The Heritage of World Civilizations Volume 1

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  • Edition: 9th
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  • Copyright: 2010-12-22
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Written by leading scholars in their respective fields, The Heritage of World Civilizationsoffers compelling and thorough coverage of the unique heritage of Asian, African,#xA0;Middle Eastern, European, and American civilizations, while highlighting the role of the world's great religious and philosophical traditions.

Author Biography

Albert M. Craig is the Harvard-Yenching Research Professor of History Emeritus at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1959. A graduate of Northwestern University, he received his Ph.D. at Harvard University. He has studied at Strasbourg University and at Kyoto, Keio, and Tokyo universities in Japan. He is the author of Choshu in the Meiji Restoration  (1961), The Heritage of Japanese Civilization (2011), and, with others, of East Asia , Tradition and Transformation (1989). He is the editor of Japan , A Comparative View (1973) and co-editor of Personality in Japanese History (1970), Civilization and

Enlightnment: the Early Thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi  (2009). He was the director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute. He has also been a visiting professor at Kyoto and Tokyo universities. He has received Guggenheim, Fulbright, and Japan Foundation Fellowships. In 1988 he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government.


William A. Graham is Albertson Professor of Middle Eastern Studies in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and O’Brian Professor of Divinity and Dean in the Faculty of Divinity at Harvard University, where he has taught for thirty-four years. He has directed the Center for Middle Eastern Studies and chaired the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, the Committee on the Study of Religion, and the Core Curriculum Committee on Foreign Cultures. He received his BA in Comparative Literature from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, an A.M. and Ph.D. in History of Religion from Harvard, and studied also in Göttingen, Tübingen, Lebanon, and London. He is former chair of the Council on Graduate Studies in Religion (U.S. and Canada). In 2000 he received the quinquennial Award for Excellence in Research in Islamic History and Culture from the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. He has held John Simon Guggenheim and Alexander von Humboldt research fellowships and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his publications are Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (1987); Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977–ACLS History of Religions Prize, 1978); and Three Faiths, One God (co-authored, 2003).


Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958–1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.


Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250—1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Public Interest 158 (2005).


Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain  (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award,  Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life  (1993), and  John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion  (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

Table of Contents

Documents xix

Maps xxi

Preface xxiii



Part 1

Human Origins and Early Civilizations

to 500 B.C.E.



The Birth of Civilization 1

Early Humans and Their Culture 2

The Paleolithic Age 2

Global Perspective: Civilizations 2

The Neolithic Age 3

The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization 7

Early Civilizations in the Middle East

to About 1000 B.C.E. 8

Mesopotamian Civilization 8

A Closer Look: Babylonian World Map 13

Egyptian Civilization 14

Ancient Near Eastern Empires 20

The Hittites 21

The Kassites 21

The Mitannians 21

The Assyrians 21

The Second Assyrian Empire 22

The Neo-Babylonians 23

Early Indian Civilization 23

The Indus Civilization 23

The Vedic Aryan Civilization 26

Early Chinese Civilization 30

Neolithic Origins in the Yellow River Valley 30

Early Bronze Age: The Shang 31

Late Bronze Age: The Western Zhou 32

Iron Age: The Eastern Zhou 32

The Rise of Civilization in the Americas 35

Summary 37

Key Terms 38

Review Questions 38



Four Great Revolutions in Thought

and Religion 40

Comparing the Four Great Revolutions 41

Philosophy in China 41

Global Perspective: Philosophy and Religion 42

Confucianism 43

Daoism 46

Legalism 49

Religion in India 49

“Hindu” and “Indian” 49

Historical Background 49

The Upanishadic Worldview 50

Mahavira and the Jain Tradition 52

The Buddha’s Middle Path 54

A Closer Look: Statue of Siddhartha Gotama

as Fasting Ascetic (2nd Century C . E .) 55

The Religion of the Israelites 56

From Hebrew Nomads to the Israelite Nation 57

The Monotheistic Revolution 58

Greek Philosophy 61

Reason and the Scientific Spirit 63

Political and Moral Philosophy 65

Summary 70

Key Terms 70

Review Questions 71

Religions of the World: Judaism 72



Part 2

Empires and Cultures of the Ancient World,

1000 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.



Greek and Hellenistic Civilization 74

The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to

ca. 1150 B.C.E. 75

The Minoans 75

The Mycenaeans 76

Global Perspective: The Achievement of Greek

and Hellenistic Civilization 76

Greek “Middle Age” to ca. 750 B.C.E. 77

The Age of Homer 78

The Polis 80

Development of the Polis 80

The Hoplite Phalanx 81

Expansion of the Greek World 82

Greek Colonies 82

The Tyrants (ca. 700–500 B . C . E .) 82

Life in Archaic Greece 84

Society 84

Religion 85

Poetry 87

Major City-States 87



The Persian Wars 91

Ionian Rebellion 91

The War in Greece 92

A Closer Look: The Trireme 93

Classical Greece 94

The Delian League 94

The First Peloponnesian War 94

The Athenian Empire 96

Athenian Democracy 96

Women of Athens 97

The Great Peloponnesian War 98

Struggle for Greek Leadership 100

Fifth Century B . C . E . 102

Fourth Century B . C . E . 104

Emergence of the Hellenistic World 104

Macedonian Conquest 104

Alexander the Great and His Successors 105

Death of Alexander 108

Alexander’s Successors 108

Hellenistic Culture 109

Literature 110

Architecture and Sculpture 111

Mathematics and Science 112

Summary 113

Key Terms 113

Review Questions 113




West Asia, Inner Asia, and South Asia

to 1000 C.E. 115

Global Perspective: Indo-Iranian Roles

in the Eurasian World before Islam 116


The Ancient Background 118

The Elamites 118

The Iranian Peoples 119

Ancient Iranian Religion 120

Zoroaster and the Zoroastrian Tradition 120

The First Persian Empire in the Iranian Plateau

(550–330 B.C.E.) 120

The Achaemenids 120

The Achaemenid State 122

The Achaemenid Economy 123

The Seleucid Successors to Alexander in the East

(ca. 312–63 B.C.E.) 124

The Parthian Arsacid Empire

(ca. 247 B.C.E.–223 C.E.) 124

The Indo-Greeks, Sythians, and Kushans 125

Sythians and Kushans 126

The Sasanid Empire (224–651 C.E.) 126

Society and Economy 128

Religion 128

Later Sasanid Developments 131

SOUTH ASIA TO 1000 C.E. 131

The First Indian Empire: The Mauryas

(321–185 B.C.E.) 131

Political Background 131

The Mauryas 131

The Consolidation of Indian Civilization

(ca. 200 B.C.E.–300 C.E.) 134

A Closer Look: Lion Capital of Ashoka

at Sarnath 135

The Economic Base 136

High Culture 136

Religion and Society 136

The Golden Age of the Guptas (ca. 320–550 C.E.) 137

Gupta Rule 137

Gupta Culture 138

The Development of “Classical” Indian Civilization

(ca. 300–1000 C.E.) 138

Society 138

Religion 140

Summary 143

Key Terms 144

Review Questions 145

Religions of the World: Hinduism 146




Africa: Early History to 1000 C.E. 148

Issues of Interpretation, Sources, and Disciplines 149

The Question of “Civilization” 149

Source Issues 149

History and Disciplinary Boundaries 149

Physical Description of the Continent 150

Global Perspective: “Traditional” Peoples

and Nontraditional Histories 150

African Peoples 154

Africa and Early Human Culture 154

Diffusion of Languages and Peoples 154

“Race” and Physiological Variation 155

The Sahara and the Sudan to the Beginning

of the Common Era 157

Early Saharan Cultures 157

Neolithic Sudanic Cultures 157

The Early Iron Age and the Nok Culture 158

Nilotic Africa and the Ethiopian Highlands 158

The Kingdom of Kush 158

The Napatan Empire 159

The Meroitic Empire 159

The Aksumite Empire 161

Isolation of Christian Ethiopia 163

The Western and Central Sudan 163

Agriculture, Trade, and the Rise of Urban Centers 163

Formation of Sudanic Kingdoms in the First

Millennium 165

Central, Southern, and East Africa 167

Bantu Expansion and Diffusion 167

A Closer Look: Four Rock Art Paintings from

Tassili n-Ajjer (4000–2000 B . C . E .) 168

The Khoisan and Twa Peoples 170

East Africa170

Summary 173

Key Terms 173

Review Questions 174




Republican and Imperial Rome 175

Prehistoric Italy 176

The Etruscans 176

Royal Rome 176

Global Perspective: Republican

and Imperial Rome 176

Government 177

Family 177

Clientage 177

Patricians and Plebeians 178

The Republic 178

Constitution 178

Conquest of Italy 179

Rome and Carthage 179

A Closer Look: Lictors 180

The Republic’s Conquest of the Hellenistic World 183

Civilization in the Early Roman Republic:

Greek Influence 183

Religion 183

Education 184

Roman Imperialism 185

Aftermath of Conquest 185

The Gracchi 186

Marius and Sulla 187

War against the Italian Allies (90–88 B . C . E .) 188

Sulla’s Dictatorship 188

The Fall of the Republic 188

Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar 188

The First Triumvirate 188

The Dictatorship of Julius Caesar 188

The Second Triumvirate and the Emergence of Octavian 189

The Augustan Principate 189

Administration 190

The Army and Defense 190

Religion and Morality 191

Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages 191

The Late Republic 191

The Age of Augustus 192

Peace and Prosperity: Imperial Rome (14–180 C.E.) 193

Administration of the Empire 195

Culture of the Early Empire 197

Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment House 198

The Rise of Christianity 198

Jesus of Nazareth 199

Paul of Tarsus 199

Organization 200

Persecution of Christians 201

Emergence of Catholicism 201

Rome as a Center of the Early Church 202

The Crisis of the Third Century 202

Barbarian Invasions 202

Economic Difficulties 202

The Social Order 202

Civil Disorder 203

The Late Empire 203

The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization 203

Diocletian 203


Triumph of Christianity 205

Arts and Letters in the Late Empire 207

Preservation of Classical Culture 207

Christian Writers 207

The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in

the West 208

Summary 208

Key Terms 210

Review Questions 210




China’s First Empire, 221 B.C.E.–589 C.E. 212

Qin Unification of China 213

Global Perspective: China’s First Empire 214

Former Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E.–8 C.E.) 215

The Dynastic Cycle 215

Early Years of the Former Han Dynasty 215

Han Wudi 216

The Xiongnu 216

A Closer Look: The Terra-Cotta Army of the First

Qin Emperor 217

Government during the Former Han 218

The Silk Road 220

Decline and Usurpation 221

Later Han (25–220 C.E.) and Its Aftermath 222

First Century 222

Decline during the Second Century 222

Aftermath of Empire 222

Han Thought and Religion 224

Han Confucianism 224

History 225

Neo-Daoism 225

Buddhism 227

Summary 230

Key Terms 230

Review Questions 230



Part 3

Consolidation and Interaction of World

Civilizations, 500 C.E. to 1500 C.E.



Imperial China, 589–1368 232

Reestablishment of Empire: Sui (589–618) and Tang

(618–907) Dynasties 233

The Sui Dynasty 233

The Tang Dynasty 233

Global Perspective: Imperial China 234

A Closer Look: A Tang Painting

of the Goddess of Mercy 242

Transition to Late Imperial China: The Song Dynasty

(960–1279) 244

Agricultural Revolution of the Song: From Serfs to Free

Farmers 244

Commercial Revolution of the Song 245

Government: From Aristocracy to Autocracy 247

Song Culture 249

China in the Mongol World Empire: The Yuan Dynasty

(1279–1368) 252

Rise of the Mongol Empire 252

Mongol Rule in China 253

Foreign Contacts and Chinese Culture 255

Last Years of the Yuan 258

Summary 258

Key Terms 258

Review Questions 259




Early Japanese History 260

Japanese Origins 261

The Jo-mon, Japan’s Old Stone Age 261

The Yayoi Revolution 262

Global Perspective: East Asia 262

Tomb Culture, the Yamato State, and Korea 263

Religion in Early Japan 265

Nara and Heian Japan 267

Court Government 267

People, Land, and Taxes 269

Rise of the Samurai 270

Aristocratic Culture and Buddhism 270

Chinese Tradition in Japan 271

The Birth of Japanese Literature 273

Nara and Heian Buddhism 274

Japan’s Early Feudal Age 276

The Kamakura Era 276

A Closer Look: The East Meets the East 278

The Question of Feudalism 279

The Ashikaga Era 280

Women in Warrior Society 281

Agriculture, Commerce, and Medieval Guilds 281

Buddhism and Medieval Culture 282

Japanese Pietism: Pure Land

and Nichiren Buddhism 282

Zen Buddhism 283

No- Plays 285

Summary 285

Key Terms 286

Review Questions 286

Religions of the World: Buddhism 288




The Formation of Islamic Civilization,

622–1000 290

Origins and Early Development 291

The Setting 291

Muhammad and the Qur’an 292

Global Perspective: The Early Islamic Worlds

of Arab and Persian Cultures 292

Women in Early Islamic Society 295

Early Islamic Conquests 297

Course of Conquest 297

Factors of Success 297

The New Islamic World Order 298

A Closer Look: The Dome of the Rock,

Jerusalem (Interior) 300

The Caliphate 301

The Ulama 302

The Umma 303

The High Caliphate 306

The Abbasid State 306

Society 306

Decline 306

Islamic Culture in the Classical Era 307

Intellectual Traditions 308

Language and Literature 309

Art and Architecture 309

Summary 311

Key Terms 311

Review Questions 311




The Byzantine Empire and Western

Europe to 1000 313

The End of the Western Roman Empire 314

Global Perspective: The Early Middle Ages 314

The Byzantine Empire 316

The Reign of Justinian 317

The Impact of Islam on East and West 325

Byzantium’s Contribution to Islamic Civilization 326

The Western Debt to Islam 326

The Developing Roman Church 327

Monastic Culture 328

The Doctrine of Papal Primacy 329

Division of Christendom 330

The Kingdom of the Franks 331

Merovingians and Carolingians: From Clovis to

Charlemagne 331

Reign of Charlemagne (768–814) 332

A Closer Look: A Multicultural Book Cover 337

Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom 338

Feudal Society 339

Origins 340

Vassalage and the Fief 341

Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty 342

Summary 342

Key Terms 343

Review Questions 343




The Islamic World, 1000–1500 345


Religion and Society 346

Consolidation of a Sunni Orthopraxy 346

Global Perspective: The Expansion of Islamic

Civilization, 1000–1500 346

Sufi Piety and Organization 350

Consolidation of Shi’ite Traditions 351

Regional Developments 351

Spain , North Africa, and the Western Mediterranean

Islamic World 351

Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean Islamic World 352

The Islamic East: Asia before the Mongol Conquests 355

Islamic Asia in the Mongol Age 356

A Closer Look: Al-Hariri, Assemblies

(Maqamat) 358

The Spread of Islam beyond the Heartlands 360


The Spread of Islam to South Asia 360

Muslim–Hindu Encounter 362

Islamic States and Dynasties 363

Southeast Asia363

Religious and Cultural Accommodation 364

Hindu and Other Indian Traditions 366

Summary 366

Key Terms 367

Review Questions 367




Ancient Civilizations of the Americas 369

Global Perspective: Ancient Civilizations

of the Americas 370

Problems in Reconstructing the History

of Native American Civilization 371

Mesoamerica 372

Mesoamerican Ball Games 373

The Formative Period and the Emergence

of Mesoamerican Civilization 374

The Olmec 375

The Valley of Oaxaca and the Rise of Monte Alban 376

The Emergence of Writing and the Mesoamerican

Calendar 376

The Classic Period in Mesoamerica 376

Teotihuacán 377

A Closer Look: The Pyramid of the Sun

in Teotihuacán 378

The Maya 379

The Post-Classic Period 383

The Toltecs 384

The Aztecs 384

Andean South America 390

The Preceramic and the Initial Periods 391

Chavín de Huantar and the Early Horizon 392

The Early Intermediate Period 392

Nazca 392

Moche 393

The Middle Horizon through the Late

Intermediate Period 394

Tiwanaku and Huari 394

The Chimu Empire 395

The Inca Empire 395

Summary 398

Key Terms 399

Review Questions 399




Africa ca. 1000–1700 401

North Africa and Egypt 402

The Spread of Islam South of the Sahara 402

Global Perspective: Africa, 1000–1700 402

Sahelian Empires of the Western and Central Sudan 404




Kanem and Kanem-Bornu 410

The Eastern Sudan 412

The Forestlands—Coastal West and

Central Africa 412

West African Forest Kingdoms: The Example

of Benin 412

A Closer Look: Benin Bronze Plaque with Chief

and Two Attendants 413

European Arrivals on the Coastlands 414

Central Africa415

East Africa 417

Swahili Culture and Commerce 417

The Portuguese and the Omanis of Zanzibar 419

Southern Africa 419

Southeastern Africa: “Great Zimbabwe” 419

The Portuguese in Southeastern Africa 420

South Africa : The Cape Colony 421

Summary 422

Key Terms 422

Review Questions 422




Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline,

and Renaissance 424

Revival of Empire, Church, and Towns 425

Otto I and the Revival of the Empire 425

The Reviving Catholic Church 425

The Crusades 426

Global Perspective: The High Middle Ages

in Western Europe 426

A Closer Look: European Embrace

of a Black Saint 431

Towns and Townspeople 432

Society 436

The Order of Life 436

Medieval Women 439

Growth of National Monarchies 440

England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines

(1214) 440

France in the Thirteenth Century: Reign of Louis IX 441

The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152–1272) 442

Political and Social Breakdown 444

Hundred Years’War 444

The Black Death 444

New Conflicts and Opportunities 447

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival:

The Late Medieval Church 447

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair 447

The Great Schism (1378–1417) and the Conciliar

Movement to 1449 448

The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527) 448

The Italian City-State: Social Conflict and Despotism 449

Humanism 449

Renaissance Art in and beyond Italy 451

Italy ’s Political Decline: The French Invasions

(1494–1527) 452

Niccolò Machiavelli 453

Revival of Monarchy: Nation Building

in the Fifteenth Century 454

Medieval Russia 455




Summary 457

Key Terms 458

Review Questions 458




Part 4

The World in Transition, 1500 to 1850



Europe, 1500–1650: Expansion, Reformation,

and Religious Wars 460

The Discovery of a New World 461

The Portuguese Chart the Course 461

The Spanish Voyages of Christopher Columbus 462

Global Perspective: European Expansion 462

Impact on Europe and America 463

The Reformation 463

Religion and Society 465

Popular Movements and Criticism of the Church 465

Secular Control over Religious Life 466

The Northern Renaissance 466

Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525 467

Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation 472

Anabaptists and Radical Protestants 472

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation 472

Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation 473

The English Reformation to 1553 474

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation 475

The Reformation’s Achievements 476

Religion in Fifteenth-Century Life 477

Religion in Sixteenth-Century Life 478

Family Life in Early Modern Europe 478

A Closer Look: A Contemporary Commentary

on the Sexes 479

The Wars of Religion 480

French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) 481

Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II

(1556–1598) 483

England and Spain (1558–1603) 484

The Thirty Years’War (1618–1648) 485

Superstition and Enlightenment: The Battle Within 487

Witch Hunts and Panic 487

Writers and Philosophers 488

Summary 492

Key Terms 492

Review Questions 492

Religions of the World: Christianity 494




Conquest and Exploitation: The Development

of the Transatlantic Economy 496

Periods of European Overseas Expansion 497

Mercantilist Theory of Economic Exploitation 498

Global Perspective: The Atlantic World 498

Establishment of the Spanish Empire in America 500

Conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas 500

The Roman Catholic Church in Spanish America 501

Economies of Exploitation in the Spanish Empire 503

Varieties of Economic Activity 503

Commercial Regulation and the Flota System 505

Colonial Brazil 507

French and British Colonies in North America 509

The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, and

Agriculture 510

Diseases Enter the Americas 511

Animals and Agriculture 513

Slavery in the Americas 515

The Background of Slavery 515

Establishment of Slavery 516

The Plantation Economy and Transatlantic Trade 517

Slavery on the Plantations 517

Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade 518

Slavery and Slaving in Africa 519

The African Side of the Transatlantic Trade 520

The Extent of the Slave Trade 522

Consequences of the Slave Trade for Africa 522

A Closer Look: The Slave Ship Brookes 525

Summary 526

Key Terms 527

Review Questions 527








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