilization of Sawdust Substrates
158(2)
Inoculation of Supplemented Sawdust: Creating the Production Block
160(4)
Incubation of the Production Blocks
164(1)
Achieving Full Colonization on Supplemented Sawdust
165(1)
Handling the Blocks Post-Full Colonization
166(1)
Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products
167(12)
Alternative Fruiting Formulas
168(1)
Heat-Treating the Bulk Substrate
169(1)
The Hot Water Bath Method: Submerged Pasteurization
170(1)
The ``Phase I'' Chamber: Steam Pasteurization
171(4)
Alternative Methods for Rendering Straw and Other Bulk Materials for Cultivation
175(1)
The Hydrated Lime Bath
175(1)
The Bleach Bath
175(1)
The Hydrogen Peroxide Technique
175(1)
The High-Pressure Extrusion Method
176(1)
The Detergent Bath
176(1)
Yeast Fermentation
177(2)
Cropping Containers
179(18)
Tray Culture
179(4)
Vertical Wall Culture
183(1)
Slanted Wall or A-Frame Culture
183(1)
Bag Culture
184(2)
Column Culture
186(5)
Bottle Culture
191(6)
Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation
197(4)
Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species
201(230)
Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate
202(1)
Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy
202(3)
Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development
205(2)
The Gilled Mushrooms
207(142)
The Himematsutake Mushroom Agaricus blazei
208(9)
The Portobello Mushroom Agaricus brunnescens
217(8)
The Black Poplar Mushroom Agrocybe aegerita
225(4)
The Shaggy Mane Coprinus comatus
229(4)
The Enoki Mushroom Flammulina velutipes
233(6)
The Clustered Wood-lovers
239(1)
The Brown-Gilled Woodlover Hypholoma capnoides
240(4)
Kuritake (The Chestnut Mushroom) Hypholoma sublateritium
244(4)
The Beech Mushrooms
248(1)
Buna-Shimeji Hypsizygus tessulatus
249(6)
Shirotamogitake Hypsizygus ulmarius
255(4)
The Shiitake Mushroom Lentinula edodes
259(17)
The Nameko Mushroom Pholiota nameko
276(6)
The Oyster Mushrooms
282(2)
Golden Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus
284(6)
The Abalone Mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus
290(5)
The Pink Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus djamor
295(6)
The King Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii
301(4)
The Tarragon Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus euosmus
305(3)
The Tree Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus
308(8)
The Phoenix or Indian Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius, ``P. sajor-caju''
316(5)
The King Tuber Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus tuberregium
321(5)
The Caramel Capped Psilocybes Psilocybe cyanescens complex
326(8)
The King Stropharia Mushroom Stropharia rugosoannulata
334(7)
The Paddy Straw Mushroom Volvariella volvacea
341(8)
The Polypore Mushrooms
349(38)
Reishi or Ling Chi Ganoderma lucidum
352(15)
Maitake or Hen-of-the-Woods Grifola frondosa
367(10)
Zhu Ling or the Umbrella Polypore Polyporus umbellatus
377(5)
Turkey Tail or Yun Zhi Trametes versicolor
382(5)
The Lion's Mane Hericium erinaceus
387(8)
The Wood Ears Auricularia polytricha
395(6)
The Jelly Mushrooms
401(8)
White Jelly Mushroom Tremella fuciformis
402(7)
The Cauliflower Mushrooms
409(6)
The Cauliflower Mushroom Sparassis crispa
410(5)
The Morels (Land-Fish Mushrooms)
415(16)
The Morel Life Cycle
417(4)
The Development of Indoor Morel Cultivation
421(1)
The Black Morels Morchella angusticeps and Allies
422(9)
Maximizing the Substrate's Potential through Species Sequencing
431(4)
Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging Mushrooms for Market
435(8)
Harvesting the Crop
435(2)
Packaging and Storing the Crop for Market
437(2)
Drying Mushrooms
439(1)
Marketing the Product
440(3)
Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors
443(12)
Cultivation Problems and Their Solutions: A Troubleshooting Guide
455(68)
Agar Culture
458(1)
Grain Culture
459(2)
Straw Culture
461(1)
Supplemented Sawdust Culture
462(1)
Pre-harvest Period
463(1)
Harvest Stage
463(2)
Post-harvest
465(2)
APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Description of Environments for a Mushroom Farm
467(8)
The Laboratory Complex
467(1)
The Growing Room Complex
468(7)
Appendix 2. Designing and Building a Spawn Laboratory
475(6)
Design Criteria for a Spawn Laboratory
477(2)
Good Clean Room Habits: Helpful Suggestions for Minimizing Contamination in the Laboratory
479(2)
Appendix 3. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation and Growth
481(8)
Design Criteria for the Growing Rooms
483(4)
Managing the Growing Rooms: Good Habits for the Personnel
487(2)
Appendix 4. Resource Directory
489(14)
Recommended Mushroom Field Guides
489(1)
Mushroom Book Suppliers
490(1)
Annual Mushroom Festivals and Events
491(1)
Mushroom Cultivation Seminars and Training Centers
492(1)
Mushroom Study Tours and Adventures
493(1)
International Mushroom Associations
493(1)
North American Mushroom Societies and Associations
493(4)
Mushroom Growers Associations
497(1)
Sources for Mushroom Cultures
498(1)
Sources for Mushroom Spawn
499(1)
Sources for Marketing Information
500(1)
Mushroom Newsletters and Journals
500(1)
Mushroom Museums
501(1)
Sources for Medicinal Mushroom Products
501(1)
Mycological Resources on the Internet
502(1)
Appendix 5. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation
503(16)
Appendix 6. Data Conversion Tables
519(4)
Glossary 523(6)
Bibliography 529(24)
Photo and Illustration Credits 553(2)
Index 555

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