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9781574445640

Handbook of Technology Management in Public Administration

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781574445640

  • ISBN10:

    1574445642

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-11-15
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Summary

All organizations, whether for profit, not for profit, or government, face issues of information technology management. While the concerns involved may differ from organization to organization, the principles of good information technology management remain the same.Using a compilation of articles on various topics relating to technology management, Handbook of Technology Management in Public Administration addresses the management, implementation, and integration of technology across a wide variety of disciplines. The book highlights lessons learned to assist you in solving contemporary problems and avoiding pitfalls. It discusses the creation of innovative paradigms, new boundaries, diversity frameworks, and operational breakthroughs emanating from technology. It also raises questions about the productivity, violence, and intrusions of technology into the personal, organizational, and social environments as we move forward.This book identifies the potential ethical, legal, and social implications of technology from electronic signatures to genetic screenings to privacy interventions to industrial applications. It raises issues, problems, and concerns arising from technology and its effects on nurturing or nullifying the foundations of life and liberty in a constitutional democracy.With the development of new tools and techniques, technology promises to make organizations more productive and efficient. Handbook of Technology Management in Public Administration identifies effective technology management approaches while balancing the repercussions of technological growth.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(12)
Science Versus Technology
2(3)
What Is Technology?
2(2)
Who Is in Charge: Man or Machine?
4(1)
Understanding Technology
5(1)
Ethical Considerations
6(2)
Technology: Buy It Once---Own It Forever
7(1)
Cheap Speed
8(1)
Electronics Technology: The Great Enabler
8(1)
Adaptation, Forecasting, and Opportunity
9(1)
Trading Technology for Political Goals
10(1)
The Next Revolution: Nanotechnology and Biotechnology
11(1)
Managing Change: Therein Lies the Rub
12(1)
The Culture of Technology: Savants, Context, and Perspectives
13(22)
Chapter Highlights
13(2)
Technological Culture: Inventing the Future by Creating a New Human Context
15(1)
Metaphors as Trojan Horse: Persuasion about Technology
16(5)
References
21(1)
How to Manage Geeks
21(4)
You've Got to Have Your Own Geeks
21(1)
Get to Know Your Geek Community
22(1)
Learn What Your Geeks Are Looking For
22(1)
Create New Ways to Promote Your Geeks
22(1)
Either Geeks Are Part of the Solution---or They're the Problem
23(1)
The Best Judges of Geeks Are Other Geeks
23(1)
Look for the Natural Leaders Among Your Geeks
23(1)
Be Prepared for When the Geeks Hit the Fan
24(1)
Too Many Geeks Spoil the Soup
24(1)
The Coming Collapse of the Age of Technology
25(10)
Can the Machine Stop?
25(2)
The Forces of Internal Breakdown
27(5)
The End of Global Management
32(1)
Creating a Shadow System
32(3)
Public Sector Perspectives on Technology
35(184)
Chapter Highlights
39(3)
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate over Government Policy
42(13)
Summary
42(1)
Most Recent Developments
43(1)
Background and Analysis
43(1)
Technology and Competitiveness
43(1)
Federal Role
44(3)
Legislative Initiatives and Current Programs
47(1)
Increased R&D Spending
47(2)
Industry--University Cooperative Efforts
49(1)
Joint Industrial Research
50(1)
Commercialization of the Results of Federally Funded R&D
50(3)
A Different Approach?
53(1)
107th Congress Legislation
54(1)
Legislation
54(1)
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 107th Congress, Second Session
55(22)
Summary
55(1)
Introduction
56(1)
Issues
56(1)
Research and Development Budgets and Policy
56(1)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
57(1)
Defense Science and Technology
57(1)
Public Access to Federal R&D Data
58(1)
Quality of Federal R&D Data
58(1)
Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) and the President's Management Agenda
59(1)
Science and Technology Education
60(1)
Homeland Security
61(1)
Aviation Security Technologies
62(1)
Critical Infrastructure
62(1)
Advanced Technology Program
63(1)
Technology Transfer
63(1)
Federal R&D, Drug Costs, and Availability
63(1)
Telecommunications and Information Technology
64(1)
Slamming
64(1)
Broadband Internet Access
65(1)
Spectrum Management and Wireless Technologies
65(1)
Internet Privacy
66(1)
E-Government
66(1)
Federal Chief Information Officer (CIO)
67(1)
Information Technology R&D
68(1)
Voting Technologies
68(1)
Biotechnology: Privacy, Patents, and Ethics
68(1)
Global Climate Change
69(2)
Aeronautics R&D
71(1)
Space Programs: Civil, Military, and Commercial
71(2)
Commercial Satellite Exports
73(1)
Related CRS Reports
73(1)
Research and Development Budgets and Policy
73(1)
Homeland Security
74(1)
Technology Development
74(1)
Telecommunications and Information Technology
75(2)
Rethinking Silicon Valley: New Perspectives on Regional Development
77(16)
Abstract
77(1)
Introduction
78(1)
Conventional Modeling of Silicon Valley
79(1)
Problems with Modeling
80(1)
Issues Central to the Project of Developing a Model to Produce Silicon Valley Effects in Southeast Asia
81(1)
Starting Points for an Alternative Model
81(1)
States and Silicon Valley Models in Southeast Asia
82(1)
States in Southeast Asia
82(1)
Problematic State Effects
83(1)
Control/Direction Orientation
84(1)
Outcomes Driven
84(1)
Short-Term Focus
85(1)
Universities and Silicon Valley Models in Southeast Asia
85(1)
Need for Universities
85(2)
Firms and Silicon Valley Models in Southeast Asia
87(1)
Culture
88(1)
Conclusion
89(1)
Notes
90(3)
GMOs: Generating Many Objections
93(8)
Advantages of GMOs
93(1)
Human Implications
93(1)
Testing for the Presence of GMOs
94(1)
Scientific Testing of the GMO Process
95(1)
International Objections to GMOs
95(1)
International Conferences on GMOs
96(1)
International Regulation of GMOs
96(1)
European Economic Community
97(1)
The World Trade Organization
98(1)
Regulations in the United States
98(1)
Patents on GMOs
99(1)
Summary
99(1)
References
100(1)
Technologies in Transition, Policies in Transition: Foresight in the Risk Society
101(11)
Abstract
101(1)
Introduction
101(1)
The Risk Society and Its Implications for Science Policy
102(3)
The Move to Foresight
105(1)
Foresight in More than One Country
106(1)
Tensions in Foresight
107(1)
Foresight, Risk and the NHS
108(3)
Conclusion
111(1)
Acknowledgments
111(1)
References
111(1)
New Technology and Distance Education in the European Union: An EU-U.S. Perspective
112(4)
Facts and Trends in the Higher Education Sector
113(1)
European Schools Are Going Online
114(1)
What Next for Education in Europe?
115(1)
References
116(1)
Information Technology and Elementary and Secondary Education: Current Status and Federal Support
116(21)
Summary
116(1)
Recent Action
117(1)
Introduction
117(1)
Current Interest in Technology for Elementary and Secondary Education
117(1)
Status of Technology in Schools
118(1)
Major Issues
118(1)
Impact of Technology
119(1)
Cost of Technology
120(1)
Differences in Access to Technology
120(1)
Access to the Internet
121(1)
Amount of Technology Use and Types of Uses
122(2)
Training of the Teaching Force
124(1)
Curriculum Development
125(1)
Federal Support for Technology in Schools
126(1)
Characteristics of Current Federal Support
126(1)
Selected Federal Programs and Activities Supporting Technology in Education
126(1)
U.S. Department of Education
126(3)
U.S. Department of Agriculture
129(1)
U.S. Department of Commerce
129(1)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
130(1)
National Science Foundation
130(1)
Federal Communications Commission---E-Rate Program
130(1)
Other Federal Activities
131(1)
Federal Policy Questions
131(1)
Should the Federal Government Provide Support for Applying Technology to Elementary and Secondary Education?
131(1)
What Activities, If Any, Should the Federal Government Support?
132(1)
How Should Federal Support Be Provided?
132(1)
What Level of Federal Support Should Be Provided?
133(1)
References
133(4)
Strategic Management of Government-Sponsored R&D Portfolios: Lessons from Office of Basic Energy Sciences Projects
137(24)
Abstract
137(1)
Introduction
137(1)
``Portfolio'' Approach to Government R&D Management and Evaluation
138(2)
A ``Constrained'' Portfolio Approach
140(1)
Contrasting Government R&D Portfolio Approaches
140(2)
Research Design and Procedures: The Research Value Mapping Project
142(1)
Portfolio One: Output Maximization
143(1)
Output Portfolio: Basic Research and Scientific Knowledge
143(3)
Output Portfolio: Technology Development and Transfer
146(3)
Output Portfolio: Software and Algorithms
149(3)
Portfolio Two: Balanced Portfolio
152(1)
Balanced Portfolio, Part One: Graduate Student Training
152(2)
Balanced Portfolio, Part Two: Causes and Effects of Balance
154(4)
Conclusions: Outputs, Impacts, and Portfolio Strategy
158(1)
Funding Stability
158(1)
CRADAs and Cooperative Research
158(1)
The Basic/Applied False Dichotomy
159(1)
Manager Leverage
159(1)
Developing a Balanced Portfolio
159(1)
References
160(1)
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
161(12)
Summary
161(1)
Most Recent Developments
161(1)
Background and Analysis
162(1)
Technology Transfer to Private Sector: Federal Interest
163(1)
Technology Transfer to State and Local Governments: Rationale for Federal Activity
164(1)
Current Federal Efforts to Promote Technology Transfer
164(1)
Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer
164(1)
P.L. 96-480, P.L. 99-502, and Amendments
165(2)
P.L. 100-418, Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act
167(3)
Patents
170(1)
Small Business Technology Transfer Program
171(1)
Further Considerations
171(2)
107th Congress Legislation
173(1)
Legislation
173(1)
P.L. 108-7, H.J. Res. 2 Omnibus FY2003 Appropriations Act
173(1)
H.R. 175 (Royce)
173(1)
China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy---Actions and Chronology
173(14)
Summary
173(1)
Introduction and Issues for Policy
174(1)
Security Concerns
175(1)
China Great Wall Industry Corporation
175(1)
Missile Technology or Expertise
176(8)
Administration and Congressional Action
184(1)
Policies on Sanctions and Space Launch Agreement
184(1)
Waivers for Post-Tiananmen Sanctions
185(1)
Additional Congressional Mandates
186(1)
Hearings of the 105th Congress
187(1)
Investigations
187(7)
Cox Committee
187(4)
Clinton Administration's Response
191(1)
Senate Task Force
191(2)
Clinton Administration's Response
193(1)
Export Controls and Intelligence
193(1)
Legislation to Revise Export Controls
194(3)
105th Congress
194(2)
106th Congress
196(1)
107th Congress
197(1)
Denied and Pending Satellite Exports
197(3)
Role of Congress
197(2)
Chinasat-8
199(1)
Others
199(1)
Chronology of Major Events
200(13)
1988
200(1)
1989
200(1)
1990
200(1)
1991
200(1)
1992
201(1)
1993
202(1)
1994
203(1)
1995
203(1)
1996
204(1)
1997
205(1)
1998
206(4)
1999
210(2)
2000
212(1)
2001
213(1)
2002
213(1)
References
213(6)
Technology Transfer: Innovations, Concerns, and Barriers
219(56)
Chapter Highlights
221(1)
The Cyber-Management Environment: Where Technology and Ingenuity Meet Public Purpose and Accountability
222(10)
Abstract
222(1)
Introduction
222(1)
Multiple Functions of Cyber-Technology in Government
222(1)
Access Engineering
222(1)
Substantive Policy Communication
223(1)
Record Keeping
223(2)
Decision-Making Support
225(1)
Vehicle of Informal Communication
225(1)
Accountability Demands upon Cyber-Managers
226(1)
Emerging Cyber-Management Dilemmas for Public Administrators
227(2)
Summary: The Cyber-Environment and Its Management Challenge
229(1)
Notes
230(1)
References
231(1)
An Information Technology Labor Shortage? Legislation in the 106th Congress
232(15)
Summary
232(1)
The Demand for and Supply of IT Workers
233(1)
The Demand Side
233(2)
The Supply Side
235(1)
Measures of Labor Market Conditions
235(1)
The Unemployment Rate
236(3)
Selected Results from the ACWIA-Mandated Studies
239(1)
Legislation and Education/Training Programs
239(1)
The 105th Congress
239(1)
The 106th Congress
240(1)
Bills Amending ACWIA's User Fee Level and Allocation Formula
241(1)
Using Tax Incentives
242(1)
Other Bills Unrelated to ACWIA's User Fee and Education/Training
242(1)
Appendix: The Older Worker Issue
243(1)
Notes
243(4)
Third Generation (``3G'') Mobile Wireless Technologies and Services
247(5)
Summary
247(1)
Background
247(1)
What Are 3G Services?
247(1)
Spectrum Developments
247(1)
The FCC Is Planning for the United CRS-3
248(1)
Technology Standards
248(1)
Regulatory and Oversight Issues
249(2)
Relevant Legislation in the 106th Congress
251(1)
Notes
251(1)
China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues
252(23)
Summary
252(3)
Purpose and Scope
255(1)
PRC Proliferation Challenges Nonproliferation Commitments but Continued Concerns
255(1)
Nuclear Technology Sales to Pakistan
256(1)
Ring Magnets
256(1)
Nuclear Cooperation
257(1)
Missile Technology Sales to Pakistan
258(1)
M-11 Missiles
258(1)
Nuclear Technology Sales to Iran
259(2)
Missile Technology Sales to Iran
261(2)
Chemical Sales to Iran
263(1)
North Korea's Missile and Nuclear Weapons Programs
264(2)
Missile Technology Sales to Libya
266(1)
Missile Technology Sales to Syria
266(1)
Policy Issues and Options
266(1)
Foreign and Defense Policies
267(1)
Summits
267(1)
Counter-Terrorism Campaign
267(1)
Export Control Assistance
268(1)
Linkage to the Taiwan Issue
268(1)
Economic Controls
269(1)
Satellite Exports
269(1)
Sanctions
269(1)
Capital Markets
270(1)
Nuclear Cooperation Agreement
271(1)
U.S. Import Controls
271(1)
U.S. Export Controls
272(1)
Nonproliferation and Arms Control
272(1)
Nonproliferation Regimes
272(1)
CTBT and Fissile Materials Production
273(1)
International Lending and Japan
273(1)
References
273(2)
Ethical Issues and Concerns
275(126)
Chapter Highlights
279(1)
The Urgent Call for Knowledge Management in Medicine
279(3)
The Vision of the Net
280(1)
Grasping Knowledge Management
281(1)
Caveats, of Course
282(1)
Recommended Resources
282(1)
V-Chip and TV Ratings: Helping Parents Supervise Their Children's Television Viewing
282(1)
Summary
282(5)
Requirement for a V-Chip
283(1)
Establishing a Ratings System
283(1)
The Current ``S-V-L-D'' Ratings System
284(1)
U.S. Television Industry's Revised TV Ratings System
284(1)
105th Congress
285(1)
Other Countries
286(1)
Conclusion
286(1)
Notes
287(1)
Controlling Technologies: The Importance of Surprises
287(3)
References
290(1)
The Making of The Ecopreneur
290(9)
The Making of the Ecopreneur
291(2)
Commercial Compared with Social Ecopreneurs
293(1)
Must Commercial Ecopreneurship Be Counter-Cultural?
294(1)
Private-Sector Initiatives that Can Promote Ecopreneurship
295(1)
Create Your Own World of Value by Setting Limits
295(1)
Search for Green Strategic Innovation
296(1)
Use Green Marketing to Add Distinction by Understatement
296(1)
Reduce Costs by Promoting Green Brainstorming
296(1)
Encourage Green Networking in the Community to Generate Free Publicity
296(1)
Use Social Ecopreneurship as an Extraordinary Motivator
296(1)
Public Strategies to Foster Ecopreneurship
297(1)
Changing Tax Incentives to Reward the Creation of Green Jobs and to Punish Resource Use
297(1)
Building Creativity and Ecopreneurship Incentives into Standards for Public-Sector Management
297(1)
Using Ecopreneurship as a Strategy for Boosting Civic Competence and Social Capital
298(1)
Starting a Public Campaign to De-legitimatize Non-sustainable Business Results
298(1)
Conclusions
298(1)
References
298(1)
Online Privacy Protection: Issues and Developments
299(13)
Summary
299(1)
Introduction
300(1)
Background
301(1)
Legal Framework for the Protection of Online Personal Information
302(1)
Constitutional Protections
302(1)
Statutory Protections
303(1)
The Clinton Administration's Regulation of Internet Privacy
304(1)
Federal Trade Commission
305(1)
Enforcement Actions Under §5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act
306(1)
The European Union Directive on the Protection of Personal Data
307(2)
Notes
309(3)
Internet Privacy: Overview and Pending Legislation
312(11)
Summary
312(1)
Introduction
313(1)
Internet: Commercial Web Site Practices
314(1)
FTC Activities and Fair Information Practices
315(1)
Advocates of Self-Regulation
315(1)
Advocates of Legislation
315(1)
Legislation in the 107th and 108th Congresses
316(4)
Internet: Federal Government Web Site Information Practices
320(1)
Spyware
321(1)
Monitoring E-mail and Web Usage by Law Enforcement or Employers
321(1)
Identity Theft and Protecting Social Security Numbers
322(1)
References
323(1)
Screening Workers for Genetic Hypersusceptibility: Potential Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications from the Human Genome Project
323(1)
Abstract
323(10)
Introduction
324(1)
Issues of Risk
324(1)
Basis for Screening
325(1)
Criteria of an Effective and Acceptable Screening Program
325(1)
Reasons to Test
326(1)
Legal Basis for Testing
327(1)
Privacy
327(1)
Confidentiality
327(1)
Discrimination
328(1)
Conclusion
329(3)
References
332(1)
Electronic Signatures: Technology Developments and Legislative Issues
333(5)
Summary
333(1)
Definitions and Technologies Used for Electronic Signatures
333(1)
Congressional Interest in Electronic Signatures
334(1)
The Government Paperwork Elimination Act
335(1)
Federal Use of Commercial Standards
336(1)
Legislation in the 106th Congress
336(1)
Privacy
337(1)
References
338(1)
European Parliament Report on The Existence of a Global System for the Interception of Private and Commercial Communications (ECHELON Interception System)
338(9)
Part 1: Motion for a Resolution---Explanatory Statement
338(1)
Procedural Page
338(1)
Motion for a Resolution
338(1)
The Existence of a Global System for Intercepting Private and Commercial Communications (The ECHELON Interception System)
339(1)
The Limits of the Interception System
339(1)
The Possible Existence of Other Interception Systems
340(1)
Compatibility with EU Law
340(1)
Compatibility with the Fundamental Right to Respect for Private Life (Article 8 of the ECHR)
340(1)
Are EU Citizens Adequately Protected Against Intelligence Services?
341(1)
Industrial Espionage
341(1)
Possible Self-Protection Measures
342(1)
Cooperation Among Intelligence Services Within the EU
343(1)
Conclusion and Amendment of International Agreements on the Protection of Citizens and Firms
343(1)
National Legislative Measures to Protect Citizens and Firms
344(1)
Specific Legal Measures to Combat Industrial Espionage
345(1)
Measures Concerning the Implementation of the Law and the Monitoring of That Implementation
345(1)
Measures to Encourage Self-Protection by Citizens and Firms
346(1)
Other Measures
346(1)
Explanatory Statement
347(17)
Introduction
347(1)
The Reasons for Setting Up the Committee
347(1)
The Claims Made in the Two STOA Studies on a Global Interception System Codenamed ECHELON
347(1)
The Mandate of the Committee
348(1)
Why Not a Committee of Inquiry?
348(1)
Working Method and Schedule
348(1)
Characteristics Ascribed to the ECHELON System
349(1)
The Operations of Foreign Intelligence Services
350(1)
Introduction
350(1)
What is Espionage?
350(1)
Espionage Targets
350(1)
Espionage Methods
350(2)
The Operations of Certain Intelligence Services
352(1)
Technical Conditions Governing the Interception of Telecommunications
353(1)
The Interceptibility of Various Communication Media
353(1)
The Scope for Interception on the Spot
353(1)
The Scope for a Worldwide Interception System
353(3)
The Scope for Interception from Aircraft and Ships
356(1)
The Scope for Interception by Spy Satellites
356(2)
Satellite Communications Technology
358(1)
The Significance of Telecommunications Satellites
358(1)
How a Satellite Link Operates
358(5)
Satellite Communications for Military Purposes
363(1)
Conclusions and Recommendations
364(37)
Conclusions
364(1)
The Existence of a Global System for Intercepting Private and Commercial Communications (The ECHELON Interception System)
364(1)
The Limits of the Interception System
365(1)
The Possible Existence of Other Interception Systems
365(1)
Compatibility with EU Law
365(1)
Compatibility with the Fundamental Right to Respect for Private Life (Article 8 of the ECHR)
365(1)
Are EU Citizens Adequately Protected Against Intelligence Services?
366(1)
Industrial Espionage
366(1)
Possible Self-Protection Measures
367(1)
Cooperation Among Intelligence Services Within the EU
367(1)
Recommendations
367(1)
Conclusion and Amendment of International Agreements on the Protection of Citizens and Firms
367(2)
National Legislative Measures to Protect Citizens and Firms
369(1)
Specific Legal Measures to Combat Industrial Espionage
369(1)
Measures Concerning the Implementation of the Law and the Monitoring of that Implementation
369(1)
Measures to Encourage Self-Protection by Citizens and Firms
370(1)
Measures to Improve Security in the Institutions
370(1)
Other Measures
371(1)
Part 2: Minority Opinions
371(1)
Minority Opinion by Giuseppe Di Lello, Pernille Frahm and Alain Krivine
371(1)
Minority Opinion by Patricia Mckenna and Ilka Schroder
371(1)
Minority Opinion by Jean-Charles Marchiani
372(1)
Minority Opinion by Maurizio Turco
372(1)
Annex I: List of the Experts Who Provided the Committee with Information
373(1)
Members of National Parliaments
373(1)
Representatives of the Secret Services
373(1)
Telecommunications, Network and Computer Security Experts
373(1)
Authors and Journalists Concentrating on the ECHELON System
373(1)
Encryption Experts
373(1)
Experts on Industrial Espionage and Related Issues
374(1)
Human Rights and Protection of Privacy
374(1)
Representatives of European Institutions
374(1)
Interlocutors During Missions
374(1)
Annex II: Bibliography
375(1)
Literature Quoted
375(3)
For Further Reading
378(1)
Annex III: Definitions and Explanations Concerning the Interception of Communications for the Purpose of Criminal Prosecution
379(1)
Preliminary Remarks
379(1)
Distinction Between the Interception of Communications for the Purpose of Criminal Prosecution and for the Purpose of Intelligence Gathering
380(1)
Activities in the EU in the Field of Interception of Communications for the Purpose of Criminal Prosecution
380(2)
Definitions and Explanations Concerning Further International Activities in the Field of Interception of Telecommunications
382(1)
Notes
383(2)
Annex IV. Summary of the Intelligence Services and Parliamentary Control Bodies of the Member States and of the U.K.U.S.A. States
385(16)
Managing Change and Measuring Performance
401(128)
Chapter Highlights
405(2)
When Technology Fails: Managing Technological Misadventures
407(25)
Introduction
407(1)
Historical Background
407(1)
Where Are We?
408(3)
Traditional Views of Causation
411(1)
The Single-Event Model
411(1)
The Chain of Events Model
411(1)
The Factorial Model
411(1)
The ``Fault Tree'' Model
412(1)
Other Concepts of Causation
412(1)
Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) Analysis
412(1)
Root Cause Analysis
413(2)
Wrong Response Number 1: Ducking the Problem
415(1)
Uncertainty, Ambiguity and Vagueness
415(1)
Wrong Response Number 2: Failing to Define the Problem
416(1)
Defining the Problem
416(1)
What Is Failure, and Why Investigate It?
417(1)
Wrong Response Number 3: Blaming Inanimate Objects
418(1)
A New Concept of ``Accident''
419(1)
Wrong Response Number 4: Oversimplification
420(1)
Foundations for Investigation and Analysis
421(1)
Wrong Response Number 5: Leave It to the Lawyers
421(1)
The Right Response for You
422(4)
Investigation Process Selection
426(1)
Multilinear Events Sequencing
426(1)
Apollo Root Cause Analysis
426(1)
``Why--Because'' Analysis
427(1)
Wrong Response Number 6: The Blinding Glimpse of the Obvious
427(1)
The Need for Testing
427(1)
Conclusion
428(1)
References
428(1)
Endnotes
429(3)
Appendix A
432(1)
ASTM Standards Applicable to Investigation Practice (June 2003)
432(1)
Failure Is Not an Option
432(2)
Leadership and Discretionary Decision-Making in a Technocratic Administration: Confronting a New Praxis
434(19)
Abstract
434(1)
Information Technology: Redefining the Administrative Culture
434(2)
Critique of the Traditional Orthodoxy
436(2)
Unfolding Logics of Change and Context
438(1)
Whither Authority?
438(1)
Political Culture: Crisis or Transformation?
439(1)
Organizational Transformation and Discretionary Decision-Making
440(1)
Amorphism and Managerial Flux
441(1)
Reclaiming the Public Purpose
441(1)
Post-modern Organization Theory: Quo Vadis?
442(1)
Structural Redesign
442(2)
Emerging Leadership Vistas
444(5)
Conclusion
449(1)
References
450(3)
Technology Leadership Forecasting and Warning: An Analytic Methodology
453(44)
Executive Summary
453(1)
Foreword
454(2)
Summary of Technology Leadership Forecasting
456(1)
Features of TLF
456(1)
The TLF Methodology
456(1)
Step 1: Definition and Development of the Forecast Issue
457(1)
Step 2: The Analytic Team
457(1)
Step 3: Current Baseline Assessment
458(1)
Step 4: Scenario Building
458(1)
Step 5: Indicator Selection, Tailoring, and Development
458(1)
Step 6: Collection and Monitoring of Indicators
459(1)
Step 7: Selecting a Predominant Scenario
459(1)
Step 8: Technology Leadership Forecasting
459(1)
Step 9: Issue Warning Reports on Technical Development Trends
459(1)
Background
460(1)
Purpose of Technology Leadership Forecasting
460(1)
TLF Requirements
460(1)
TLF Participants
461(1)
Analytic Philosophy of TLF
461(1)
Integrated ``Technospace'' Awareness
462(1)
Building Upon a Methodology for Current Assessments
462(2)
The Concept of Categories and Functional Areas
464(1)
Analytic Methodology for Technology Leadership Forecasting and Warning
465(1)
Step 1: Definition and Development of the Forecast Issue
465(1)
Step 2: The Analytic Team
466(1)
Step 3: Current Baseline Assessment
467(1)
Step 4: Scenario Building
467(3)
Step 4a: Scenario Background Generation
470(1)
Step 4b: Writing the Technology Maturation Scenario
471(4)
Step 5: Indicator Selection, Tailoring, and Development---the Composite Indicator List
475(1)
Step 6: Collection and Monitoring of Indicators
476(1)
Step 7: Selecting a Predominant Scenario
476(1)
Step 8: Technology Leadership Forecasting
477(1)
Step 9: Issue Warning Reports on Technology Development Trends
477(2)
Appendix A
479(1)
Current Baseline Capability Questionnaire for Technology Leadership Forecasting
479(1)
Questionnaire to Assess Current Technology Baseline Capability
479(1)
Operating Environment
479(1)
Human Resources
480(1)
Support Structure
481(1)
Appendix B
481(1)
Generic Indicator Directory for Technology Leadership Forecasting (TLF-GID)
481(1)
Technology Leadership Forecasting Matrix
482(1)
CFA 11: Operating Environment---Basic Research (Includes Economic Incentive, Government Policy, Funding)
482(1)
CFA 12: Operating Environment---Applied Development Research (Includes Economic Incentive, Government Policy, Funding)
482(1)
CFA 13: Operating Environment---Testing and Evaluation (T&E) (Includes Economic Incentive, Government Policy, Funding)
483(1)
CFA 14: Operating Environment---Production (Includes Economic Incentive, Government Policy, Funding)
484(1)
CFA 21: Human Resources---Basic Research (Includes Expertise, Employee and Management Skills, Education Funnel)
484(1)
CFA 22: Human Resources---Applied Development Research (Includes Expertise, Employee and Management Skills, Education Funnel)
485(1)
CFA 23: Human Resources---Applied Development Research (Includes Expertise, Employee and Management Skills, Education Funnel)
486(1)
CFA 24: Human Resources---Production (Includes Expertise, Employee and Management Skills, Education Funnel)
487(1)
CFA 31: Support Infrastructure---Basic Research (Includes Facilities, Equipment, Infrastructure, Resources)
488(1)
CFA 32: Applied Development Research (Includes Support Infrastructure---Applied Development Research Facilities, Equipment, Infrastructure, Resources)
489(1)
CFA 33: Support Infrastructure---Testing and Evaluation (Includes Facilities, Equipment, Infrastructure, Resources)
490(1)
CFA 34: Support Infrastructure---Production (Includes Facilities, Equipment, Infrastructure, Resources)
491(1)
Appendix C
491(1)
Executive Summary
491(1)
Evaluation Structure
492(1)
Evaluation Method
492(3)
Fuzzy Arithmetic
495(1)
Displays of Results
495(1)
Technology Leadership Forecasting
496(1)
Internet Statistics: Explanation and Sources
497(9)
Summary
497(1)
Internet Statistics: Explanation and Sources
497(1)
Significance of the Internet
497(1)
Difficulties in Measuring Internet Usage
497(1)
Number of Users
498(1)
Estimated Size of the Internet
499(1)
Number of Web Sites (Domain Names)
499(1)
Number of Web Hosts
499(2)
Number of Web Pages
501(1)
Invisible Web
502(1)
Conclusion
503(1)
Selected Web Addresses for Internet Statistics
503(1)
Related CRS Products
503(1)
Broadband Access
503(1)
Computer Security
504(1)
Domain Name Management
504(1)
Electronic Commerce and Internet Taxation
504(1)
Electronic Government
504(1)
Information Technology in Schools
504(1)
Internet Privacy
504(1)
Junk E-mail (``Spam'')
504(1)
References
505(1)
The Effect of Information Technology on Learning in Professional Service Organizations
506(12)
Abstract
506(1)
Introduction
506(1)
Organizational Learning Curves
507(1)
Organizational Learning Curve Models in Services
507(1)
Information Technology and Organizational Learning Curves
508(1)
Hypotheses
509(1)
Data Sources
510(1)
Methodology
511(1)
Analysis
512(1)
Results
513(1)
Organizational Learning Curves in Professional Services
513(1)
Information Technology and Organizational Learning Curves
514(1)
Conclusions
515(1)
References
516(2)
The Emotionality of Information and Communication Technology Implementation
518(11)
Abstract
518(1)
Introduction
518(1)
Research on Emotion and ICTs
518(2)
Method
520(1)
The Organisation: Community Services Organisation
520(1)
Critical Events: The First Two Training Sessions
521(1)
Training Session One: Confusion, Humour, Excitement and the Beginnings of Frustration
521(2)
The Second Training Session: Frustration Mounts
523(1)
Interpretation and Discussion
524(1)
The Ambiguity of Emotion and ICT Implementation
524(1)
Influencing Others' Interpretations of Emotions
525(1)
Emotional Expression as Instrumental
525(1)
The Emotional Labour of Change Agents
526(1)
Conclusion
527(1)
Acknowledgment
527(1)
References
527(2)
Technology's Contribution to Quality
529(44)
Chapter Highlights
530(1)
Practical Information Technology Management: Aligning IT with Organizational Goals
531(13)
Introduction
531(1)
Tech Tip: Good Technology Versus High Technology
532(1)
Terms
532(1)
Information Technology Types
532(1)
Information Technology Management Approaches
533(1)
Investment Dimensions
533(1)
Types of Projects and Investments
533(1)
Section 1: Aligning Technology with the Organization
534(1)
Business
534(1)
Tech Tip: Standards
535(1)
eBusiness
536(1)
Tech Tip: Business Process Automation, Making eBusiness Work Between Two Companies
536(1)
Business Tip: Rules for eBusiness
537(1)
Section 2: Tightly Manage the Technology
537(1)
Platform Minimization
538(1)
Business Tip: Strategic Sourcing
538(1)
Using Your Technology
538(1)
Selecting an Investment Framework
539(2)
Business Tips: Selecting and Justifying Information Technology Expenditures
541(1)
Section 3: Using the Information
541(1)
Static Data
541(1)
Data in Motion
542(1)
Moving Forward
542(1)
Appendix A
543(1)
Technologies Defined
543(1)
Bibliography
543(1)
Additional Recommended Reading
544(1)
Technology---Displacing the Art of Medicine?
544(5)
Internal Medical Technologies
544(1)
External Medical Technologies
545(1)
Sustaining Technology
545(1)
Disruptive Technology
546(1)
Research Technology
546(1)
Cumulative Spending for External Technologies
547(1)
Baumol's Economic Disorder
547(1)
Wrapping of Care
547(1)
The Fisherman's Paradox
548(1)
At the Interface
548(1)
Notes
548(1)
Making Technology Work for the State Courts
549(8)
Information Technology Management
551(1)
What Court Leaders Need to Know and Be Able to Do
551(1)
Court Purposes and Processes
551(1)
Vision and Leadership
551(1)
Fundamentals
552(1)
Technology Management
552(1)
Projects
552(1)
Curriculum Guidelines: Required Knowledge, Skill, and Ability
552(1)
Court Purposes and Processes
552(1)
Vision and Leadership
553(1)
Fundamentals
554(1)
Technology Management
555(1)
Projects
556(1)
The Technology of Records Management
557(7)
Court Administrators' Role and Responsibilities
557(2)
Records Management, Generally
559(1)
Digital Storage of Court Records
559(2)
Long-Term Storage on Microfilm
561(1)
Conclusion
562(1)
Notes
563(1)
The Power of Technology in the Courts: The California Experience
564(9)
Introduction
564(1)
Technology Applications
565(1)
Appellate Court Automation
566(1)
Systemwide Technology
567(3)
Notes
570(1)
Selected Bibliography
570(3)
National Security Issues
573(92)
Introduction
575(8)
Emerging Technology Adoption
576(1)
Positive/Negative Technology Lists
576(1)
Successful Versus Unsuccessful Technologies
577(1)
Key Characteristics of Successful Technologies
577(1)
Key Characteristics of Failed Technologies
577(1)
National Security View of Technology Management
577(3)
Management of Strategic Information Technology
580(1)
Cyber-Terrorism
580(1)
The Victims
581(1)
History's First ``Undeclared'' Cyber-War
582(1)
References
583(1)
The Perception of Economic Risks Arising from the Potential Vulnerability of Electronic Commercial Media to Interception
583(19)
Introduction
583(1)
Key Findings
584(2)
Part A: Options
586(1)
Part B: Arguments and Evidence
587(3)
Part C: Technical File
590(1)
Definitions
590(1)
Surveillance: Tools and Techniques---The State of the Art
590(1)
Physical Surveillance
590(1)
Communications Surveillance
590(1)
The Use of Surveillance Technology Systems for the Transmission and Collection of Economic Information
591(2)
The Nature of Economic Information Selected by Surveillance Technology Systems
593(1)
Examples of Abuse of Economic Information
593(1)
Example 1
593(1)
Example 2
593(1)
Example 3
594(1)
Example 4
594(1)
Example 5
594(1)
Example 6
595(1)
Protection from Electronic Surveillance
595(1)
Surveillance Technology Systems in Legal and Regulatory Context
596(1)
Law Enforcement Data Interception---Policy Development
597(3)
References
600(2)
Supercomputers, Test Ban Treaties, and the Virtual Bomb
602(13)
Supercomputers: A Quid for Russian CTBT Signature
604(1)
Going Virtual---What Does It Mean?
605(3)
Verification Technologies Made Irrelevant
608(3)
Conclusion
611(3)
Notes
614(1)
Geography and International Inequalities: The Impact of New Technologies
615(21)
Abstract
615(1)
Introduction
616(2)
Does Distance Matter?
618(1)
Distance and Economic Interactions
618(1)
Distance and Real Income
619(3)
What Determines Distance Costs and How Are They Changing?
622(1)
Searching and Matching
623(1)
Moving Inputs and Outputs
623(2)
Monitoring and Management
625(1)
The Costs of Time in Transit
626(3)
Where Will Activities Move?
629(3)
Conclusions
632(1)
Appendix
632(2)
Notes
634(1)
References
634(1)
Centre for Economic Performance---Recent Discussion Papers
635(1)
Weapons of Mass Destruction in India and Pakistan
636(18)
U.S. CIA Estimate of Indian Force Developments as of September 2001
636(1)
U.S. Department of Defense Estimate of Indian Actions and Intentions Involving Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons
637(1)
Objectives, Strategies, and Resources
637(1)
Nuclear Program
638(1)
Biological and Chemical Programs
639(1)
India: NBC Weapons and Missile Program
639(1)
Ballistic Missiles
640(1)
Cruise Missiles and Other Means of Delivery
640(1)
India's Search for Weapons of Mass Destruction, India and Weapons of Mass Destruction
641(1)
Delivery Systems
641(4)
Chemical Weapons
645(1)
Biological Weapons
646(1)
Nuclear Weapons
647(3)
Missile Defenses
650(1)
U.S. CIA Estimate of Pakistani Force Developments as of September 2001
650(1)
U.S. Department of Defense Estimate of Pakistani Actions and Intentions Involving Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons
651(1)
Objectives, Strategies, and Resources
651(1)
Nuclear Program
652(1)
Biological and Chemical Programs
653(1)
Ballistic Missiles
654(1)
Cruise Missiles and Other Means of Delivery
654(1)
CIA Estimate of Pakistani Missile Force Trends---January 2002
654(1)
Ballistic Missile Programs
654(1)
Pakistan and Nuclear Weapons
655(10)
Delivery Systems
655(3)
Chemical Weapons
658(1)
Biological Weapons
658(1)
Nuclear Weapons
659(6)
Negotiating Technology Issues
665(106)
Chapter Highlights
667(2)
Reference
668(1)
``We're in It to Win It''---Negotiating Successful Outsourcing Transactions
669(2)
Introduction
669(1)
Step One: Establish the Requirement
669(1)
Step Two: Identify the Project Sponsor
669(1)
Step Three: Set Up the Teams
669(1)
Step Four: Develop the ITT
670(1)
Step Five: Run the Procurement Process
670(1)
Step Six: Award the Contract
670(1)
Conclusion
671(1)
Technology and International Negotiations
671(35)
Introduction
671(2)
The Period Prior to Focused Negotiations
673(1)
Setting the Stage for the Law of the Sea Conference
673(1)
The Prenegotiation Period in Perspective
674(1)
Pressure for Early International Negotiations
675(3)
Nonbinding Forums
678(1)
Pace of Prenegotiation Activity
679(2)
The Negotiation Period
681(1)
Options
681(1)
Management of Issues Involving Advanced Technology
682(1)
The Deep Seabed Mining Negotiations
682(1)
Economic Implications of Deep Seabed Mining
682(2)
Financial Arrangements Between Exploiters and the Authority
684(2)
Other Law of the Sea Conference Issues
686(1)
Limits of the Continental Shelf
686(1)
Archipelagoes
687(1)
Marine Living Resources and the Marine Environment
687(1)
Conclusion
688(1)
Role of Technical Information at Multilateral Negotiations
688(1)
Timing of the Negotiations
688(1)
Scope of the Negotiating Objectives and Solutions
689(1)
Management of the Technical Questions
689(1)
Information Generation
690(1)
Introducing Information into the Negotiation
691(1)
Evaluating and Integrating Technical Data into the Negotiation
691(1)
Conclusion
692(1)
Notes
693(13)
Member Trust in Teams: A Synthesized Analysis of Contract Negotiation in Outsourcing IT Work
706(16)
Abstract
706(1)
General Background
707(1)
A Synthesis of Definitions
707(1)
The Importance of Novel Environments and Trust
708(1)
The Social Context of Negotiating IT Work
708(1)
A Proposed Framework
709(1)
Task-Oriented Effects
710(1)
Communication of Management Support
710(1)
Strategic Importance of the Negotiation Effort
711(1)
Communication of Organizational Objectives
712(1)
Team-Interaction Effects
712(1)
Improved Knowledge Sharing
713(1)
Diffusion Effects in Requirements Development
713(1)
Process-Oriented Team Effects
714(1)
The Use of Power in Teams
714(1)
Linear Communication Practices in Contract Negotiations
715(1)
Scouting Activities Between Teams in the Larger Social Context
715(1)
Requisite Team Member Effects
716(1)
Team Member Perceptions of Individual Opportunities
716(1)
Team Member Perceptions of External IT Expertise
716(1)
Conclusion
717(1)
References
718(4)
Methodologies for the Design of Negotiation Protocols on E-Markets
722(16)
Abstract
722(1)
Introduction
723(1)
Design Methodologies
723(1)
Game-Theoretic Analysis of Negotiations
724(1)
Mechanism Design Theory
725(1)
Computational Economics and Simulation
726(1)
Experimental Economics
727(1)
Design of a Matching Mechanism for OTC Derivatives
728(1)
Trading Financial Derivatives
728(1)
Multi-Attribute Auctions
729(1)
An Internet-Based Marketplace for OTC Derivatives
730(1)
Research Questions
731(1)
Game-Theoretic Analyses
732(1)
Computational Exploration and Simulation
733(2)
Laboratory Experimentation
735(1)
Experimental Design
735(1)
Comparison of Equilibrium Values
735(1)
Efficiency of Multi-Attribute Auctions
736(1)
Conclusions
736(1)
References
737(1)
Using Computers to Realize Joint Gains in Negotiations: Toward an ``Electronic Bargaining Table''
738(19)
Abstract
738(1)
Introduction
739(1)
Background
739(1)
A Framework for System Development
739(1)
Existing Negotiation Support Systems
740(1)
Evaluation of NSS
741(1)
Negotiation Assistant: Design and Operation
742(1)
Design Criteria
742(1)
Operation
743(2)
Experiment and Results
745(1)
Hypotheses
745(1)
The Negotiation Scenario
746(1)
Experimental Setup
746(2)
Results
748(4)
Discussion and Conclusions
752(2)
Notes
754(2)
References
756(1)
A Conceptual Framework on the Adoption of Negotiation Support Systems
757(14)
Abstract
757(1)
Introduction
758(1)
Negotiation Support Systems and Adoption Models
758(1)
Data Analysis
759(3)
Implications of Findings
762(1)
Conceptual Framework
763(1)
Organizational Culture
764(1)
Industry Characteristics
765(1)
Other Implications
766(1)
Concluding Remarks
766(1)
Notes
767(1)
References
767(4)
Technology and the Professions
771(74)
Chapter Highlights
773(2)
Teaching Science and Technology Principles to Non-Technologists---Lessons Learned
775(10)
Abstract
775(5)
Pedagogical Dilemmas
780(2)
Responding to the Need
782(1)
Context
782(1)
Connection to the Real World Is Critical to Capturing the Interest of the Student Audience
783(1)
Provide Historical Perspectives
783(1)
Insist on Clear Expression
783(1)
De-emphasize the Memorization of Technical Vocabulary
783(1)
Don't Evangelize. Don't Sell
784(1)
Future Direction
784(1)
Notes
784(1)
References
785(1)
Internet Addiction, Usage, Gratification, and Pleasure Experience: The Taiwan College Students' Case
785(13)
Abstract
785(1)
Introduction
785(1)
Research Assumptions and Questions
786(1)
Literature Review
787(2)
Methods
789(1)
Instruments
789(1)
Subjects and Distribution Process
790(1)
Results
791(1)
Factor Analysis of C-IRABI-II and PIEU-II
791(1)
Questionnaire Scores, Usage Hours, and Impact Ratings
792(1)
Internet Addicts Versus Non-Addicts
792(1)
Addicts' Versus Non-Addicts' Internet Use Hours and Questionnaire Scores
793(2)
Regression Analysis of Internet Addiction
795(1)
Discussions and Conclusion
795(2)
Acknowledgments
797(1)
References
797(1)
Ensuring the IT Workforce of the Future: A Private Sector View
798(3)
IBM's Experience
798(1)
Getting Compensation Right
798(1)
Keys to Success
799(1)
Commitment of Senior Management
799(1)
Phase Approach
799(1)
Classification
799(1)
Common Pay Increase
799(1)
Pay Differentiation
799(1)
Work/Life Options
800(1)
Telecommuting
800(1)
Professional Development
800(1)
Clear Communication
800(1)
Conclusion
801(1)
Organizational Passages: Context, Complexities, and Confluence
801(12)
Introduction
801(1)
Start-Up Phase
802(1)
Brief Description
802(1)
Operating Functions
802(2)
Transition Functions
804(1)
Small Business Phase
804(1)
Brief Description
804(1)
Operating Functions
804(1)
Transition Functions
805(1)
Middle Market Phase
806(1)
Brief Description
806(1)
Operating Functions
806(1)
Transition Functions
807(1)
Leadership Business
807(1)
Brief Description
807(1)
Operating Functions
808(1)
Transition Functions
809(1)
Maladaptive Business
809(1)
Brief Description
809(1)
Operating Functions
809(1)
Transition Functions
810(1)
Conclusion
811(1)
References
812(1)
Improving Technological Literacy
813(6)
Abstract
813(1)
Introduction
813(1)
What Is Technology?
814(1)
Hallmarks of Technological Literacy
815(2)
Laying the Foundation
817(2)
Knowledge Management
819(9)
Anecdotes
819(1)
Origami
819(1)
Stuff We Know
820(1)
My Work
820(1)
The Internet
820(1)
Information Revolution
820(2)
Kinds of Knowledge---In General
822(1)
Knowledge of What?
822(1)
From Data to Wisdom and All the Steps in Between
823(1)
Too Much Knowledge?
824(1)
Implications of Knowledge Management to Companies
825(1)
Accounting Doesn't Cut It
825(1)
Kinds of Capital
826(1)
Human Capital
826(1)
Structural Capital
827(1)
Customer Capital
827(1)
Conclusion
828(1)
Notes
828(1)
Legal Pluralism and the Adjudication of Internet Disputes
828(17)
Abstract
828(1)
Introduction
829(1)
The Three-Stage Argument
829(3)
Legal Pluralism
832(1)
Values on the Internet
833(1)
Case Study
834(6)
Conclusion
840(1)
Notes and References
841(3)
Further Reading
844(1)
Index 845

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