Handbook of Agricultural Entomology

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-03-18
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Handbook of Agricultural Entomology by Helmut van Emden is a landmark publication for students and practitioners of entomology applied to agriculture and horticulture. It can be used as a reference and as a general textbook. The book opens with a general introduction to entomology and includes coverage of the major insects (and mites) that cause harm to crops, livestock and humans. The important beneficial species are also included. Organisms are described in a classification of insect Orders and Families. The emphasis is on morphological characters of major taxonomic divisions, "spot characters" for the recognition of Families, and the life histories, damage symptoms and economic importance of the various pest species. The book is beautifully illustrated in full colour with more than 400 figures showing both the organisms and the damage caused to plants with diagnostic characters indicated by arrows. Coverage is world-wide and includes much material stemming from the vast personal experience of the author.

Author Biography

Helmut van Emden is an internationally respected entomologist who in the UK has been President of both the Royal Entomological Society and the Association of Applied Biologists. He is currently Emeritus Professor of Horticulture at the University of Reading, UK, where for 35 years he has taught entomology at Masters level to international students of Crop Protection. He has taught and carried out research on applied entomology in six continents.

Table of Contents



1 The world of insects

The diversity of insects

The impact of insects on man

The impact of man on insects

World distribution

Climate change

Land management practices

Exploitation of insects

Other uses man makes of insects

Insect classification

2 External features of insects - structure and function


The exoskeleton

The basic body plan of the insect

The head

Sense organs



Compound eyes

Basic structure of the mouthparts




The thorax





The abdomen





3 The major divisions of the Insecta


Subclass Pterygota

Division Exopterygota

Palaeopteran Orders

Orthopteroid Orders

Hemipteroid Orders 

Division Endopterygota

4 Subclass Apterygota


Order Diplura (2-pronged bristle-tails)

Order Protura

Order Thysanura (silverfish)

Order Collembola (springtails

Suborder Arthropleona

Suborder Symphypleona 

5 Subclass Pterygota, Division Exopterygota, Palaeopteran Orders 


Order Ephemeroptera

Order Odonata ­

Suborder Zygoptera

Suborder Anisoptera 

6 Subclass Pterygota, Division Exopterygota, Orthopteroid Orders


Order Plecoptera (stoneflies)

Order Grylloblattodea

Order Mantophasmatodea (gladiators or heelwalkers)

Order Zoraptera (angel insects)

Order Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets)

Suborder Ensifera

Superfamily Tettigonioidea (long-horned grasshoppers)

Superfamily Grylloidea (crickets)

Suborder Caelifera

Superfamily Acridoidea (short-horned grasshoppers)

Order Phasmida (stick and leaf insects)

Order Dermaptera (earwigs)

Order Embioptera (web spinners)

Order Dictyoptera (cockroaches and mantids)

Suborder Blattaria (cockroaches)

Suborder Mantodea (mantids)

Order Isoptera (termites)

Family Kalotermitidae (Dry-wood termites)

Family Hodotermitidae

Family Termitidae (Mound-building termites) 

7 Subclass Pterygota, Division Exopterygota, Hemipteroid Orders


Order Psocoptera (booklice)

Order Mallophaga (biting lice)

Suborder Anoplura ( = Siphunculata) (sucking lice)

Order Hemiptera (true bugs) 

Suborder Heteroptera (land and water bugs)

Series Cryptocerata  (water bugs)

Water boatmen (Families Notonectidae and Corixidae)

Water scorpions and allies (Family Nepidae)

Series Gymnocerata

Pond skaters (Families Gerridae and Velidae )

Family Miridae  (mirids or capsids)

Family Lygaeidae (chinch bugs)

Superfamily Pentatomoidea (shield bugs)

Family Pentatomidae (stink bugs)

Family Acanthosomatidae

Family Scutelleridae

Family Coreidae

Family Pyrrhocoridae

Family Tingidae (lace bugs)

Family Anthocoridae (flower bugs)

Family Cimicidae (bed bugs)

Family Nabidae (damsel bugs)

Family Reduviidae (assassin bugs)

Suborder Auchenorryncha (hoppers)

Superfamily Fulgoroidea

Family Fulgoridae (lantern flies)

Family Delphacidae (planthoppers)

Superfamily Cicadelloidea

Family Membracidae (treehoppers)

Family Cicadellidae (leafhoppers)

Superfamily Cicadoidea (Family Cicadidae – cicadas)

Superfamily Cercopoidea  (Family Cercopidae ­- froghoppers)

Suborder Sternorryncha (plant lice)

Superfamily Psylloidea (Family Psyllidae – suckers or jumping plant lice)

Superfamily Aphidoidea (aphids)

Family Lachnidae

Family Aphididae – (aphids, greenfly, blackfly)

Family Phylloxeridae

Superfamily Aleyrodoidea (whiteflies) – Family Aleyrodidae

Superfamily Coccoidea (scale insects and mealybugs)

Family Pseudococcidae (mealybugs)

Family Margarodidae (cushion scales)

Family Kerridae

Family Asterolecaniidae

Family Coccidae (soft scales)

Family Diaspididae (armoured scales)

Order Thysanoptera (thrips or thunderflies)

Suborder Terebrantia

Family Thripidae

Family Aeolothripidae

Suborder Tubulifera

Family Phlaeothripidae                                               

8 Subclass Pterygota, Division Endopterygota, Lesser Orders


Order Mecoptera (scorpion flies) – c. 400 described species

Order Siphonaptera (fleas ) – c. 2000 described species

Order Neuroptera – c. 4700 described species

Suborder Megaloptera

Family Corydalidae

Family Sialidae (alder flies)

Family Raphidiidae (snake flies)

Suborder Planipennia

Superfamily Osmyloidea – 3 Families

Family Osmylidae

Superfamily Mantispoidea – 4 Families

Family Sisyridae

Family Mantispidae (mantis flies)

Superfamily Hemeroboidea (lacewings) – 3 Families

Family Hemerobiidae (brown lacewings)

Family Chrysopidae (green lacewings)

Superfamily Myrmeleontoidae (ant lions) – 3 Families

Order Trichoptera (caddis flies) – c. 5000 described species

Order Strepsiptera (stylops) - c. 550 described species 

9 Subclass Pterygota, Division Endopterygota, Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths


Suborder Glossata

Infraorder Exoporia

Superfamily Hepialoidea

Family Hepialidae (swift moths)

Infraorder Heteroneura – Division Monotrysia

Superfamily Nepticuloidea

Family Nepticulidae

Superfamily Incurvarioidea

Family Incurvariidae

Infraorder Heteroneura – Division Ditrysia

Superfamily Tineoidea

Family Gracillariidae

Superfamily Gelechioidea

Family Oecophoridae

Family Gelechiidae

Family Coleophoridae (casebearer moths)

Superfamily Yponomeutoidea

Family Plutellidae

Family Yponomeutidae

Superfamily Pyraloidea

Family Pyralidae

Superfamily Sesioidea

Family Sesiidae (clearwings)

Superfamily Cossoidea

Family Cossidae

Superfamily Tortricoidea

Family Tortricidae

Superfamily Geometroidea

Family Geometridae

Superfamily Papilionoidea (butterflies)

Family Hesperiidae (skippers)

Family Papilionidae (swallowtails)

Family Pieridae (whites)

Family Lycaenidae (blues)

Family Nymphalidae

Superfamily Bombycoidea

Family Bombycidae

Family Lasiocampidae

Superfamily Sphingoidea

Family Sphingidae (hawk moths)

Superfamily Noctuoidea

Family Lymantriidae

Family Arctiidae

Family Noctuidae (owlet moths) 

10 Subclass Pterygota, Division Endopterygota, Order Diptera (True Flies)


Suborder Nematocera

Family Tipulidae (crane flies)

Family Psychodidae

Family Cecidomyiidae (gall midges)

Family Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Family Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

Family Ceratopogonidae (biting midges)

Family Simuliidae (black flies or sand fly [New Zealand])

Family Sciaridae (mushroom flies, fungus gnats)

Family Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats)

Family Bibionidae

Suborder Brachycera

Family Tabanidae (horse flies)

Family Stratiomyidae (soldier flies)

Family Asilidae (robber flies)

Family Empididae (assassin flies)

Suborder Cyclorrhapha

Series Aschiza

Family Syrphidae (hover flies)

Series Schizophora

Division Acalyptrata

Family Psilidae

Family Sepsidae (semaphore flies)

Family Ephydridae (shore flies)

Family Chloropidae

Family Opomyzidae

Family Agromyzidae

Family Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies)

Family Tephritidae (or Trypetidae) (fruit flies)

Division Calyptrata (see start of ‘Schizophora’ for definition)

Family Scathophagidae (or Cordiluridae)

Family Anthomyiidae

Family Muscidae

Family Calliphoridae (bluebottles and greenbottles)

Family Sarcophagidae (flesh flies)

Family Tachinidae      

Family Glossinidae (tsetse flies)

Family Oestridae

Division Pupipara (louse flies, keds)

Family Hippoboscidae

11 Subclass Pterygota, Division Endopterygota, Order Hymenoptera (Sawflies, Ants, Bees and Wasps)


Suborder Symphyta (sawflies)

Family Siricidae (wood wasps)

Family Cephidae

Family Tenthredinidae

Family Diprionidae

Suborder Apocrita (ants, bees, wasps and parasitic wasps)

The social Hymenoptera and their allies

Superfamily Apoidea

Family Andrenidae

Family Megachilidae (leaf-cutter and mason bees)

Family Apidae

Family Sphecidae (digger wasps)

Superfamily Vespoidea (wasps)

Family Vespidae

Family Mutillidae (velvet ants)

Family Pompilidae (spider-hunting wasps)

Family Scoliidae

Family Tiphiidae

Family Formicidae (ants)

Superfamily Chrysidoidea

Other Superfamilies

Superfamily Ichneumonoidea

Family Ichneumonidae

Family Braconidae

Superfamily Chalcidoidea

Family Agaonidae (fig wasps)

Family Aphelinidae

Family Chalcidae

Family Pteromalidae

Family Torymidae

Family Encyrtidae

Family Trichogrammatidae (Fig. 11.44)

Family Mymaridae (fairy flies)

Family Tanaostigmatidae

Superfamily Proctotrupoidea

Superfamily Evanioidea

Family Evanidae 

Family Gasteruptiidae

Superfamily Cynipoidea

Family Charipidae

Family Cynipidae (gall wasps) 

12 Subclass Pterygota, Division Endopterygota, Order Coleoptera (Beetles)


Adult morphology

Larvae and pupae

Suborder Adephaga

Family Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles

Families Haliplidae and Hygrobiidae

Family Dytiscidae

Family Cicindelidae (tiger beetles)

Family Carabidae (ground beetles)

Suborder Polyphaga

Superfamily Staphylinoidea

Family Staphylinidae (rove beetles)

Family Silphidae (burying, sexton or carrion beetles)

Family Pselaphidae

Family Ptiliidae

Superfamily Hydrophiloidea - Family Hydrophilidae

Superfamily Histeroidea –Family Histeridae

Superfamily Scarabaeoidea

Family Lucanidae (stag beetles)

Family Geotrupidae (dung beetles)

Family Scarabaeidae

Superfamily Buprestoidea –Family Buprestidae 

Superfamily Elateroidea –Family Elateridae

Superfamily Cantharoidea

Family Cantharidae (soldier beetles)

Family Lampyridae (glowworms)

Superfamily Dermestoidea

Superfamily Bostrychoidea

Family Lyctidae (powder-post beetles)

Family Bostrychidae

Family Anobiidae

Family Ptinidae (spider beetles)

Superfamily Cleroidea

Family Cleridae

Family Trogossitidae

Family Melyridae

Superfamily Cucujoidea

Series Heteromera

Family Anthicidae

Family Meloidae (oil beetles, blister beetles)

Family Ripiphoridae (previously Rhipiphoridae)

Family Alleculidae

Family Oedemeridae

Family Pyrochroidae

Family Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles)

Series Clavicornia  = Superfamily Cucujoidea 

Family Byturidae

Family Coccinellidae (ladybirds or ladybeetles [USA])

Family Cryptophagidae (fungus beetles)

Family Cucujidae

Family Lathridiidae

Family Mycetophagidae

Family Nitidulidae

Superfamily Chrysomeloidea

Family Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles)

Family Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles)

Subfamily Bruchinae (seed beetles)

Subfamily Alticinae

Subfamily Chrysomelinae

Subfamily Criocerinae

Subfamily Galerucinae

Subfamily Hispinae

Subfamily Cassidinae

Subfamily Clytrinae

Superfamily Curculionoidea

Family Curculionidae

Subfamily Scolytinae (bark beetles)

Subfamily Platypodinae

Subfamily Apioninae (seed weevils)

Other Subfamilies (true weevils)

Subfamily Entiminae (short-nosed weevils)

Subfamily Curculioninae

Subfamily Rhynchophorinae

Subfamily Ceutorhynchinae

Subfamily Hyperinae 

13 Class Arachnida


Subclass Araneida (spiders)

Family Araneidae

Family Lycosidae

Subclass Acarina (mites and ticks)

Order Mesostigmata

Family Phytoseiidae

Family Varroidae

Order Ixodida (ticks)

Family Ixodidae (hard ticks)

Family Argasidae (soft ticks)

Order Prostigmata

Family Tetranychidae (spider mites)

Family Tenuipalpidae (false spider mites)

Family Tarsonemidae

Family Eriophyidae (‘gall mites’),

Order Astigmata

Family Acaridae

Family Sarcoptidae

Order Cryptostigmata (beetle mites)



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