History in Dispute

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-11-01
  • Publisher: St James Pr
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Mark T. Abate
Chronology xxix
Mark T. Abate
Aljamas: What impact did aljamas (Muslim communities subject to Christian rule) have on the acculturation of Muslims in Spain?
Aljamas allowed Muslims to retain their own cultural practices by providing barriers to rapid acculturation
Michael Weber
Aljamas facilitated the acculturation of Muslims; granting concessions to Islamic communities made them less likely to revolt and more susceptible to subtle acculturative forces
Thomas F. Glick
The Americas: Was the conquest of the Americas an extension of the medieval Crusades?
Yes. The crusading mentality was an essential feature of the conquest of the Americas, and the Europeans treated Native Americans the same way they treated Muslims
Thomas F. Glick
No. The conquest of the Americas was not crusading because there was no concerted effort to attain a specific religious goal
Robin Feld
Attacks on Jews: What was the main cause of attacks on Jews during the Crusades?
The main motive for attacks on Jews during the Crusades was economic in nature
Douglas Kierdorf
The main cause of attacks on Jews during the Crusades was apocalyptic expectations on the part of Christians
Brenda Gardenour
Attacks on Jews during the Crusades were prompted by the desire of the Latin Christian West to eliminate them as members of a religious rather than a racial group
Carl Hill
Byzantine-Latin Relations: Did poor relations between the Byzantine Empire and the western Roman Empire contribute to the failure of the Crusades and the ultimate loss of the Crusader States?
Yes. Byzantine support would have strengthened the crusading movement and the Crusader States
Christopher Libertini
No. The Byzantine Empire was so weak and ineffective during the Crusades that it was irrelevant to the western Europeans as either an ally or an enemy
Carl Hill
Children's and Shepherds' Crusades: Were the Children's and Shepherds' Crusades class protests of the poor against the wealthy?
Yes. These Crusades were expressions of class conflict fueled by the military failures of the European warrior aristocracy
Douglas Kierdorf
No. These Crusades, although linked to the concept of apostolic poverty, were more religious than class-conscious mass movements
Brenda Gardenour
Convivencia: Does convivencia (coexistence) describe relationships among Christians and Muslims in Spain during the Middle Ages?
Yes. A marked degree of mutual tolerance, understanding, and creative interaction among Muslims, Christians, and even Jews was a reality
Michael Weber
No. Convivencia is an idealistic oversimplification of the complexities of Christian-Muslim relations in medieval Spain
Thomas F. Glick
Crusader States: Did the Crusader States collapse from external pressure rather than internal weaknesses?
An external force in the form of the Mamluk Sultanate made it possible finally for Egypt to apply the pressure necessary to expel the Franks from the region
Clifford R. Backman
The Crusader States collapsed because of internal weaknesses that, though they always existed, became more debilitating in the mid thirteenth century
Mark T. Abate
Defining Moment: Does the modern-era conflict between the West and the Islamic Near East have its roots in the Crusades?
Yes. The Crusades defined relations between Western and Islamic civilizations in an enduring way that shaped further conflicts
Todd Marx
No. Modern relations between the West and the Islamic world were defined by nineteenth-and twentieth-century forms of imperialism and nationalism, culminating in the formation of the state of Israel and the Arab response
Carl Hill
Disillusionment: Did the failure of Louis IX's military campaigns in the thirteenth century begin a period of disillusionment among the Crusaders?
Yes. The failure of Louis IX's campaigns marked the end of the traditional Crusades and inaugurated a long period of disillusionment
Carl Hill
No. Although the campaigns of Louis IX prompted some criticism, support for the Crusades remained strong, while the methods for conducting them underwent revision
Mark T. Abate
Economic Motives: Were the Crusades motivated primarily by economic considerations?
Yes. The promise of economic gain and new markets was a key impetus for the Crusades
Todd Marx
No. Crusaders were motivated by political considerations as well as the promise of spiritual rewards and increased social prestige
Christopher Libertini
Ethical Perspectives: Did the Crusades represent a distortion of the Christian message?
Yes. The violence and brutality of the crusading movement violated the pacific principles of Christianity
Carl Hill
No. The crusading movement was an expression of Christian values as understood at the time
John A. Dempsey
Fifth Crusade: Why did the Fifth Crusade end in failure?
The Fifth Crusade failed because of the logistical inability of medieval armies to wage wars in faraway regions
James M. Powell
The Fifth Crusade failed because of conflicts between ecclesiastical and secular powers and the challenge that territorial interests presented to the universal objectives of the reformed papacy
Mark T. Abate
First Crusade: What was the most significant motivational factor in the massive lay response to the First Crusade?
The most significant motive of the participants of the First Crusade was a quest for the spiritual benefits of the expedition
Todd Marx
The most significant factor energizing the First Crusade was the widespread belief that the apocalypse was beginning: the world was ending, and possession of Jerusalem was the essential culmination of prophecy
Richard Landes
The most significant motive of the Crusades was religious revenge against those who attacked Christ, his people, and his patrimony
Mark T. Abate
Fourth Crusade: Was the Fourth Crusade really a crusade?
Yes. Although the Fourth Crusade was diverted, it was planned and launched by the papacy as a Crusade and should be considered as such
Christopher Libertini
No. Once the Fourth Crusade was diverted from its proclaimed objective, it ceased to be a legitimate crusade
Todd Marx
Gregory VII: Was Gregory VII the founder of the crusading movement?
Yes. Gregory VII's plan for an expedition to the Middle East as well as his approach to holy war against rival Christian powers marks the beginning of the crusading movement
Mark T. Abate
No. Gregory VII's proposals for holy war were qualitatively different from crusading. He did not view a Crusade as an armed pilgrimage, and he did not promise any spiritual rewards
John A. Dempsey
Inventing the Crusades: Were there any genuine Crusades before the thirteenth century?
Yes. Although not as clearly defined as in the thirteenth century, all the military expeditions to the East prior to this period were Crusades
Christopher Libertini
No. Crusading was a concept that emerged in the early thirteenth century and has been projected by historians onto earlier periods
Mark T. Abate
Jihad: Did the Islamic concept of jihad (just war) influence the development of Crusade ideology?
Yes. The notion of jihad influenced the Crusaders' sense of mission, urgency, and spiritual reward
Thomas F. Glick
No. The crusading movement was purely Christian in origin and development
Brenda Gardenour
Louis IX: Were the Crusades of Louis IX motivated more by political pragmatism than religious idealism?
Yes. The First Crusade of Louis IX allowed him to strengthen his domestic position, and his Second Crusade was designed to assist Charles of Anjou in maintaining control of Sicily
Clifford R. Backman
No. The Crusades of Louis IX were prompted solely by religious zeal and weakened rather than strengthened his political position
Mark T. Abate
Maritime States: Did the Italian maritime republics strengthen the Crusader States?
Yes. The Crusader States were economically and militarily sustained by the Italian maritime republics
Todd Marx
No. The Italian maritime republics were actually agents of destabilization that weakened the Crusader States
Carl Hill
Military Orders: Did the Islamic ribat (military religious communities) serve as the model for the Christian Crusaders?
Yes. The ribat served as a stimulus for the concept of monastic warrious, which was then refashioned and shaped by Latin Christian culture
Thomas F. Glick
No. The rise of the military orders was purely Christian in origin and was a continuation of the papal reform movement
Mark T. Abate
Military Strategy: Did the Crusaders have a coherent military strategy for securing the Holy Land?
Yes. The Crusaders developed coherent, dynamic strategies that shifted emphases and adapted to changing conditions over time
Mark T. Abate
No. The Crusades had no coherent and effective strategy, which was the reason for their successive failures and the ultimate loss of the Holy Land
Christopher Libertini
Missionary Activity: Was the conversion of non-Christians among the primary goals of the Crusades?
Yes. The conversion of non-Christians was a major goal of the crusading movement, and missionary efforts complemented military activity
Carl Hill
No. Religious conversion was not a high priority for the Crusaders and was seen by many as an obstacle to their immediate goals
Todd Marx
The Mongols: Would a Latin-likhan Mongol alliance have strengthened and preserved the Crusader States?
Yes. The combined might of the Latins and the llkhan Mongols would have been sufficient to destroy the Mamluk Sultanate; furthermore, such an alliance would have allowed the Crusader States to gain power and expand
Todd Marx
No. The llkhan Mongols were unpredictable allies, and they did not have the resources to alter the balance of power in the region significantly
Mark T. Abate
Muslims: Were Muslims treated better by the Crusaders than by Islamic rulers in the East?
Yes. Since the Crusader States needed to secure the cooperation of subject Muslims for economic and strategic reasons, they offered a form of semi-autonomous rule that gave Muslims, as well as Jews, a higher degree of freedom
Clifford R. Backman
No. Muslims under Latin rule were treated as inferiors, were humiliated and degraded by Christian domination, and longed for the return of Islamic rule
Mark T. Abate
Orientalization: Was there a significant fusion of Islamic and Latin Christian culture in the Crusader States?
Yes. Close interactions among Muslims and Latin Christians crystallized into a distinctive hybrid culture
Thomas F. Glick
No. The Latin Christians established themselves as an alien ruling aristocracy who shared a limited symbiotic relationship with the Muslims
Mark T. Abate
The Papacy: Did the Crusades strengthen the papacy?
Yes. The Crusades strengthened the papacy by providing it with a powerful and effective tool for protecting itself from secular threats and for bolstering its claims of authority
Christopher Libertini
No. The failure to recover the Holy Land weakened the power of the papacy and had a negative impact on its prestige
John A. Dempsey
Peter the Hermit: Did Peter the Hermit initiate the First Crusade?
Yes. Peter the Hermit was the principal motivator of the First Crusade before the papacy asserted its control over the movement
John O. Ward
No. Pope Urban II was the true architect of the First Crusade
John A. Dempsey
Political Crusades: Were the political Crusades against Christians a later distortion of the original concept of crusading?
Yes. The political Crusades were opportunistic abuses of papal authority to counter territorial threats and to achieve hegemony in Europe
Carl Hill
No. Crusades against Christians sprang from the same roots and depended on the same legal superstructure as Crusades against Muslims
John A. Dempsey
Popular Crusades: Were the Popular Crusades legitimately a part of the crusading movement?
Yes. The Popular Crusades were true Crusades because the participants vowed to defend the Holy Land
Mark T. Abate
No. The Popular Crusades lacked papal organization and approval
Christopher Libertini
Reconquista: Was the Reconquista really a Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula?
Yes. The Reconquista was seen as a Christian recovery of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim invaders
Thomas F. Glick
No. The Reconquista was actually a conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Spanish---a different people from the Goths, who lost the territory to the Muslims in the eighth century
Michael Weber
Saladin and Richard I: Was Saladin a better military commander than Richard I?
Yes. Saladin's use of caution, stealth, and guile demonstrates that he was superior to Richard I as a military commander
Mark T. Abate
No. Saladin's performance after the Battle of the Horns of Hattin in 1187, particularly his failure to seize Tyre and other strong Frankish sites, shows that he was an inferior commander compared to Richard I
Christopher Libertini
Third Crusade: Was the Third Crusade a success?
Yes. The Third Crusade was successful because the Crusaders managed to recapture strategic sites on the Mediterranean coast and check the advance of Saladin
Mark T. Abate
No. The Third Crusade was unsuccessful because the Crusaders failed to recapture the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and they left Latin-controlled areas in a weakened state
Christopher Libertini
Traditionalists and Pluralists: What is a Crusade?
Crusades were military expeditions that had as their ultimate goal the recovery or defense of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Islamic occupation
Todd Marx
Crusades were military expeditions against a variety of opponents (including some Christians) in multiple locales that were sanctioned by the papacy and shared organizational features and recruitment methods
Christopher Libertini
Treatment of Jews: Did the Jews have a more stable position under Islamic rule than Christian rule?
Yes. The position of Jews in the Muslim world was much better than in Christian regions because Islamic law made clear provisions for the treatment of monotheistic minorities
Thomas F. Glick
No. The Jews were subjected to as much violence and exploitation in the Near East as in the West
Mark T. Abate
Urban II: What was Pope Urban II's main objective in launching the First Crusade?
Urban II wished to liberate Eastern Christians and the city of Jerusalem from Islamic rule
Christopher Libertini
Urban II wanted to achieve a rapprochement between the Eastern and Western Churches and to strengthen the position of the papacy in western Europe
John A. Dempsey
Urban II's launch of the First Crusade was part of a broad counterstrike against Islam in Spain, Sicily, and the eastern Mediterranean
Mark T. Abate
Vow Redemption: Did vow redemption, a knight's promise to send a substitute soldier to the Holy Land or provide a monetary pledge to Rome, hamper the crusading movement?
Yes. Vow redemption weakened the crusading movement by sapping it of manpower and diverting financial resources
Christopher Libertini
No. Vow redemption strengthened the crusading movement by improving its financial organization and making it more adaptable to changing conditions
Mark T. Abate
Western Imperialism: Were the Crusades the beginning of Western imperialism and colonialism in the Middle East?
Yes. The Crusader States were the first European colony in the Middle East
Todd Marx
No. Western imperialism and colonialism in the Middle East were products of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
Carl Hill
References 307(6)
Contributors' Notes 313(2)
Index 315

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