9783527403936

A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics

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  • ISBN13:

    9783527403936

  • ISBN10:

    3527403930

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-03-12
  • Publisher: Wiley-VCH
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This revised and broadened second edition provides readers with an insight into this fascinating world and future technology in quantum optics. Alongside classical and quantum-mechanical models, the authors focus on important and current experimental techniques in quantum optics to provide an understanding of light, photons and laserbeams. In a comprehensible and lucid style, the book conveys the theoretical background indispensable for an understanding of actual experiments using photons. It covers basic modern optical components and procedures in detail, leading to experiments such as the generation of squeezed and entangled laserbeams, the test and applications of the quantum properties of single photons, and the use of light for quantum information experiments.

Author Biography

<b>Hans-A. Bachor</b> received his degrees in physics from the Universit&#19744;Hannover, Germany. Since 1981 he has worked and taught at the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia where he is now Professor and Director of the Australian Centre of Excellence in Quantum-Atom Optics. The focus of his work are experiments with nonclassical light.<br> <br> <b>Timothy C. Ralph</b> graduated from Macquarie University, Australia and received his PhD from the Australian National University. He is presently Associate Professor at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. He is also scientific manager for the Queensland node of the Australian Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computer Technology. The focus of his work is quantum information in optics.<br>

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction
1(11)
Historical perspective
1(2)
Motivation: Practical effects of quantum noise
3(5)
How to use this guide
8(4)
Bibliography
10(2)
Classical models of light
12(25)
Classical waves
13(10)
Mathematical description of waves
13(1)
The Gaussian beam
14(2)
Quadrature amplitudes
16(2)
Field energy, intensity, power
18(1)
A classical mode of light
19(1)
Classical modulations
20(3)
Statistical properties of classical light
23(14)
The origin of fluctuations
23(1)
Coherence
23(4)
Correlation functions
27(2)
Noise spectra
29(2)
An idealized classical case: Light from a chaotic source
31(5)
Bibliography
36(1)
Photons -- the motivation to go beyond classical optics
37(23)
Detecting light
37(3)
The concept of photons
40(1)
Light from a thermal source
41(2)
Interference experiments
43(3)
Modelling single photon experiments
46(7)
Polarization of a single photon
47(2)
Some mathematics
49(1)
Polarization states
50(1)
The single photon interferometer
51(2)
Intensity correlation, bunching, anti-bunching
53(3)
Single photon Rabi frequencies
56(4)
Bibliography
57(3)
Quantum models of light
60(39)
Quantization of light
60(4)
Some general comments on quantum mechanics
60(1)
Quantization of cavity modes
61(1)
Quantized energy
62(1)
The quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator
63(1)
Quantum states of light
64(4)
Number or Fock states
64(1)
Coherent states
65(3)
Mixed states
68(1)
Quantum optical representations
68(9)
Quadrature amplitude operators
68(2)
Probability and quasi-probability distributions
70(5)
Photon number distributions, Fano factor
75(2)
Propagation and detection of quantum optical fields
77(7)
Propagation in quantum optics
77(4)
Detection in quantum optics
81(1)
An example: The beamsplitter
82(2)
Quantum transfer functions
84(8)
A linearized quantum noise description
84(2)
An example: The propagating coherent state
86(1)
Real laser beams
87(1)
The transfer of operators, signals and noise
88(2)
Sideband modes as quantum states
90(2)
Quantum correlations
92(3)
Photon correlations
92(1)
Quadrature correlations
93(2)
Summary: The different quantum models
95(4)
Bibliography
97(2)
Basic optical components
99(48)
Beamsplitters
99(13)
Classical description of a beamsplitter
99(3)
The beamsplitter in the quantum operator model
102(2)
The beamsplitter with single photons
104(2)
The beamsplitter and the photon statistics
106(2)
The beamsplitter with coherent states
108(2)
The beamsplitter in the noise sideband model
110(1)
Comparison between a beamsplitter and a classical current junction
111(1)
Interferometers
112(7)
Classical description of an interferometer
113(2)
Quantum model of the interferometer
115(1)
The single photon interferometer
115(1)
Transfer of intensity noise through the interferometer
116(1)
Sensitivity limit of an interferometer
117(2)
Cavities
119(19)
Classical description of a linear cavity
121(4)
The special case of high reflectivities
125(1)
The phase response
126(2)
Spatial properties of cavities
128(4)
Equations of motion for the cavity mode
132(1)
The quantum equations of motion for a cavity
133(1)
The propagation of fluctuations through the cavity
133(4)
Single photons through a cavity
137(1)
Other optical components
138(9)
Lenses
138(2)
Crystals and polarizers
140(1)
Modulators
141(2)
Optical fibres
143(1)
Optical noise sources
143(1)
Nonlinear processes
144(1)
Bibliography
145(2)
Lasers and Amplifiers
147(26)
The laser concept
147(15)
Technical specifications of a laser
148(2)
Rate equations
150(4)
Quantum model of a laser
154(2)
Examples of lasers
156(5)
Laser phase noise
161(1)
Amplification of optical signals
162(2)
Parametric amplifiers and oscillators
164(7)
The second-order non-linearity
165(2)
Parametric amplification
167(1)
Optical parametric oscillator
168(1)
Pair production
169(2)
Summary
171(2)
Bibliography
171(2)
Photodetection techniques
173(27)
Photodetector characteristics
173(1)
Detecting single photons
174(4)
Photon sources and analysis
178(2)
Detecting photocurrents
180(7)
The detector circuit
184(3)
Spectral analysis of photocurrents
187(13)
Bibliography
197(3)
Quantum noise: Basic measurements and techniques
200(32)
Detection and calibration of quantum noise
200(11)
Direct detection and calibration
200(4)
Balanced detection
204(1)
Detection of intensity modulation and SNR
205(1)
Homodyne detection
206(4)
Heterodyne detection
210(1)
Intensity noise
211(1)
The intensity noise eater
212(9)
Classical intensity control
213(3)
Quantum noise control
216(5)
Frequency stabilization, locking of cavities
221(5)
How to mount a mirror
225(1)
Injection locking
226(6)
Bibliography
229(3)
Squeezing experiments
232(78)
The concept of squeezing
232(10)
Tools for squeezing, two simple examples
232(6)
Properties of squeezed states
238(4)
Quantum model of squeezed states
242(8)
The formal definition of a squeezed state
242(3)
The generation of squeezed states
245(2)
Squeezing as correlations between noise sidebands
247(3)
Detecting squeezed light
250(10)
Reconstructing the squeezing ellipse
253(1)
Summary of different representations of squeezed states
254(1)
Propagation of squeezed light
254(6)
Four wave mixing
260(3)
Optical parametric processes
263(4)
Second harmonic generation
267(8)
Kerr effect
275(5)
The response of the Kerr medium
275(2)
Fibre Kerr Squeezing
277(2)
Atomic Kerr squeezing
279(1)
Atom-cavity coupling
280(3)
Pulsed squeezing
283(9)
Quantum noise of optical pulses
283(2)
Pulsed squeezing experiments with Kerr media
285(2)
Pulsed SHG and OPO experiments
287(1)
Soliton squeezing
288(1)
Spectral filtering
289(1)
Nonlinear interferometers
290(2)
Amplitude squeezed light from diode lasers
292(2)
Twin photon beams
294(1)
Polarization squeezing
295(3)
Quantum state tomography
298(2)
Summary of squeezing results
300(10)
Loopholes in the quantum description
303(1)
Bibliography
303(7)
Applications of squeezed light
310(33)
Optical communication
310(3)
Spatial squeezing and quantum imaging
313(2)
Optical sensors
315(6)
Gravitational wave detection
321(22)
The origin and properties of GW
321(2)
Quantum properties of the ideal interferometer
323(5)
The sensitivity of real instruments
328(5)
Interferometry with squeezed light
333(5)
Bibliography
338(5)
QND
343(12)
The concept of QND measurements
343(3)
Classification of QND measurements
346(2)
Experimental results
348(2)
Single photon QND
350(5)
Bibliography
353(2)
Fundamental tests of quantum mechanics
355(19)
Wave-Particle duality
355(3)
Indistinguishability
358(4)
Nonlocality
362(9)
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox
362(3)
Generation of entangled CW beams
365(2)
Bell inequalities
367(4)
Summary
371(3)
Bibliography
371(3)
Quantum Information
374(30)
Photons as qubits
374(2)
Postselection and coincidence counting
376(1)
True single photon sources
377(4)
Heralded single photons
377(2)
Single photons on demand
379(2)
Characterizing photonic qubits
381(1)
Quantum key distribution
382(5)
QKD using single photons
383(2)
QKD using continuous variables
385(2)
No cloning
387(1)
Teleportation
387(8)
Teleportation of photon qubits
388(2)
Continuous variable teleportation
390(5)
Quantum computation
395(5)
Summary
400(4)
Bibliography
401(3)
Summary and outlook
404(3)
Appendices
407(9)
Appendix A: Gaussian functions
407(1)
Appendix B: List of quantum operators, states and functions
408(2)
Appendix C: The full quantum derivation of quantum states
410(2)
Appendix D: Calculation of of the quantum properties of a feedback loop
412(2)
Appendix E: Symbols and abbreviations
414(2)
Index 416

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