The Heritage of World Civilizations Combined Volume

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-12-30
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Written by leading scholars in their respective fields, The Heritage of World Civilizationsoffers compelling and thorough coverage of the unique heritage of Asian, African,#xA0;Middle Eastern, European, and American civilizations, while highlighting the role of the world's great religious and philosophical traditions.

Author Biography

Albert M. Craig is the Harvard-Yenching Research Professor of History Emeritus at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1959. A graduate of Northwestern University, he received his Ph.D. at Harvard University. He has studied at Strasbourg University and at Kyoto, Keio, and Tokyo universities in Japan. He is the author of Choshu in the Meiji Restoration  (1961), The Heritage of Japanese Civilization (2011), and, with others, of East Asia , Tradition and Transformation (1989). He is the editor of Japan , A Comparative View (1973) and co-editor of Personality in Japanese History (1970), Civilization and

Enlightnment: the Early Thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi  (2009). He was the director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute. He has also been a visiting professor at Kyoto and Tokyo universities. He has received Guggenheim, Fulbright, and Japan Foundation Fellowships. In 1988 he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government.


William A. Graham is Albertson Professor of Middle Eastern Studies in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and O’Brian Professor of Divinity and Dean in the Faculty of Divinity at Harvard University, where he has taught for thirty-four years. He has directed the Center for Middle Eastern Studies and chaired the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, the Committee on the Study of Religion, and the Core Curriculum Committee on Foreign Cultures. He received his BA in Comparative Literature from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, an A.M. and Ph.D. in History of Religion from Harvard, and studied also in Göttingen, Tübingen, Lebanon, and London. He is former chair of the Council on Graduate Studies in Religion (U.S. and Canada). In 2000 he received the quinquennial Award for Excellence in Research in Islamic History and Culture from the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. He has held John Simon Guggenheim and Alexander von Humboldt research fellowships and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his publications are Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (1987); Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977—ACLS History of Religions Prize, 1978); and Three Faiths, One God (co-authored, 2003).


Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958—1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.


Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250–1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Public Interest 158 (2005).


Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain  (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award,  Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life  (1993), and  John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion  (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.


Table of Contents

Documents xix

Maps xxi

Preface xxiii



Part 1

Human Origins and Early Civilizations

to 500 B.C.E.



The Birth of Civilization 1

Early Humans and Their Culture 2

The Paleolithic Age 2

Global Perspective: Civilizations 2

The Neolithic Age 3

The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization 7

Early Civilizations in the Middle East

to About 1000 B.C.E. 8

Mesopotamian Civilization 8

A Closer Look: Babylonian World Map 13

Egyptian Civilization 14

Ancient Near Eastern Empires 20

The Hittites 21

The Kassites 21

The Mitannians 21

The Assyrians 21

The Second Assyrian Empire 22

The Neo-Babylonians 23

Early Indian Civilization 23

The Indus Civilization 23

The Vedic Aryan Civilization 26

Early Chinese Civilization 30

Neolithic Origins in the Yellow River Valley 30

Early Bronze Age: The Shang 31

Late Bronze Age: The Western Zhou 32

Iron Age: The Eastern Zhou 32

The Rise of Civilization in the Americas 35

Summary 37

Key Terms 38

Review Questions 38



Four Great Revolutions in Thought

and Religion 40

Comparing the Four Great Revolutions 41

Philosophy in China 41

Global Perspective: Philosophy and Religion 42

Confucianism 43

Daoism 46

Legalism 49

Religion in India 49

“Hindu” and “Indian” 49

Historical Background 49

The Upanishadic Worldview 50

Mahavira and the Jain Tradition 52

The Buddha’s Middle Path 54

A Closer Look: Statue of Siddhartha Gotama

as Fasting Ascetic (2nd Century C.E.) 55

The Religion of the Israelites 56

From Hebrew Nomads to the Israelite Nation 57

The Monotheistic Revolution 58

Greek Philosophy 61

Reason and the Scientific Spirit 63

Political and Moral Philosophy 65

Summary 70

Key Terms 70

Review Questions 71

Religions of the World: Judaism 72



Part 2

Empires and Cultures of the Ancient World,

1000 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.



Greek and Hellenistic Civilization 74

The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to

ca. 1150 B.C.E. 75

The Minoans 75

The Mycenaeans 76

Global Perspective: The Achievement of Greek

and Hellenistic Civilization 76

Greek “Middle Age” to ca. 750 B.C.E. 77

The Age of Homer 78

The Polis 80

Development of the Polis 80

The Hoplite Phalanx 81

Expansion of the Greek World 82

Greek Colonies 82

The Tyrants (ca. 700–500 B.C.E.) 82

Life in Archaic Greece 84

Society 84

Religion 85

Poetry 87

Major City-States 87



The Persian Wars 91

Ionian Rebellion 91

The War in Greece 92

A Closer Look: The Trireme 93

Classical Greece 94

The Delian League 94

The First Peloponnesian War 94

The Athenian Empire 96

Athenian Democracy 96

Women of Athens 97

The Great Peloponnesian War 98

Struggle for Greek Leadership 100

Fifth Century B.C.E. 102

Fourth Century B.C.E. 104

Emergence of the Hellenistic World 104

Macedonian Conquest 104

Alexander the Great and His Successors 105

Death of Alexander 108

Alexander’s Successors 108

Hellenistic Culture 109

Literature 110

Architecture and Sculpture 111

Mathematics and Science 112

Summary 113

Key Terms 113

Review Questions 113




West Asia, Inner Asia, and South Asia

to 1000 C.E. 115

Global Perspective: Indo-Iranian Roles

in the Eurasian World before Islam 116


The Ancient Background 118

The Elamites 118

The Iranian Peoples 119

Ancient Iranian Religion 120

Zoroaster and the Zoroastrian Tradition 120

The First Persian Empire in the Iranian Plateau

(550–330 B.C.E.) 120

The Achaemenids 120

The Achaemenid State 122

The Achaemenid Economy 123

The Seleucid Successors to Alexander in the East

(ca. 312–63 B.C.E.) 124

The Parthian Arsacid Empire

(ca. 247 B.C.E.–223 C.E.) 124

The Indo-Greeks, Sythians, and Kushans 125

Sythians and Kushans 126

The Sasanid Empire (224–651 C.E.) 126

Society and Economy 128

Religion 128

Later Sasanid Developments 131

SOUTH ASIA TO 1000 C.E. 131

The First Indian Empire: The Mauryas

(321–185 B.C.E.) 131

Political Background 131

The Mauryas 131

The Consolidation of Indian Civilization

(ca. 200 B.C.E.–300 C.E.) 134

A Closer Look: Lion Capital of Ashoka

at Sarnath 135

The Economic Base 136

High Culture 136

Religion and Society 136

The Golden Age of the Guptas (ca. 320–550 C.E.) 137

Gupta Rule 137

Gupta Culture 138

The Development of “Classical” Indian Civilization

(ca. 300–1000 C.E.) 138

Society 138

Religion 140

Summary 143

Key Terms 144

Review Questions 145

Religions of the World: Hinduism 146




Africa: Early History to 1000 C.E. 148

Issues of Interpretation, Sources, and Disciplines 149

The Question of “Civilization” 149

Source Issues 149

History and Disciplinary Boundaries 149

Physical Description of the Continent 150

Global Perspective: “Traditional” Peoples

and Nontraditional Histories 150

African Peoples 154

Africa and Early Human Culture 154

Diffusion of Languages and Peoples 154

“Race” and Physiological Variation 155

The Sahara and the Sudan to the Beginning

of the Common Era 157

Early Saharan Cultures 157

Neolithic Sudanic Cultures 157

The Early Iron Age and the Nok Culture 158

Nilotic Africa and the Ethiopian Highlands 158

The Kingdom of Kush 158

The Napatan Empire 159

The Meroitic Empire 159

The Aksumite Empire 161

Isolation of Christian Ethiopia 163

The Western and Central Sudan 163

Agriculture, Trade, and the Rise of Urban Centers 163

Formation of Sudanic Kingdoms in the First

Millennium 165

Central, Southern, and East Africa 167

Bantu Expansion and Diffusion 167

A Closer Look: Four Rock Art Paintings from

Tassili n-Ajjer (4000–2000 B.C.E.) 168

The Khoisan and Twa Peoples 170

East Africa170

Summary 173

Key Terms 173

Review Questions 174




Republican and Imperial Rome 175

Prehistoric Italy 176

The Etruscans 176

Royal Rome 176

Global Perspective: Republican

and Imperial Rome 176

Government 177

Family 177

Clientage 177

Patricians and Plebeians 178

The Republic 178

Constitution 178

Conquest of Italy 179

Rome and Carthage 179

A Closer Look: Lictors 180

The Republic’s Conquest of the Hellenistic World 183

Civilization in the Early Roman Republic:

Greek Influence 183

Religion 183

Education 184

Roman Imperialism 185

Aftermath of Conquest 185

The Gracchi 186

Marius and Sulla 187

War against the Italian Allies (90–88 B.C.E.) 188

Sulla’s Dictatorship 188

The Fall of the Republic 188

Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar 188

The First Triumvirate 188

The Dictatorship of Julius Caesar 188

The Second Triumvirate and the Emergence of Octavian 189

The Augustan Principate 189

Administration 190

The Army and Defense 190

Religion and Morality 191

Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages 191

The Late Republic 191

The Age of Augustus 192

Peace and Prosperity: Imperial Rome (14–180 C.E.) 193

Administration of the Empire 195

Culture of the Early Empire 197

Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment House 198

The Rise of Christianity 198

Jesus of Nazareth 199

Paul of Tarsus 199

Organization 200

Persecution of Christians 201

Emergence of Catholicism 201

Rome as a Center of the Early Church 202

The Crisis of the Third Century 202

Barbarian Invasions 202

Economic Difficulties 202

The Social Order 202

Civil Disorder 203

The Late Empire 203

The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization 203

Diocletian 203


Triumph of Christianity 205

Arts and Letters in the Late Empire 207

Preservation of Classical Culture 207

Christian Writers 207

The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in

the West 208

Summary 208

Key Terms 210

Review Questions 210




China’s First Empire, 221 B.C.E.–589 C.E. 212

Qin Unification of China 213

Global Perspective: China’s First Empire 214

Former Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E.–8 C.E.) 215

The Dynastic Cycle 215

Early Years of the Former Han Dynasty 215

Han Wudi 216

The Xiongnu 216

A Closer Look: The Terra-Cotta Army of the First

Qin Emperor 217

Government during the Former Han 218

The Silk Road 220

Decline and Usurpation 221

Later Han (25–220 C.E.) and Its Aftermath 222

First Century 222

Decline during the Second Century 222

Aftermath of Empire 222

Han Thought and Religion 224

Han Confucianism 224

History 225

Neo-Daoism 225

Buddhism 227

Summary 230

Key Terms 230

Review Questions 230



Part 3

Consolidation and Interaction of World

Civilizations, 500 C.E. to 1500 C.E.



Imperial China, 589–1368 232

Reestablishment of Empire: Sui (589–618) and Tang

(618–907) Dynasties 233

The Sui Dynasty 233

The Tang Dynasty 233

Global Perspective: Imperial China 234

A Closer Look: A Tang Painting

of the Goddess of Mercy 242

Transition to Late Imperial China: The Song Dynasty

(960–1279) 244

Agricultural Revolution of the Song: From Serfs to Free

Farmers 244

Commercial Revolution of the Song 245

Government: From Aristocracy to Autocracy 247

Song Culture 249

China in the Mongol World Empire: The Yuan Dynasty

(1279–1368) 252

Rise of the Mongol Empire 252

Mongol Rule in China 253

Foreign Contacts and Chinese Culture 255

Last Years of the Yuan 258

Summary 258

Key Terms 258

Review Questions 259




Early Japanese History 260

Japanese Origins 261

The Jo-mon, Japan’s Old Stone Age 261

The Yayoi Revolution 262

Global Perspective: East Asia 262

Tomb Culture, the Yamato State, and Korea 263

Religion in Early Japan 265

Nara and Heian Japan 267

Court Government 267

People, Land, and Taxes 269

Rise of the Samurai 270

Aristocratic Culture and Buddhism 270

Chinese Tradition in Japan 271

The Birth of Japanese Literature 273

Nara and Heian Buddhism 274

Japan’s Early Feudal Age 276

The Kamakura Era 276

A Closer Look: The East Meets the East 278

The Question of Feudalism 279

The Ashikaga Era 280

Women in Warrior Society 281

Agriculture, Commerce, and Medieval Guilds 281

Buddhism and Medieval Culture 282

Japanese Pietism: Pure Land

and Nichiren Buddhism 282

Zen Buddhism 283

No- Plays 285

Summary 285

Key Terms 286

Review Questions 286

Religions of the World: Buddhism 288




The Formation of Islamic Civilization,

622–1000 290

Origins and Early Development 291

The Setting 291

Muhammad and the Qur’an 292

Global Perspective: The Early Islamic Worlds

of Arab and Persian Cultures 292

Women in Early Islamic Society 295

Early Islamic Conquests 297

Course of Conquest 297

Factors of Success 297

The New Islamic World Order 298

A Closer Look: The Dome of the Rock,

Jerusalem (Interior) 300

The Caliphate 301

The Ulama 302

The Umma 303

The High Caliphate 306

The Abbasid State 306

Society 306

Decline 306

Islamic Culture in the Classical Era 307

Intellectual Traditions 308

Language and Literature 309

Art and Architecture 309

Summary 311

Key Terms 311

Review Questions 311




The Byzantine Empire and Western

Europe to 1000 313

The End of the Western Roman Empire 314

Global Perspective: The Early Middle Ages 314

The Byzantine Empire 316

The Reign of Justinian 317

The Impact of Islam on East and West 325

Byzantium’s Contribution to Islamic Civilization 326

The Western Debt to Islam 326

The Developing Roman Church 327

Monastic Culture 328

The Doctrine of Papal Primacy 329

Division of Christendom 330

The Kingdom of the Franks 331

Merovingians and Carolingians: From Clovis to

Charlemagne 331

Reign of Charlemagne (768–814) 332

A Closer Look: A Multicultural Book Cover 337

Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom 338

Feudal Society 339

Origins 340

Vassalage and the Fief 341

Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty 342

Summary 342

Key Terms 343

Review Questions 343




The Islamic World, 1000–1500 345


Religion and Society 346

Consolidation of a Sunni Orthopraxy 346

Global Perspective: The Expansion of Islamic

Civilization, 1000–1500 346

Sufi Piety and Organization 350

Consolidation of Shi’ite Traditions 351

Regional Developments 351

Spain , North Africa, and the Western Mediterranean

Islamic World 351

Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean Islamic World 352

The Islamic East: Asia before the Mongol Conquests 355

Islamic Asia in the Mongol Age 356

A Closer Look: Al-Hariri, Assemblies

(Maqamat) 358

The Spread of Islam beyond the Heartlands 360


The Spread of Islam to South Asia 360

Muslim–Hindu Encounter 362

Islamic States and Dynasties 363

Southeast Asia363

Religious and Cultural Accommodation 364

Hindu and Other Indian Traditions 366

Summary 366

Key Terms 367

Review Questions 367




Ancient Civilizations of the Americas 369

Global Perspective: Ancient Civilizations

of the Americas 370

Problems in Reconstructing the History

of Native American Civilization 371

Mesoamerica 372

Mesoamerican Ball Games 373

The Formative Period and the Emergence

of Mesoamerican Civilization 374

The Olmec 375

The Valley of Oaxaca and the Rise of Monte Alban 376

The Emergence of Writing and the Mesoamerican

Calendar 376

The Classic Period in Mesoamerica 376

Teotihuacán 377

A Closer Look: The Pyramid of the Sun

in Teotihuacán 378

The Maya 379

The Post-Classic Period 383

The Toltecs 384

The Aztecs 384

Andean South America 390

The Preceramic and the Initial Periods 391

Chavín de Huantar and the Early Horizon 392

The Early Intermediate Period 392

Nazca 392

Moche 393

The Middle Horizon through the Late

Intermediate Period 394

Tiwanaku and Huari 394

The Chimu Empire 395

The Inca Empire 395

Summary 398

Key Terms 399

Review Questions 399




Africa ca. 1000–1700 401

North Africa and Egypt 402

The Spread of Islam South of the Sahara 402

Global Perspective: Africa, 1000–1700 402

Sahelian Empires of the Western and Central Sudan 404




Kanem and Kanem-Bornu 410

The Eastern Sudan 412

The Forestlands—Coastal West and

Central Africa 412

West African Forest Kingdoms: The Example

of Benin 412

A Closer Look: Benin Bronze Plaque with Chief

and Two Attendants 413

European Arrivals on the Coastlands 414

Central Africa415

East Africa 417

Swahili Culture and Commerce 417

The Portuguese and the Omanis of Zanzibar 419

Southern Africa 419

Southeastern Africa: “Great Zimbabwe” 419

The Portuguese in Southeastern Africa 420

South Africa : The Cape Colony 421

Summary 422

Key Terms 422

Review Questions 422




Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline,

and Renaissance 424

Revival of Empire, Church, and Towns 425

Otto I and the Revival of the Empire 425

The Reviving Catholic Church 425

The Crusades 426

Global Perspective: The High Middle Ages

in Western Europe 426

A Closer Look: European Embrace

of a Black Saint 431

Towns and Townspeople 432

Society 436

The Order of Life 436

Medieval Women 439

Growth of National Monarchies 440

England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines

(1214) 440

France in the Thirteenth Century: Reign of Louis IX 441

The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152–1272) 442

Political and Social Breakdown 444

Hundred Years’War 444

The Black Death 444

New Conflicts and Opportunities 447

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival:

The Late Medieval Church 447

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair 447

The Great Schism (1378–1417) and the Conciliar

Movement to 1449 448

The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527) 448

The Italian City-State: Social Conflict and Despotism 449

Humanism 449

Renaissance Art in and beyond Italy 451

Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions

(1494–1527) 452

Niccolò Machiavelli 453

Revival of Monarchy: Nation Building

in the Fifteenth Century 454

Medieval Russia 455




Summary 457

Key Terms 458

Review Questions 458




Part 4

The World in Transition, 1500 to 1850



Europe, 1500–1650: Expansion, Reformation,

and Religious Wars 460

The Discovery of a New World 461

The Portuguese Chart the Course 461

The Spanish Voyages of Christopher Columbus 462

Global Perspective: European Expansion 462

Impact on Europe and America 463

The Reformation 463

Religion and Society 465

Popular Movements and Criticism of the Church 465

Secular Control over Religious Life 466

The Northern Renaissance 466

Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525 467

Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation 472

Anabaptists and Radical Protestants 472

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation 472

Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation 473

The English Reformation to 1553 474

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation 475

The Reformation’s Achievements 476

Religion in Fifteenth-Century Life 477

Religion in Sixteenth-Century Life 478

Family Life in Early Modern Europe 478

A Closer Look: A Contemporary Commentary

on the Sexes 479

The Wars of Religion 480

French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) 481

Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II

(1556–1598) 483

England and Spain (1558–1603) 484

The Thirty Years’War (1618–1648) 485

Superstition and Enlightenment: The Battle Within 487

Witch Hunts and Panic 487

Writers and Philosophers 488

Summary 492

Key Terms 492

Review Questions 492

Religions of the World: Christianity 494




Conquest and Exploitation: The Development

of the Transatlantic Economy 496

Periods of European Overseas Expansion 497

Mercantilist Theory of Economic Exploitation 498

Global Perspective: The Atlantic World 498

Establishment of the Spanish Empire in America 500

Conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas 500

The Roman Catholic Church in Spanish America 501

Economies of Exploitation in the Spanish Empire 503

Varieties of Economic Activity 503

Commercial Regulation and the Flota System 505

Colonial Brazil 507

French and British Colonies in North America 509

The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, and

Agriculture 510

Diseases Enter the Americas 511

Animals and Agriculture 513

Slavery in the Americas 515

The Background of Slavery 515

Establishment of Slavery 516

The Plantation Economy and Transatlantic Trade 517

Slavery on the Plantations 517

Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade 518

Slavery and Slaving in Africa 519

The African Side of the Transatlantic Trade 520

The Extent of the Slave Trade 522

Consequences of the Slave Trade for Africa 522

A Closer Look: The Slave Ship Brookes 525

Summary 526

Key Terms 527

Review Questions 527




East Asia in the Late Traditional Era 529

Global Perspective: East Asia in the Late

Traditional Era 530


Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911) Dynasties 531

Land and People 531

China’s Third Commercial Revolution 532

Political System 534

Ming–Qing Foreign Relations 540

Ming–Qing Culture 544


Warring States Era (1467–1600) 547

War of All against All 547

Foot Soldier Revolution 547

Foreign Relations and Trade 549

Tokugawa Era (1600–1868) 550

Political Engineering and Economic Growth during the

Seventeenth Century 550

Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries 555

A Closer Look: Bridal Procession 558

Languages of East Asia 559

Tokugawa Culture 559


Korea 565

Early History 565

Choson Dynasty 567

Vietnam 569

Vietnam in Southeast Asia 569

Vietnamese Origins 569

A Millennium of Chinese Rule: 111 B.C.E.–939 C.E. 570

An Independent Vietnam 571

The March South 571

Summary 573

Key Terms 573

Review Questions 573




State Building and Society in Early Modern

Europe 575

European Political Consolidation 576

Two Models of European Political Development 576

Global Perspective: Early Modern Europe 576

Toward Parliamentary Government in England 577

The “Glorious Revolution” 578

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World

of Louis XIV 580

Years of Personal Rule 581

A Closer Look: Versailles 582

Russia Enters the European Political Arena 583

Birth of the Romanov Dynasty 583

Peter the Great 583

The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction 586

The Rise of Prussia 587

European Warfare: From Continental to World

Conflict 588

The Wars of Louis XIV 588

The Eighteenth-Century Colonial Arena 590

War of Jenkins’s Ear 590

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) 590

The Seven Years’War (1756–1763) 591

The Old Regime 592

Hierarchy and Privilege 592

Aristocracy 592

The Land and Its Tillers 594

Peasants and Serfs 594

Family Structures and the Family Economy 595

The Family Economy 595

Women and the Family Economy 597

The Revolution in Agriculture 597

New Crops and New Methods 599

Population Expansion 600

The Eighteenth-Century Industrial Revolution: An Event

in World History 601

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain 602

European Cities 605

Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization 605

Urban Classes 605

The Jewish Population: Age of the Ghetto 607

Summary 608

Key Terms 609

Review Questions 610




The Last Great Islamic Empires, 1500–1800 612

The Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Mediterranean

World 614

Origins and Development of the Ottoman

State before 1600 614

Global Perspective: The Last Great

Islamic Empires 614

The “Classical” Ottoman Order 616

After Süleyman: Challenges and Change 618

The Decline of Ottoman Military and Political Power 621

The Safavid Empire and the West Asian World 622

Origins 622

Shah Abbas I 623

Safavid Decline 624

Culture and Learning 625

The Mughals 626

Origins 626

Akbar’s Reign 626

The Last Great Mughals 626

Sikhs and Marathas 627

Political Decline 627

A Closer Look: The Mughal Emperor Jahangir

Honoring a Muslim Saint over Kings

and Emperors 628

Religious Developments 629

Central Asia: Islamization in the Post-Timur Era 630

Uzbeks and Chaghatays 630

Consequences of the Shi’ite Rift 630

Power Shifts in the Southern Oceans 632

Southern-Oceans Trade 632

Control of the Southern Seas 632

The East Indies: Acheh 634

Summary 635

Key Terms 635

Review Questions 635



Part 5

Enlightenment and Revolution

in the Atlantic World, 1700–1850



The Age of European Enlightenment 637

The Scientific Revolution 638

Global Perspective: The European

Enlightenment 638

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered

Universe 639

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler 640

Galileo Galilei 641

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method 642

Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation 643

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution 644

John Locke 645

The Enlightenment 646

Voltaire 647

The Encyclopedia 647

The Enlightenment and Religion 649

Deism 649

Toleration 650

Islam in Enlightenment Thought 651

The Enlightenment and Society 653

Montesquieu and the Spirit of the Laws 653

Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress 654

Rousseau 654

Enlightened Critics of European Empire 655

Women in the Thought and Practice of the

Enlightenment 657

Enlightened Absolutism 659

Joseph II of Austria 659

A Closer Look: An Eighteenth-Century Artist

Appeals to the Ancient World 661

Catherine the Great of Russia 662

The Partition of Poland 664

Summary 664

Key Terms 665

Review Questions 665




Revolutions in the Transatlantic World 667

Revolution in the British Colonies in

North America 668

Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue 668

Global Perspective: The Transatlantic

Revolutions 668

American Political Ideas 669

Crisis and Independence 669

Revolution in France 672

Revolutions of 1789 672

A Closer Look: Challenging the French

Political Order 674

Reconstruction of France 675

A Second Revolution 678

The Reign of Terror and Its Aftermath 679

The Napoleonic Era 682

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement 686

Wars of Independence in Latin America 689

Eighteenth-Century Developments 689

Revolution in Haiti 689

First Movements towards Independence on the South

American Continent 690

Eighteenth-Century Developments in the Spanish

Empire 690

San Martín in Río de la Plata 691

Simón Bolívar’s Liberation of Venezuela 691

Independence in New Spain 692

Brazilian Independence 693

Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic

Economy 693

Summary 696

Key Terms 697

Review Questions 697




Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-Century

Europe and North America 699

The Emergence of Nationalism in Europe 700

Global Perspective: European and North American

Political Consolidation 700

Creating Nations 701

Meaning of Nationhood 701

Regions of Nationalistic Pressure in Europe 703

Early Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism 704

Politics 704

Economics 704

Relationship of Nationalism and Liberalism 705

Liberalism and Nationalism in Modern

World History 705

Efforts to Liberalize Early Nineteenth-Century European

Political Structures 705

Russia : The Decembrist Revolt of 1825 and the Autocracy

of Nicholas I 705

Revolution in France (1830) 706

The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832) 708

1848: Year of Revolutions in Europe 709

Testing the New American Republic 711

Toward Sectional Conflict 711

The Abolitionist Movement 714

The Canadian Experience 717

Road to Self-Government 717

Keeping a Distinctive Culture 718

Midcentury Political Consolidation in Europe 718

The Crimean War 718

Italian Unification 718

A Closer Look: The Crimean War Recalled 720

German Unification 722

The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire 722

Unrest of Nationalities in Eastern Europe 723

Racial Theory and Anti-Semitism 725

Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism 726

Summary 728

Key Terms 729

Review Questions 729



Part 6

Into the Modern World, 1815–1949



Northern Transatlantic Economy and Society,

1815–1914 731

Global Perspective: The Building of Northern

Transatlantic Supremacy 732

European Factory Workers and Urban Artisans 733

Nineteenth-Century European Women 735

Women in the Early Industrial Revolution 735

Social Disabilities Confronted by All Women 736

New Employment Patterns for Women 738

Late Nineteenth-Century Working-Class Women 739

The Rise of Political Feminism 740

Jewish Emancipation 742

Early Steps to Equal Citizenship 742

Broadened Opportunities 742

European Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World

War I 743

The Working Classes in the Late

Nineteenth Century 743

Marxist Critique of the Industrial Order 744

Germany : Social Democrats and Revisionism 745

Great Britain : The Labour Party and Fabianism 747

Russia : Industrial Development and the Birth

of Bolshevism 748

A Closer Look: Bloody Sunday, Saint

Petersburg 1905 750

European Socialism in World History 751

North America and the New Industrial Economy 751

European Immigration to the United States 752

Unions: Organization of Labor 754

The Progressives 755

Social Reform 755

The Progressive Presidency 756

The Emergence of Modern European Thought 758

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection 758

The Revolution in Physics 760

Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt against Reason 761

The Birth of Psychoanalysis 761

Islam and Late Nineteenth-Century European

Thought 763

Summary 763

Key Terms 764

Review Questions 764




Latin America from Independence to the

1940s 766

Independence without Revolution 767

Immediate Consequences of Latin American


Absence of Social Change 767

Control of the Land 767

Global Perspective: Latin American History 768

Submissive Political Philosophies 769

Economy of Dependence 773

New Exploitation of Resources 773

Increased Foreign Ownership and Influence 774

Economic Crises and New Directions 775

Search for Political Stability 775

Three National Histories 776



A Closer Look: Benito Juárez 781


Summary 789

Key Terms 790

Review Questions 790




India, the Islamic Heartlands, and Africa,

1800–1945 792


British Dominance and Colonial Rule 793

Building the Empire: The First Half of the Nineteenth

Century 793

Global Perspective: The Challenge of Modernity:

India , Islam, and Africa 794

British-Indian Relations 795

From British Crown Raj to Independence 798

The Burden of Crown Rule 798

Indian Resistance 798

Hindu-Muslim Friction on the Road to Independence 800

A Closer Look: Gandhi and His Spinning Wheel 801

The Islamic Experience 802

Islamic Responses to Declining Power and

Independence 802

Western Political and Economic Encroachment 803

The Western Impact 805

Islamic Responses to Foreign Encroachment 805

Emulation of the West 805

Integration of Western and Islamic Ideas 807

Women and Reform in the Middle East 808

Purification and Revival of Islam 808

Nationalism 809


New States and Power Centers 810

Southern Africa810

East and Central Africa 811

West Africa811

Islamic Reform Movements 811

Increasing European Involvement: Exploration

and Colonization 813

Explorers 814

Christian Missions 814

The Colonial “Scramble for Africa” 814

Patterns in European Colonial Rule and African

Resistance 817

The Rise of African Nationalism 818

Summary 819

Key Terms 820

Review Questions 820

Religions of the World: Islam 822




Modern East Asia 824

Global Perspective: Modern East Asia 826

MODERN JAPAN (1853–1945) 825

Overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu (1853–1868) 825

A Closer Look: East Meets the West 828

Building the Meiji State (1868–1890) 827

Centralization of Power 829

Political Parties 831

The Constitution 831

Growth of a Modern Economy 832

First Phase: Model Industries 833

Second Phase: 1880s–1890s 833

Third Phase: 1905–1929 834

Fourth Phase: Depression and Recovery 836

The Politics of Imperial Japan (1890–1945) 836

From Confrontation to the Founding of the Seiyu–kai

(1890–1900) 836

The Golden Years of Meiji 837

Rise of the Parties to Power 838

Militarism and War (1927–1945) 840

Japanese Militarism and German Nazism 843

MODERN CHINA (1839–1949) 844

Close of Manchu Rule 844

The Opium War 844

Rebellions against the Manchu 846

Self-Strengthening and Decline (1874–1895) 848

The Borderlands: The Northwest, Vietnam, and Korea 850

From Dynasty to Warlordism (1895–1926) 852

Cultural and Ideological Ferment: The May Fourth

Movement 854

Nationalist China 855

Guomindang Unification of China and the Nanjing Decade

(1927–1937) 855

War and Revolution (1937–1949) 858

Summary 860

Key Terms 861

Review Questions 861



Part 7

Global Conflict and Change, 1900–Present



Imperialism and World War I 863

Expansion of European Power and the

“New Imperialism” 864

Global Perspective: Imperialism and the

Great War 864

The New Imperialism 865

Motives for the New Imperialism 865

The “Scramble for Africa” 867

Emergence of the German Empire 872

Formation of the Triple Alliance (1873–1890) 872

Bismarck ’s Leadership (1873–1890) 873

Forging the Triple Entente (1890–1907) 874

World War I 877

The Road to War (1908–1914) 877

Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War

(June–August 1914) 878

Strategies and Stalemate (1914–1917) 00

A Closer Look: The Development of the

Armored Tank 882

The Russian Revolution 884

End of World War I 886

Military Resolution 886

Settlement at Paris 887

Evaluation of the Peace 891

Summary 892

Key Terms 893

Review Questions 893




Depression, European Dictators, and the

American New Deal 895

After Versailles: Demands for Revision and

Enforcement 896

Toward the Great Depression in Europe 896

Global Perspective: The Interwar Period in Europe

and the United States 896

Problems in Agricultural Commodities 897

The Soviet Experiment 898

War Communism 899

The New Economic Policy 899

Stalin versus Trotsky 900

Decision for Rapid Industrialization 900

The Purges 903

The Fascist Experiment in Italy 904

Rise of Mussolini 905

The Fascists in Power 906

German Democracy and Dictatorship 907

The Weimar Republic 907

Depression and Political Deadlock 912

Hitler Comes to Power 912

Hitler’s Consolidation of Power 913

The Police State 914

Women in Nazi Germany 915

A Closer Look: The Nazi Party Rally 917

The Great Depression and the New Deal

in the United States 916

Economic Collapse 918

New Role for Government 919

Summary 920

Key Terms 921

Review Questions 921




World War II 923

Again the Road to War (1933–1939) 924

Hitler’s Goals 924

Destruction of Versailles 924

Global Perspective: World War II 924

Italy Attacks Ethiopia 925

Remilitarization of the Rhineland 925

The Spanish Civil War 926

Austria and Czechoslovakia 928


The Nazi–Soviet Pact 930

World War II (1939–1945) 931

German Conquest of Europe 931

Battle of Britain 932

German Attack on Russia 933

Hitler’s Europe 934

Racism and the Holocaust 934

The Road to Pearl Harbor 935

America’s Entry into the War 937

The Tide Turns 937

Defeat of Nazi Germany 939

Fall of the Japanese Empire 940

The Cost of War 941

The Domestic Fronts 941

Germany : From Apparent Victory to Defeat 941

France : Defeat, Collaboration, and Resistance 943

Great Britain : Organization for Victory 943

The United States: American Women and African Americans

in the War Effort 944

The Soviet Union: “The Great Patriotic War” 944

A Closer Look: The Vichy Regime in France 945

Preparations for Peace 946

The Atlantic Charter 947




Summary 949

Key Terms 949

Review Questions 949




The West since World War II 951

The Cold War Era 951

Areas of Early Cold War Conflict 951

Global Perspective: The West since 1945 951

NATO and the Warsaw Pact 955

Crises of 1956 956

The Cold War Intensified 957

Détente and Afterward 958

Toward Western European Unification 959

European Society in the Second Half of the Twentieth

Century and Beyond 961

Toward a Welfare State Society 961

Resistance to the Expansion of the Welfare State 962

The Movement of Peoples 963

The New Muslim Population 966

New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women 967

American Domestic Scene since World War II 968

Truman and Eisenhower Administrations 968

Civil Rights 969

New Social Programs 970

The Vietnam War and Domestic Turmoil 970

The Watergate Scandal 970

The Triumph of Political Conservatism 971

The Soviet Union to 1989 972

The Khrushchev Years 972

Brezhnev 973

Communism and Solidarity in Poland 973

Gorbachev Attempts to Redirect the Soviet Union 974

1989: Year of Revolutions in Eastern Europe 974

Solidarity Reemerges in Poland 975

Hungary Moves toward Independence 975

The Breach of the Berlin Wall and German Reunification 975

The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia 975

A Closer Look: Collapse of the Berlin Wall 976

Violent Revolution in Romania 977

The Collapse of the Soviet Union 977

Renunciation of Communist Political Monopoly 977

The August 1991 Coup 978

The Yeltsin Years 979

The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War 981

Challenges to the Atlantic Alliance

Challenges on the International Security Front 983

Strains over Environmental Policy 984

Summary 986

Key Terms 987

Review Questions 987




East Asia: The Recent Decades 989

Japan 990

Global Perspective: Modern East Asia 990

The Occupation 991

Parliamentary Politics 993

Economic Growth 996

Society and Culture 998

Japan and the World 1000

China 1000

Soviet Period (1950–1960) 1001

A Closer Look: Trial of a Landlord 1002

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1965–1976) 1003

China after Mao 1004

Taiwan 1008

Korea 1010

Korea as a Japanese Colony 1010

North and South 1010

The Korean War and U.S. Involvement 1011

South Korea : Growth and Democracy 1012

North Korea1013

Vietnam 1013

The Colonial Backdrop 1013

The Anticolonial War 1014

The Vietnam War 1014

War with Cambodia 1015

Recent Developments 1016

Summary 1017

Key Terms 1017

Review Questions 1017



Postcolonialism and Beyond: Latin America,

Africa, Asia, and the Middle East 1019

Beyond the Postcolonial Era 1020

Global Perspective: Democratization, Globalization,

and Terrorism 1020

Latin America since 1945 1023

Revolutionary Challenges 1026

Pursuit of Stability under the Threat of Revolution 1028

Continuity and Change in Recent Latin American

History 1030

A Closer Look: Mexican Farmers Protest

the North American Free Trade Agreement 1031

Postcolonial Africa 1030

The Transition to Independence 1032

The African Future 1036

Trade and Development 1038

The Islamic Heartlands, from North Africa to

Indonesia 1038


Iran and Its Islamic Revolution 1040

Afghanistan and the Former Soviet Republics 1041


Pakistan and Bangladesh 1043

Indonesia and Malaysia 1044

The Postcolonial Middle East 1044

Postcolonial Nations in the Middle East 1044

The Arab-Israeli Conflict 1046

Middle Eastern Oil 1050

The Rise of Militant Islamism 1050

The Modern Middle Eastern Background 1051

Iraq : Intervention and Occupation 1052

Summary 1054

Key Terms 1055

Review Questions 1055









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