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A History of Western Society, Combined Edition

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  • Edition: 14th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2022-11-15
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Table of Contents

The Combined Volume includes all chapters.

Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-16.

Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-30.

Since 1300 includes Chapters 11-30.


Maps, Figures, and Tables

Special Features

Chapter 1: Origins, to 1200 B.C.E.

What do we mean by "the West" and "Western civilization"?

Describing the West

What Is Civilization?

How did early human societies create new technologies and cultural forms?

From the First Hominids to the Paleolithic Era


Implications of Agriculture

Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections

What kind of civilization did the Sumerians build in Mesopotamia?

Environment and Mesopotamian Development

The Invention of Writing and the First Schools

Religion in Mesopotamia

Sumerian Politics and Society

How did the Akkadian and Old Babylonian empires develop in Mesopotamia?

The Akkadians and the Babylonians

Life Under Hammurabi

Cultural Exchange in the Fertile Crescent

How did the Egyptians establish a prosperous and long-lasting society?

The Nile and the God-King

Egyptian Religion

Egyptian Society and Work

Egyptian Family Life

The Hyksos and New Kingdom Revival

Conflict and Cooperation with the Hittites



Thinking Like a Historian: Addressing the Gods

Evaluating Written Evidence: Hammurabi’s Code on Marriage and Divorce

Viewpoints: Faulty Merchandise in Babylon and Egypt

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Egyptian Family Life

Individuals in Society: Hatshepsut

Chapter 2: Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East, 1200–510 B.C.E.

How did iron technology shape new states after 1200 B.C.E.?

Iron Technology

The Decline of Egypt and the Emergence of Kush

The Rise of Phoenicia

How did the Hebrews create an enduring religious tradition?

The Hebrew State

The Jewish Religion

Hebrew Family and Society

How did the Assyrians and Neo-Babylonians gain and lose power?

Assyria’s Long Road to Power

Assyrian Rule and Culture

The Neo-Babylonian Empire

How did the Persians conquer and rule their extensive empire?

Consolidation of the Persian Empire

Persian Religion

Persian Art and Culture



Individuals in Society: King Taharqa of Kush and Egypt

Thinking Like a Historian: The Moral Life

Viewpoints Rulers and Divine Favor: Views of Cyrus the Great

Evaluating Written Evidence: Manumission of an Enslaved Woman and Her Daughter

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Assyrians Besiege a City

Chapter 3: The Development of Greek Society and Culture, ca. 3000–338 B.C.E.

How did the geography of Greece shape its earliest kingdoms?

Geography and Settlement

The Minoans

The Mycenaeans

Homer, Hesiod, and the Epic

What was the role of the polis in Greek society?

Organization of the Polis

Governing Structures

Overseas Expansion

The Growth of Sparta

The Evolution of Athens

How did the wars of the classical period shape Greek history?

The Persian Wars

Growth of the Athenian Empire

The Peloponnesian War

The Struggle for Dominance

Philip II and Macedonian Supremacy

What ancient Greek ideas and ideals have had a lasting influence?

Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles

Households and Work

Gender and Sexuality

Public and Personal Religion

The Flowering of Philosophy



Evaluating Written Evidence: Thucydides on the Great Plague at Athens

Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Acropolis of Athens

Viewpoints: Greek Playwrights on Families, Fate, and Choice

Individuals in Society: Aristophanes

Thinking Like a Historian: Gender Roles in Classical Athens

Chapter 4: Life in the Hellenistic World, 338–30 B.C.E.

How and why did Alexander the Great create an empire, and how did it evolve?

Military Campaigns

The Political Legacy

How did Greek ideas and traditions spread to create a Hellenized society?

Urban Life

Greeks in Hellenistic Cities

Greeks and Non-Greeks

What characterized the Hellenistic economy?

Rural Life

Production of Goods


How did religion, philosophy, and the arts reflect and shape Hellenistic life?

Religion and Magic

Hellenism and the Jews

Philosophy and the People

Art and Drama

How did science and medicine serve the needs of Hellenistic society?





Viewpoints: Greek Historians on Alexander the Great

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Bactrian Disk with Religious Figures

Evaluating Written Evidence: A Hellenistic Spell of Attraction

Individuals in Society: Epicurus

Thinking Like a Historian: Hellenistic Medicine

Chapter 5: The Rise of Rome, ca. 1000–27 B.C.E.

How did the Romans become the dominant power in Italy?

The Geography of Italy

The Etruscans

The Founding of Rome

The Roman Conquest of Italy

What were the key institutions of the Roman Republic?

The Roman State

Social Conflict in Rome

How did the Romans build a Mediterranean empire?

The Punic Wars

Rome Turns East

How did expansion affect Roman society and culture?

Roman Families

New Social Customs and Greek Influence

Opposing Views: Cato the Elder and Scipio Aemilianus

What led to the fall of the Roman Republic?

The Countryside and Land Reforms

Political Violence

Civil War and the Rise of Julius Caesar



Viewpoints: Praise of Good Women in the Eulogy for Murdia and the Turia Inscription

Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Temple of Hercules Victor

Thinking Like a Historian: Land Ownership and Social Conflict in the Late Republic

Evaluating Written Evidence: Julius Caesar on the Gauls

Individuals in Society: Queen Cleopatra

Chapter 6: The Roman Empire, 27 B.C.E.–284 C.E.

How did Augustus and Roman elites create a foundation for the Roman Empire?

Augustus and His Allies

Roman Expansion

Latin Literature

Marriage and Morality

How did the Roman state develop after Augustus?

The Julio-Claudians and the Flavians

The Nerva-Antonine Dynasty

What was life like in the city of Rome and in the provinces?

Life in Imperial Rome

Approaches to Urban Problems

Popular Entertainment

Prosperity in the Roman Provinces

Trade and Commerce

How did Christianity grow into a major religious movement?

Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity

The Life and Teachings of Jesus

The Spread of Christianity

The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity

What political and economic problems did Rome face in the third century C.E.?

Civil Wars and Military Commanders

Turmoil in Economic Life



Thinking Like a Historian: Army and Empire

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Ara Pacis Augustae

Viewpoints: The Pax Romana

Evaluating Written Evidence: Ovid, The Art of Love

Individuals in Society: Pliny the Elder

Chapter 7: Late Antiquity, 250–600

How did Diocletian and Constantine try to reform the empire?

Political Measures

Economic Issues

The Acceptance of Christianity

How did the Christian Church become a major force in the Mediterranean and Europe?

The Church and Its Leaders

The Development of Christian Monasticism

Monastery Life

Christianity and Classical Culture

Christian Notions of Gender and Sexuality

Saint Augustine on Human Nature, Will, and Sin

What were the key characteristics of barbarian society?

Village and Family Life

Tribes and Hierarchies

Customary and Written Law

Celtic and Germanic Religion

How did the barbarian migrations shape Europe?

Celtic and Germanic People in Gaul and Britain

Visigoths and Huns

Germanic Kingdoms and the End of the Roman Empire

How did the church convert barbarian peoples to Christianity?

Missionaries’ Actions

The Process of Conversion

How did the Byzantine Empire preserve the legacy of Rome?

Sources of Byzantine Strength

The Law Code of Justinian

Byzantine Learning and Science

The Orthodox Church



Individuals in Society: Macrina the Younger

Viewpoints: Roman and Byzantine Views of Barbarians

Thinking Like a Historian: Slavery in Roman and Germanic Society

Evaluating Written Evidence: Gregory of Tours on the Veneration of Relics

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Mosaic of Empress Theodora

Chapter 8: Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 600–1000

What were the origins of Islam, and what impact did it have on Europe as it spread?

The Culture of the Arabian Peninsula

The Prophet Muhammad

The Teachings and Expansion of Islam

Sunni and Shi’a Divisions

Life in Muslim Spain

Muslim-Christian Encounters

Cross-Cultural Influences in Science and Medicine

How did the Franks build and govern a European empire?

The Merovingians

The Rise of the Carolingians

The Warrior-Ruler Charlemagne

Carolingian Government and Society

The Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne

What were the significant intellectual and cultural developments in Charlemagne’s era?

The Carolingian Renaissance

Northumbrian Learning and Writing

How did the ninth-century invasions and migrations shape Europe?

Vikings in Western Europe

Slavs and Vikings in Eastern Europe

Magyars and Muslims

How and why did Europe become politically and economically decentralized in this period?

Decentralization and the Origins of "Feudalism"

Manorialism, Serfdom, and the Slave Trade



Viewpoints: The Muslim Conquest of Spain

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Charlemagne and His Second Wife Hildegard

Individuals in Society: The Venerable Bede

Evaluating Written Evidence: The Death of Beowulf

Thinking Like a Historian: Vikings Tell Their Own Story

Chapter 9: State and Church in the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300

How did monarchs try to centralize political power?



Central Europe


The Iberian Peninsula

How did the administration of law evolve in this period?

Local Laws and Royal Courts

The Magna Carta

Law in Everyday Life

What were the political and social roles of nobles?

Origins and Status of the Nobility

Training, Marriage, and Inheritance

Power and Responsibility

How did the papacy reform the church, and what were the reactions to these efforts?

The Gregorian Reforms

Emperor Versus Pope

Criticism and Heresy

The Popes and Church Law

What roles did monks, nuns, and friars play in medieval society?

Monastic Revival

Life in Convents and Monasteries

The Friars

What were the causes, course, and consequences of the Crusades and the broader expansion of Christianity?

Background and Motives of the Crusades

The Course of the Crusades

Consequences of the Crusades

The Expansion of Christianity




Viewpoints: Oaths of Fealty

Evaluating Written Evidence: Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Illustrations from the Life of St. Edmund

Individuals in Society: Hildegard of Bingen

Thinking Like a Historian: Christian and Muslim Views of the Crusades

Chapter 10: Life in Villages and Cities of the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300

What was village life like in medieval Europe?

Serfdom and Social Mobility

The Manor


Home Life

Childbirth and Childhood

How did religion shape everyday life in the High Middle Ages?

Christian Life in Medieval Villages

Saints and Sacraments

Muslims and Jews

Rituals of Marriage and Birth

Death and the Afterlife

What led to Europe’s economic growth and reurbanization?

The Rise of Towns

Merchant and Craft Guilds

The Revival of Long-Distance Trade

Business Procedures

The Commercial Revolution

What was life like in medieval cities?

City Life

Servants and the Poor

Popular Entertainment

How did universities serve the needs of medieval society?


Legal and Medical Training

Theology and Philosophy

University Students

How did literature and architecture express medieval values?

Vernacular Literature and Drama

Churches and Cathedrals



Thinking Like a Historian: Social and Economic Relations in Medieval English Villages

Individuals in Society: Cecilia Penifader

Evaluating Written Evidence: Apprenticeship Contract for a Money-Changer

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Healthy Living

Viewpoints: Male and Female Troubadours

Chapter 11: The Later Middle Ages, 1300–1450

How did climate change shape the late Middle Ages?

Climate Change and Famine

Social Consequences

How did the plague affect European society?


Spread of the Disease

Care of the Sick

Economic, Religious, and Cultural Effects

What were the causes, course, and consequences of the Hundred Years’ War?


English Successes

Joan of Arc and France’s Victory


Why did the church come under increasing criticism?

The Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism

Critiques, Divisions, and Councils

Lay Piety and Mysticism

What explains the social unrest of the late Middle Ages?

Peasant Revolts

Urban Conflicts

Sex in the City

Fur-Collar Crime

Ethnic Tensions and Restrictions

Literacy and Vernacular Literature



Viewpoints: Italian and English Views of the Plague

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Dance of Death

Evaluating Written Evidence: The Trial of Joan of Arc

Individuals in Society: Meister Eckhart

Thinking Like a Historian: Popular Revolts in the Late Middle Ages

Chapter 12: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350–1550

How did political and economic developments in Italy shape the Renaissance?

Trade and Prosperity

Communes and Republics of Northern Italy

City-States and the Balance of Power

What new ideas were associated with the Renaissance?



Political Thought

Christian Humanism

The Printed Word

How did art reflect new Renaissance ideals?

Patronage and Power

Changing Artistic Styles

The Renaissance Artist

What were the key social hierarchies in Renaissance Europe?

Race and Slavery

Wealth and the Nobility

Gender Roles

How did nation-states develop in this period?






Viewpoints: Venice Versus Florence

Individuals in Society: Leonardo da Vinci

Thinking Like a Historian: Humanist Learning

Evaluating Written Evidence: Christine de Pizan, The Treasure of the City of Ladies

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Andrea Mantegna, Adoration of the Magi (c. 1495-1505)

Chapter 13: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500–1600

What were the central ideas of the reformers, and why were they appealing to different social groups?

The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century

Martin Luther

Protestant Thought

The Appeal of Protestant Ideas

The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War

Marriage, Sexuality, and the Role of Women

How did the political situation in Germany shape the course of the Reformation?

The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty

Religious Wars in Switzerland and Germany

How did Protestant ideas and institutions spread beyond German-speaking lands?


Henry VIII and the Reformation in England

Upholding Protestantism in England


The Reformation in Eastern Europe

What reforms did the Catholic Church make, and how did it respond to Protestant reform movements?

Papal Reform and the Council of Trent

New and Reformed Religious Orders

What were the causes and consequences of religious violence, including riots, wars, and witch-hunts?

French Religious Wars

The Netherlands Under Charles V

The Great European Witch-Hunt



Evaluating Written Evidence: Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty

Individuals in Society: Anna Jansz of Rotterdam

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Lucas de Heere, Allegory of the Tudor Succession, 1572

Thinking Like a Historian: Social Discipline in the Reformation

Viewpoints: Catholic and Calvinist Churches

Chapter 14: European Exploration and Conquest, 1450–1650

What was the Afro-Eurasian trading world before Columbus?

The Trade World of the Indian Ocean

The Trading States of Africa

The Middle East

Genoese and Venetian Middlemen

How and why did Europeans undertake ambitious voyages of expansion?

Causes of European Expansion

Technology and the Rise of Exploration

The Portuguese Overseas Empire

Spain’s Voyages to the Americas

Spain "Discovers" the Pacific

Early Exploration by Northern European Powers

What was the impact of European conquest on the New World?

Conquest of the Aztec Empire

The Fall of the Incas

Portuguese Brazil

Colonial Empires of England and France

Colonial Administration

How did Europe and the world change after Columbus?

Economic Exploitation of the Indigenous Population

Society in the Colonies

Population Loss and the Ecological Impacts of Contact

Sugar and Slavery

Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects

The Birth of the Global Economy

How did expansion change European attitudes and beliefs?

Religious Conversion

European Debates About Indigenous Peoples

New Ideas About Race

Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity

William Shakespeare and His Influence



Evaluating Written Evidence: Columbus Describes His First Voyage

Thinking Like a Historian: Who Was Doña Marina?

Individuals in Society: Catarina de San Juan

Viewpoints: Aztec and Spanish Views on Christian Conversion in New Spain

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Andrés Sánchez Gallque, The Mulatto Gentlemen of Esmeraldas, 1599

Chapter 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism, ca. 1589–1725

What were the crises and achievements of seventeenth-century European states?

The Social Order and Peasant Life

Environmental, Economic, and Social Crisis

The Thirty Years’ War

State-Building and the Growth of Armies

Baroque Art and Music

What was absolutism, and how did it evolve in western and central Europe?

The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century

The Foundations of French Absolutism

Louis XIV and Absolutism

Life at Versailles

Louis XIV’s Wars

The French Economic Policy of Mercantilism

What explains the rise of absolutism in Prussia and Austria?

The Return of Serfdom

The Austrian Habsburgs

Prussia in the Seventeenth Century

The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism

What were the distinctive features of Russian and Ottoman absolutism?

Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow

Building the Russian Empire

The Reforms of Peter the Great

The Ottoman Empire

What were alternatives to absolutism in early modern Europe?

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Failure of Absolutism in England

The Puritan Protectorate

The Restoration of the English Monarchy

Constitutional Monarchy

The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century



Thinking Like a Historian: What Was Absolutism?

Evaluating Written Evidence: Peter the Great and Foreign Experts

Individuals in Society: Hürrem

Viewpoints: Stuart Claims to Absolutism and the Parliamentary Response

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Gonzales Coques, The Young Scholar and His Wife, 1640

Chapter 16: Toward a New Worldview, 1540–1789

What revolutionary discoveries were made in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

Contributions from the Muslim World

Scientific Thought to 1500

The Copernican Hypothesis

Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right

Newton’s Synthesis

Natural History and Empire

Magic and Alchemy

What intellectual and social changes occurred as a result of the Scientific Revolution?

The Methods of Science: Bacon and Descartes

Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry

Science and Religion

Science and Society

How did the Enlightenment emerge, and what were major currents of Enlightenment thought?

The Early Enlightenment

The Influence of the Philosophes

Enlightenment Movements Across Europe

How did the Enlightenment change social ideas and practices?

Global Contacts

Enlightenment Debates About Race

Women and the Enlightenment

Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere

What impact did new ways of thinking have on politics?

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Austrian Habsburgs

Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism



Evaluating Written Evidence: Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger

Thinking Like a Historian: The Enlightenment Debate on Religious Tolerance

Viewpoints: Rousseau and Wollstonecraft Debate Women’s Equality

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Léonard Defrance and the Public Sphere

Individuals in Society: Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment

Chapter 17: The Expansion of Europe, 1650–1800

Why did European agriculture grow between 1650 and 1800?

The Legacy of the Open-Field System

New Methods of Agriculture

The Leadership of the Low Countries and England

Why did the European population rise dramatically in the eighteenth century?

Long-Standing Obstacles to Population Growth

The New Pattern of the Eighteenth Century

How and why did rural industry intensify in the eighteenth century?

The Putting-Out System

The Lives of Rural Textile Workers

The Industrious Revolution

What important changes occurred in economic thought and practice in the eighteenth century?

Economic Regulation and the Guilds

The Financial Revolution

Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism

How did empire and trade shape new economic, cultural, and social developments?

Mercantilism and Colonial Competition

The Atlantic Economy

The Transatlantic Slave Trade

Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World

The Atlantic Enlightenment

Trade and Empire in Asia and the Pacific



Evaluating Written Evidence: Thomas Malthus on the Limitation of Human Population

Thinking Like a Historian: Rural Industry: Progress or Exploitation?

Viewpoints: Opposing Views on Guilds and Economic Regulation

Evaluating Visual Evidence: New Ideas about Race and Identity

Individuals in Society: Rebecca Protten

Chapter 18: Life in the Era of Expansion, 1650–1800

How did marriage and family life change in the eighteenth century?

Late Marriage and Nuclear Families

Work Away from Home

Contraception and Community Controls

New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy

Sex on the Margins of Society

What was life like for children, and how did attitudes toward childhood evolve?

Child Care and Nursing

Foundlings and Infanticide

Attitudes Toward Children

The Spread of Elementary Schools

How did increasing literacy and new patterns of consumption affect people’s lives?

Popular Literature

Leisure and Recreation

New Foods and Appetites

Toward a Consumer Society

What role did religion play in eighteenth-century society?

Church Hierarchy

Protestant Revival

Catholic Piety

Marginal Beliefs and Practices

How did the practice of medicine evolve in the eighteenth century?

Faith Healing and General Practice

Improvements in Surgery


The Conquest of Smallpox and the Birth of Vaccination



Evaluating Written Evidence: A Day in the Life of Paris

Individuals in Society: Rose Bertin, "Minister of Fashion"

Thinking Like a Historian: A New Subjectivity

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Hogarth’s Satirical View of the Church

Viewpoints: The Case for and Against Female Midwives


Chapter 19: Revolutions in Politics, 1775–1815

What were the factors behind the revolutions of the late eighteenth century?

Social Change

Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality

The Seven Years’ War

Why and how did American colonists forge a new, independent nation?

The Origins of the Revolution

Independence from Britain

Framing the Constitution

Limitations of Liberty and Equality

How did the events of 1789 result in a constitutional monarchy in France?

Breakdown of the Old Order

The Formation of the National Assembly

Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man

A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges

Why and how did the French Revolution take a radical turn?

The International Response

The Second Revolution and the New Republic

Total War and the Terror

The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory

How did Napoleon Bonaparte create a French empire, and why did it fail?

Napoleon’s Rule of France

Napoleon’s Expansion in Europe

The Grand Empire and Its End

How did slave revolt on colonial Saint-Domingue lead to the independent nation of Haiti?

Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue

The Outbreak of Revolt

The War of Haitian Independence



Evaluating Written Evidence: Abigail Adams, "Remember the Ladies"

Thinking Like a Historian: The Rights of Which Men?

Viewpoints: Contrasting Visions of the Sans-Culottes

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808

Individuals in Society: Vincent Ogé

Chapter 20: The Revolution in Energy and Industry, ca. 1780–1850

Why and how did the Industrial Revolution emerge in Britain?

Why Britain?

Technological Innovations and Early Factories

The Steam Engine Breakthrough

Steam-Powered Transportation

Industry and Population

How did countries outside Britain respond to the challenge of industrialization?

National and International Variations

Industrialization in Continental Europe

Agents of Industrialization

The Global Picture

How did work and daily life evolve during the Industrial Revolution?

Work in Early Factories

Working Families and Children

The New Sexual Division of Labor

Living Standards for the Working Class

Environmental Impacts of Industrialization

What were the social consequences of industrialization?

The New Class of Factory Owners

Responses to Industrialization

The Early British Labor Movement

The Impact of Slavery



Individuals in Society: Samuel Crompton

Viewpoints: The Experience of Child Labor

Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Dinner Hour, Wigan

Thinking Like a Historian: Making the Industrialized Worker

Evaluating Written Evidence: Advice for Middle-Class Women

Chapter 21: Ideologies and Upheavals, 1815–1850

How was peace restored and maintained after the Napoleonic Wars?

The European Balance of Power

Metternich and Conservatism

Repressing the Revolutionary Spirit

Limits to Conservative Power and Revolution in South America

What new ideologies emerged to challenge conservatism?

Liberalism and the Middle Class

The Growing Appeal of Nationalism

The First Socialists

The Birth of Marxist Socialism

What were the characteristics of the Romantic movement?

The Romantic Worldview

Romantic Literature

Romanticism in Art and Music

How did reforms and revolutions challenge conservatism after 1815?

The Greek War of Independence

Liberal Reform in Great Britain

Ireland and the Great Famine

The Revolution of 1830 in France

What were the main causes and consequences of the revolutions of 1848?

A Democratic Republic in France

Revolution and Reaction in the Austrian Empire

Prussia, the German Confederation, and the Frankfurt National Assembly



Evaluating Written Evidence: The Karlsbad Decrees: Conservative Reaction in the German Confederation

Thinking Like a Historian: The Republican Spirit in 1848

Individuals in Society: Mary Shelley

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Honoré Daumier, Gargantua, 1831

Viewpoints: Picturing Revolutionary Violence in 1848

Chapter 22: Life in the Emerging Urban Society, 1840–1914

What were the main changes in urban life in the nineteenth century?

Industry and the Growth of Cities

The Advent of the Public Health Movement

The Bacterial Revolution

Improvements in Urban Planning

Public Transportation

How did class and gender reinforce social difference in the nineteenth century?

The Distribution of Income

The People and Occupations of the Middle Classes

The People and Occupations of the Working Classes


The Leisure Pursuits of the Working Classes

Faith and Religion

How did urbanization affect family life and gender roles?

Lifestyles of the Middle Classes

Middle-Class Marriage and Courtship Rituals

Middle- and Working-Class Sexuality

Separate Spheres and the Importance of Homemaking

Child Rearing

What were the most important changes in science and culture?

The Triumph of Science in Industry

Darwin and Natural Selection

The Modern University and the Social Sciences

Realism in Art and Literature



Evaluating Written Evidence: First Impressions of the World’s Biggest City

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Apartment Living in Paris

Individuals in Society: Franziska Tiburtius

Thinking Like a Historian: The Promise of Electricity

Viewpoints: Émile Zola and Naturalism/Realism in Western Literature

Chapter 23: The Age of Nationalism, 1850–1914

What were the main features of the authoritarian nation-state built by Napoleon III?

France’s Second Republic

Napoleon III’s Second Empire

How were strong nation-states forged in Italy, Germany, and the United States?

The Unification of Italy

The Austro-Prussian War

Taming the German Parliament

The Franco-Prussian War and German Unification

How did Russian and Ottoman leaders modernize their states and societies?

The "Great Reforms" in Russia

The Russian Revolution of 1905

Reform and Readjustment in the Ottoman Empire

How did the relationship between government and the governed change after 1871?

The Responsive National State

The German Empire

Republican France and the Third French Republic

Great Britain and Ireland

The Austro-Hungarian Empire

What were the costs and benefits of nationalism for ordinary people?

Making National Citizens

The Feminist Movement

Nationalism and Racism

Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism

How and why did revolutionary Marxism evolve in the late nineteenth century?

The Socialist International

Labor Unions and the Evolution of Working-Class Radicalism

Marxist Revisionism



Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Proclamation of the German Empire, January 1871

Evaluating Written Evidence: Eyewitness Account of Bloody Sunday

Thinking Like a Historian: How to Build a Nation

Individuals in Society: Theodor Herzl

Viewpoints: Marxist Revisionism

Chapter 24: The West and the World, 1815–1914

What were the global consequences of European industrialization?

The Rise of Global Inequality

The World Market

Western Pressures on China

Japan and the United States

Western Intervention in Egypt

How was massive migration an integral part of Western expansion?

The Pressure of Population

European Emigration

The Immigrant Experience in the United States

Asian Emigration

How did the New Imperialism change Western colonialism?

The European Presence in Africa Before 1880

The Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa

The British in Africa After 1885

Imperialism in Asia

Causes of the New Imperialism

A "Civilizing Mission"

Gender and Empire

European Critics of Imperialism

How did non-Westerners respond to Western expansion?

Impacts and Patterns of Response

The British Empire in India

Reforming Japan

Toward Revolution in China



Evaluating Written Evidence: Nativism in the United States

Evaluating Visual Evidence: European Imperialism at Its Worst

Individuals in Society: Cecil Rhodes

Viewpoints: White Man’s Burden or Capitalist Exploitation?

Thinking Like a Historian: Women and Empire

Chapter 25: War and Revolution, 1914–1919

What caused the outbreak of the First World War?

Growing International Conflict

The Mood of 1914

The July Crisis and the Outbreak of War

How did the First World War differ from previous wars?

Stalemate and Slaughter on the Western Front

The Widening War

In what ways did the war transform life on the home front?

Mobilizing for Total War

The Social Impact of Total War

Growing Political Tensions

Why did world war lead to a successful Communist revolution in Russia?

The Fall of Imperial Russia

The Provisional Government

Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution

Trotsky and the Seizure of Power

Dictatorship and Civil War

What were the benefits and costs of the postwar peace settlement?

The End of the War

Revolution in Austria-Hungary and Germany

The Treaty of Versailles

The Peace Settlement in the Middle East

The Human Costs of the War



Viewpoints: Poetry in the Trenches

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Wartime Propaganda Posters

Individuals in Society: Vera Brittain

Thinking Like a Historian: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire and the Mandate System

Evaluating Written Evidence: Peace, Land, and Bread for the Russian People

Chapter 26: Opportunity and Crisis in the Age of Modernity, 1880–1940

How did intellectual developments reflect the ambiguities of modernity?

Modern Philosophy

The Revival of Christianity

The New Physics

Freudian Psychology

How did modernism revolutionize Western culture?

Architecture and Design

New Artistic Movements

Twentieth-Century Literature

Modern Music

How did consumer society change everyday life?

Modern Mass Culture

The Appeal of Cinema

The Arrival of Radio

What obstacles to lasting peace did European leaders face?

Germany and the Western Powers

Hope in Foreign Affairs

Hope in Democratic Government

What were the causes and consequences of the Great Depression?

The Economic Crisis

Mass Unemployment

The New Deal in the United States

The Scandinavian Response to the Depression

Recovery and Reform in Britain and France



Evaluating Written Evidence: Friedrich Nietzsche Pronounces the Death of God

Individuals in Society: Sigmund Freud

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Georg Grosz, Eclipse of the Sun, 1926

Viewpoints: The Modern Girl: Image or Reality?

Thinking Like a Historian: The Radio Age

Chapter 27: Dictatorships and the Second World War, 1919–1945

What were the most important characteristics of Communist and Fascist ideologies?

Conservative Authoritarianism and Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships

Communism and Fascism

The Spanish Civil War

How did Stalinism transform state and society in the Soviet Union?

From Lenin to Stalin

Stalin and the Nationalities Question

The Five-Year Plans

Life and Culture in Soviet Society

The Great Purges and the Great Terror of 1937-38

What kind of government did Mussolini establish in Italy?

The Seizure of Power

The Fascist Regime in Action

What policies did Nazi Germany pursue, and why did they appeal to ordinary Germans?

The Roots of National Socialism

Hitler’s Road to Power

State and Society in Nazi Germany

Popular Support for National Socialism

Aggression and Appeasement

What explains the success and then defeat of Germany and Japan during World War II?

German Victories in Europe

Europe Under Nazi Occupation

The Holocaust

Japanese Empire and the War in the Pacific

The Grand Alliance and the "Hinge of Fate"

Allied Victory



Evaluating Written Evidence: Famine and Recovery on a Soviet Collective Farm in the Ukraine

Thinking Like a Historian: Normalizing Eugenics and "Racial Hygiene" in Nazi Germany

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Nazi Propaganda and Consumer Goods: The "People’s Car"

Viewpoints: Oratory and Ideology in World War II

Individuals in Society: Primo Levi

Chapter 28: Cold War Conflict and Consensus, 1945–1965

Why was World War II followed so quickly by the Cold War?

The Legacies of the Second World War

The Peace Settlement and Cold War Origins

West Versus East

Big Science in the Nuclear Age

What were the sources of postwar recovery and stability in western Europe?

The Search for Political and Social Consensus

Toward European Unity

The Consumer Revolution

What was the pattern of postwar development in the Soviet bloc?

Postwar Life in the East Bloc

Reform and De-Stalinization

Foreign Policy and Domestic Rebellion

The Limits of Reform

How did decolonization proceed in the Cold War era?

Decolonization and the Global Cold War

The Struggle for Power in Asia

Independence and Conflict in the Middle East

Decolonization in Africa

What were the key changes in social relations in postwar Europe?

Changing Class Structures

Patterns of Postwar Migration

New Roles for Women

Youth Culture and the Generation Gap



Viewpoints: Cold War Propaganda

Evaluating Visual Evidence: "Building the Republic": Socialist Realism in Postwar East Berlin

Evaluating Written Evidence: De-Stalinization and Khrushchev’s "Secret Speech"

Thinking Like a Historian: Violence and the Algerian War

Individuals in Society: Armando Rodrigues

Chapter 29: Challenging the Postwar Order, 1960–1991

Why did the postwar consensus of the 1950s break down?

Cold War Tensions Thaw

The Affluent Society

The Counterculture Movement

The United States and Vietnam

Student Revolts and 1968

The 1960s in the East Bloc

What were the consequences of economic stagnation in the 1970s?

Economic Crisis and Hardship

The New Conservatism

Challenges and Victories for Women

The Rise of the Environmental Movement

Separatism and Right-Wing Extremism

What led to the decline of "developed socialism" in the East Bloc?

State and Society in the East Bloc

Dissent in Czechoslovakia and Poland

From Détente Back to Cold War

Gorbachev’s Reforms in the Soviet Union

What were the causes and consequences of the 1989 revolutions in the East Bloc?

The Collapse of Communism in the East Bloc

German Unification and the End of the Cold War

The Disintegration of the Soviet Union



Evaluating Written Evidence: Human Rights Under the Helsinki Accords

Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Supermarket Revolution

Individuals in Society: Margaret Thatcher

Thinking Like a Historian: The New Environmentalism

Viewpoints: "Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall"

Chapter 30: Life in an Age of Globalization, 1990 to the Present

How did life change in Russia and the former East Bloc countries after 1989?

Economic Shock Therapy in Russia

Russian Revival Under Vladimir Putin

Political Instability and Russian Intervention in the Former Soviet Republics

Economic and Political Transformations in the Former East Bloc

Civil War in Yugoslavia

How did globalization affect European life and society?

The Global Economy

The New European Union

Supranational Organizations

Life in the Age of Social Media

The Costs and Consequences of Globalization

How is growing ethnic diversity changing contemporary Europe?

The Prospect of Population Decline

Changing Immigration Flows

Toward a Multicultural Continent

Europe and Its Muslim Population

What challenges will Europeans face in the coming decades?

Growing Strains in U.S.-European Relations

Turmoil in the Muslim World

The Global Recession and the Viability of the European Union

The New Populism

The COVID-19 Pandemic

Dependence on Fossil Fuels, Climate Change, and Environmental Degradation

Promoting Human Rights



Individuals in Society: Alexei Navalny

Viewpoints: Debating the Impact of Social Media and the Internet

Evaluating Written Evidence: The Thessaloniki Programme

Evaluating Visual Evidence: "John Bull" Supports Brexit

Thinking Like a Historian: The Conservative Reaction to Immigration and Islamist Terrorism



Timeline: A History of Western Society: A Brief Overview

About the Authors

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