Handbook of Environmental Engineering Assessment

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-05-09
  • Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

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This is one of the most comprehensive books on complex subjects of environmental engineering assessment and planning. Addressing these issues requires an understanding of technical, economic, and policy perspectives; based upon extensive research and practical experience of the authors, these perspectives are thoughtfully and clearly presented. Covered in this book are subjects related to environmental engineering and planning which include environmental laws and regulations, international perspectives on environmental analysis engineering and planning, economic and social impact analysis, public participation, and energy and environmental implications of major public works and private projects. Contemporary issues ranging from climate change to ecorisk and sustainability are covered in a special section as well. Under Contemporary Challenges are environmental issues that have received considerable public support and concern; they include: climate change, acid rain, deforestation, endangered species, biodiversity, ecorisk, cultural resources, and sustainability. For most of these issues, there are scientific agreements and disagreements; there are many uncertainties, thus views differ widely. These topics are discussed in considerable detail. Notwithstanding uncertainties and differing views on such topics, all of this information is put in a policy context such that progress towards addressing these contemporary challenges can be made while consensus on the nature and extent of the problem and resultant solutions are being developed. The book provides considerable information about many timeless issues. These issues range from resources needed for sustaining the quality of life on the planet: air resources to natural resources. Specifically covered are: air, water, land, ecology, sound/noise, human aspects, economics, and resources. For each of these areas, some of the key elements are described so that one can effectively manage complex environmental engineering and planning requirements. Each of the elements are clearly defined and other information, such as how human activities affect the element, source of affects, variable to be measured, how such variables can be measured, data sources, and evaluation and interpretation of data, etc. are provided. Material presented provides a rich source of information so the reader can efficiently and effectively use it to make meaningful environmental engineering, planning, and management decisions. Help with every aspect of analyzing the environmental implications of a project. Complete coverage of current approaches, practices, procedures, documentations, regulations, and issues related to environmental engineering and planning. Step-by-step directions for preparing environmental impact analysis, and environmental reports. Valuable expert advice on international perspectives, public participation, social and environmental impacts. A comprehensive write-up on contemporary issues ranging from climate change to sustainability. A comprehensive description and analysis of timeless issues ranging from air resources to natural resources.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
About the Authorsp. xv
Abbreviations and Acronymsp. xvii
Environmental Assessment in Engineering and Planningp. 1
What Is Environmental Assessment?p. 4
Engineering and Planning Issuesp. 6
Why Environmental Assessment Is Neededp. 11
Who Prepares Environmental Assessment and Planning Documents?p. 11
Integrating Art, Science, Strategy, and Management Issuesp. 14
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 16
Environmental Laws and Regulationsp. 19
Rationale for Environmental Legislation and Regulationsp. 19
Shortcomings of Environmental Legislation and Regulationsp. 20
Legislative Data Systemsp. 21
Overview of Federal Environmental Legislationp. 24
Trends in Environmental Legislation and Regulationsp. 60
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 64
National Environmental Policy Actp. 67
Elements of NEPAp. 67
Judicial Reviewp. 69
Effects of NEPAp. 75
Implementation of NEPAp. 75
Council on Environmental Qualityp. 77
Executive Orders and Agency Responsep. 78
State Environmental Policy Actsp. 80
NEPA and Agency Planningp. 81
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 90
Environmental Documents and CEQ Regulationsp. 93
Function and Purpose of the NEPA Assessment Processp. 93
NEPA Regulationsp. 96
Environmental Documentsp. 98
Application of Environmental Documentation Processp. 100
EIS Format and Contentp. 105
Preparing and Processing the EA or EISp. 114
Timing of Agency Actionp. 123
Tieringp. 125
Mitigationp. 126
General Considerations in EIS Preparationp. 127
Case Studiesp. 127
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 134
Elements of Environmental Assessment and Planningp. 137
Agency Activitiesp. 137
Environmental Attributesp. 138
Determining Environmental Impactp. 161
Reporting Findingsp. 171
Using Information Technology to Aid in the NEPA Processp. 172
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 175
Environmental Assessment Methodologiesp. 177
Choosing a Methodologyp. 177
Categorizing Methodologiesp. 180
Review Criteriap. 182
Methodology Descriptionsp. 193
Methodology Reviewp. 194
Future Directionsp. 208
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 209
Generalized Approach for Environmental Assessmentp. 211
Agency Activitiesp. 211
Environmental Attributesp. 214
Institutional Constraintsp. 218
Environmental Settingp. 218
Systemp. 219
Outputp. 219
Rationale for a Computer-Based Systemp. 219
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 223
Procedure for Reviewing Environmental Impact Statementsp. 225
Types of EIS Reviewp. 226
General Considerations in EIS Reviewp. 230
EIS Review Proceduresp. 232
Approaches to Systematic EIS Reviewp. 233
Review Commentsp. 243
Summaryp. 243
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 244
International Perspectives on Environmental Assessment, Engineering, and Planningp. 245
International Implications of NEPAp. 246
Future NEPA Trendsp. 249
Environmental Impact Assessment in Other Countriesp. 250
EIA in Selected Countriesp. 251
Limitations to EIA Effectiveness in Developing Countriesp. 253
EIA in Asia and the Pacificp. 253
EIA in Latin Americap. 254
EIA in Canadap. 255
EIA in Europep. 255
EIA in Indiap. 258
International Aid Organizationsp. 261
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 263
Economic and Social Impact Analysisp. 265
Socioeconomic Assessment within NEPAp. 266
Economic Impact Analysisp. 268
Economic Modelsp. 271
Future Direction for Economic Impact Analysisp. 279
Social Impact Assessmentp. 280
Social Impact Analysis Methodsp. 283
Assembling the Socioeconomic Impact Assessmentp. 288
Problem Areasp. 296
Environmental Justicep. 298
Conclusionsp. 308
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 308
Public Participationp. 311
Beginningsp. 311
Early American Experiences in Public Participationp. 312
Alternative Terminologyp. 314
Public Involvement Requirements within NEPAp. 314
What Is the Public?p. 316
What Is Participation?p. 317
Contemporary Experience in Public Participationp. 318
Getting Input from the Publicp. 321
Commenting on the Draft EIS-A Special Case of Public Participationp. 322
Case Studiesp. 323
Application of Public Inputp. 326
Participation in Developing Regulationsp. 327
An Effective Public Participation Programp. 327
Benefits of an Effective Public Participation Programp. 332
Response to Public Participation Format Variationsp. 333
Public Participation and the Digital Revolutionp. 335
Internet Capability to Support Public Participationp. 336
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 337
Energy and Environmental Implicationsp. 339
Energy as a Resourcep. 340
Fuel Alternatives and Development of Supplies-Environmental Considerationsp. 346
Energy Costs of Pollution Controlp. 351
Energy Aspects of Recycling Materialsp. 351
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 360
Contemporary Issues in Environmental Assessmentp. 361
Climate Changep. 361
Acid Rainp. 376
Deforestationp. 385
Endangered Species and NEPAp. 388
Biodiversityp. 398
Cultural Resourcesp. 405
Ecoriskp. 414
Cumulative Impactsp. 431
Indirect Impactsp. 443
How Are These Contemporary issues Different?p. 445
Discussion and Study Questionsp. 446
National Environmental Policy Actp. 449
The National Environmental Policy Art of 1969, as Amendedp. 449
Purposep. 449
Title Ip. 450
Title IIp. 453
The Environmental Quality Improvement Art, as Amendedp. 456
Attribute Descriptor Packagep. 459
Airp. 461
Further Readingp. 464
Waterp. 497
Landp. 543
Ecologyp. 560
Soundp. 587
Human Aspectsp. 612
Economicsp. 622
Resourcesp. 631
A Step-by-Step Procedure for Preparing Environmental Assessments and Statementsp. 643
Define the Actionp. 643
Develop Alternativesp. 646
Identify Relevant Project Activitiesp. 649
Examine Attributes Likely to Be Affectedp. 651
Solicit Public Concernsp. 651
Re-evaluate Identification of Activities and Attributesp. 652
Evaluate Imparts Using Descriptor Package and Worksheetsp. 653
Summarize Impactsp. 655
Review Other Alternativesp. 655
Analyze Findingsp. 657
Prepare Assessment Documentp. 659
Review and Process Documentp. 660
Regulations for Implementing Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Actp. 663
Part 1500-Purpose, Policy, and Mandatep. 663
Part 1501-NEPA and Agency Planningp. 668
Part 1502-Environmental Impart Statementp. 675
Part 1503-Commentingp. 688
Part 1504-Predecision Referrals to the Council of Proposed Federal Actions Determined to be Environmentally Unsatisfactoryp. 691
Part 1505-NEPA and Agency Decision Makingp. 694
Part 1506-Other Requirements of NEPAp. 696
Part 1507-Agency Compliancep. 706
Part 1508-Terminology and Indexp. 709
Referencesp. 723
Indexp. 737
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