9781319109561

A History of Western Society, Volume 1

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319109561

  • ISBN10:

    131910956X

  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-09-16
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Praised by instructors and students alike for its readability and attention to everyday life, the thirteenth edition of A History of Western Society includes a greater variety of tools to engage today's students and save instructors time. This edition features an enhanced primary source program, a question-driven narrative, five chapters devoted to the lives of ordinary people that make the past real and relevant, and the best and latest scholarship throughout.



Available for free when packaged with the print book, the popular digital assignment options for this text bring skill building and assessment to a highly effective level. The active learning options come in LaunchPad , which combines an accessible e-book with LearningCurve, an adaptive and automatically graded learning tool that—when assigned—helps ensure students read the book; the complete companion reader with quizzes on each source; and many other study and assessment tools. For instructors who want the easiest and most affordable way to ensure students come to class prepared, Achieve Read & Practice pairs LearningCurve adaptive quizzing and our mobile, accessible Value Edition e-book, in one easy-to-use product.

Table of Contents

The Combined Volume includes all chapters.


Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-16.


Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-30.


Since 1300 includes Chapters 11-30.




1 Origins To 1200 B.C.E.


What do we mean by "the West" and "Western civilization"?


Describing the West


What Is Civilization?


How did early human societies create new technologies and cultural forms?


From the First Hominids to the Paleolithic Era


Domestication


Implications of Agriculture


Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections


What kind of civilization did the Sumerians build in Mesopotamia?


Environment and Mesopotamian Development


The Invention of Writing and the First Schools


Religion in Mesopotamia


Sumerian Politics and Society


How did the Akkadian and Old Babylonian empires develop in Mesopotamia?


The Akkadians and the Babylonians


Life Under Hammurabi


Cultural Exchange in the Fertile Crescent


How did the Egyptians establish a prosperous and long-?lasting society?


The Nile and the God-King


Egyptian Religion


Egyptian Society and Work


Egyptian Family Life


The Hyksos and New Kingdom Revival


Conflict and Cooperation with the Hittites


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Evaluating Visual Evidence Paleolithic Venus Figures


Thinking Like a Historian Addressing the Gods


Evaluating Written Evidence Hammurabi’s Code on Marriage and Divorce Viewpoints Faulty Merchandise in Babylon and Egypt


Individuals in Society Hatshepsut and Nefertiti



2 Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East 1200–510 B.C.E.


How did iron technology shape new states after 1200 B.C.E.?


Iron Technology


The Decline of Egypt and the Emergence of Kush


The Rise of Phoenicia


How did the Hebrews create an enduring religious tradition?


The Hebrew State


The Jewish Religion


Hebrew Family and Society


How did the Assyrians and Neo-Babylonians gain and lose power?


Assyria’s Long Road to Power


Assyrian Rule and Culture


The Neo-Babylonian Empire


How did the Persians conquer and rule their extensive empire?


Consolidation of the Persian Empire


Persian Religion


Persian Art and Culture


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Individuals in Society King Taharqa of Kush and Egypt


Thinking Like a Historian The Moral Life


Viewpoints Rulers and Divine Favor: Views of Cyrus the Great


Evaluating Written Evidence A Jewish Family Contract


Evaluating Visual Evidence Assyrians Besiege a City



3 The Development of Greek Society and Culture ca. 3000–338 B.C.E.


How did the geography of Greece shape its earliest kingdoms?


Geography and Settlement


The Minoans


The Mycenaeans


Homer, Hesiod, and the Epic


What was the role of the polis in Greek society?


Organization of the Polis


Governing Structures


Overseas Expansion


The Growth of Sparta


The Evolution of Athens


How did the wars of the classical period shape Greek history?


The Persian Wars


Growth of the Athenian Empire


The Peloponnesian War


The Struggle for Dominance


Philip II and Macedonian Supremacy


What ancient Greek ideas and ideals have had a lasting influence?


Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles


Households and Work


Gender and Sexuality


Public and Personal Religion


The Flowering of Philosophy


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Evaluating Written Evidence Homer’s Iliad


Evaluating Visual Evidence The Acropolis of Athens


Viewpoints Greek Playwrights on Families, Fate, and Choice


Individuals in Society Aristophanes


Thinking Like a Historian Gender Roles in Classical Athens




4 Life in the Hellenistic World 336–30 B.C.E.


How and why did Alexander the Great create an empire, and how did it evolve?


Military Campaigns


The Political Legacy


How did Greek ideas and traditions spread to create a Hellenized society?


Urban Life


Greeks in Hellenistic Cities


Greeks and Non-Greeks


What characterized the Hellenistic economy?


Rural Life


Production of Goods


Commerce


How did religion, philosophy, and the arts reflect and shape Hellenistic life?


Religion and Magic


Hellenism and the Jews


Philosophy and the People


Art and Drama


How did science and medicine serve the needs of Hellenistic society?


Science


Medicine


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Viewpoints Greek Historians on Alexander the Great


Evaluating Visual Evidence Bactrian Disk with Religious Figures


Evaluating Written Evidence A Hellenistic Spell of Attraction


Individuals in Society Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor


Thinking Like a Historian Hellenistic Medicine



5 The Rise of Rome ca. 1000–27 B.C.E.


How did the Romans become the dominant power in Italy?


The Geography of Italy


The Etruscans


The Founding of Rome


The Roman Conquest of Italy


What were the key institutions of the Roman Republic?


The Roman State


Social Conflict in Rome


How did the Romans build a Mediterranean empire?


The Punic Wars


Rome Turns East


How did expansion affect Roman society and culture?


Roman Families


New Social Customs and Greek Influence


Opposing Views: Cato the Elder and Scipio Aemilianus


What led to the fall of the Roman Republic?


The Countryside and Land Reforms


Political Violence


Civil War and the Rise of Julius Caesar


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Evaluating Visual Evidence The Temple of Hercules Victor


Viewpoints Praise of Good Women in the Eulogy for Murdia and the Turia Inscription


Thinking Like a Historian Land Ownership and Social Conflict in the Late Republic


Evaluating Written Evidence Cicero and the Plot to Kill Caesar


Individuals in Society Queen Cleopatra




6 The Roman Empire 27 B.C.E.–284 C.E.


How did Augustus and Roman elites create a foundation for the Roman Empire?


Augustus and His Allies


Roman Expansion


Latin Literature


Marriage and Morality


How did the Roman state develop after Augustus?


The Julio-Claudians and the Flavians


The Nerva-Antonine Dynasty


What was life like in the city of Rome and in the provinces?


Life in Imperial Rome


Approaches to Urban Problems


Popular Entertainment


Prosperity in the Roman Provinces


Trade and Commerce


How did Christianity grow into a major religious movement?


Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity


The Life and Teachings of Jesus


The Spread of Christianity


The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity


What political and economic problems did Rome face in the third century c.e.?


Civil Wars and Military Commanders


Turmoil in Economic Life


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Thinking Like a Historian Army and Empire


Evaluating Visual Evidence Ara Pacis Augustae


Viewpoints The Pax Romana


Evaluating Written Evidence Ovid, The Art of Love


Individuals in Society Pliny the Elder




7 Late Antiquity 250–600


How did Diocletian and Constantine try to reform the empire?


Political Measures


Economic Issues


The Acceptance of Christianity


How did the Christian Church become a major force in the Mediterranean and Europe?


The Church and Its Leaders


The Development of Christian Monasticism


Monastery Life


Christianity and Classical Culture


Christian Notions of Gender and Sexuality


Saint Augustine on Human Nature, Will, and Sin


What were the key characteristics of barbarian society?


Village and Family Life


Tribes and Hierarchies


Customary and Written Law


Celtic and Germanic Religion


How did the barbarian migrations shape Europe?


Celtic and Germanic People in Gaul and Britain


Visigoths and Huns


Germanic Kingdoms and the End of the Roman Empire


How did the church convert barbarian peoples to Christianity?


Missionaries’ Actions


The Process of Conversion


How did the Byzantine Empire preserve the legacy of Rome?


Sources of Byzantine Strength


The Law Code of Justinian


Byzantine Learning and Science


The Orthodox Church


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Viewpoints Roman and Byzantine Views of Barbarians


Thinking Like a Historian Slavery in Roman and Germanic Society


Evaluating Visual Evidence Battle Between Romans and Goths


Evaluating Written Evidence Gregory of Tours on the Veneration of Relics


Individuals in Society Theodora of Constantinople



8 Europe in the Early Middle Ages 600–1000


What were the origins of Islam, and what impact did it have on Europe as it spread?


The Culture of the Arabian Peninsula


The Prophet Muhammad


The Teachings and Expansion of Islam


Sunni and Shi’a Divisions


Life in Muslim Spain


Muslim-Christian Relations


Cross-Cultural Influences in Science and Medicine


How did the Franks build and govern a European empire?


The Merovingians


The Rise of the Carolingians


The Warrior-Ruler Charlemagne


Carolingian Government and Society


The Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne


What were the significant intellectual and cultural developments in Charlemagne’s era?


The Carolingian Renaissance


Northumbrian Learning and Writing


How did the ninth-century invasions and migrations shape Europe?


Vikings in Western Europe


Slavs and Vikings in Eastern Europe


Magyars and Muslims


How and why did Europe become politically and economically decentralized in this period?


Decentralization and the Origins of "Feudalism"


Manorialism, Serfdom, and the Slave Trade


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Viewpoints The Muslim Conquest of Spain


Evaluating Visual Evidence Charlemagne and His Second Wife Hildegard


Individuals in Society The Venerable Bede


Evaluating Written Evidence The Death of Beowulf


Thinking Like a Historian Vikings Tell Their Own Story




9 State and Church in the High Middle Ages 1000–1300


How did monarchs try to centralize political power?


England


France


Central Europe


Italy


The Iberian Peninsula


How did the administration of law evolve in this period?


Local Laws and Royal Courts


The Magna Carta


Law in Everyday Life


What were the political and social roles of nobles?


Origins and Status of the Nobility


Training, Marriage, and Inheritance


Power and Responsibility


How did the papacy reform the church, and what were the reactions to these efforts?


The Gregorian Reforms


Emperor Versus Pope


Criticism and Heresy


The Popes and Church Law


What roles did monks, nuns, and friars play in medieval society?


Monastic Revival


Life in Convents and Monasteries


The Friars


What were the causes, course, and consequences of the Crusades and the broader expansion of Christianity?


Background and Motives of the Crusades


The Course of the Crusades


Consequences of the Crusades


The Expansion of Christianity


Christendom


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Viewpoints Oaths of Fealty


Evaluating Visual Evidence Saint Maurice, Ideal Knight


Evaluating Written Evidence Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam


Individuals in Society Hildegard of Bingen


Thinking Like a Historian Christian and Muslim Views of the Crusades




10 Life in Villages and Cities of the High Middle Ages 1000–1300


What was village life like in medieval Europe?


Slavery, Serfdom, and Upward Mobility


The Manor


Work


Home Life


Childbirth and Childhood


How did religion shape everyday life in the High Middle Ages?


Christian Life in Medieval Villages


Saints and Sacraments


Muslims and Jews


Rituals of Marriage and Birth


Death and the Afterlife


What led to Europe’s economic growth and reurbanization?


The Rise of Towns


Merchant and Craft Guilds


The Revival of Long-Distance Trade


Business Procedures


The Commercial Revolution


What was life like in medieval cities?


City Life


Servants and the Poor


Popular Entertainment


How did universities serve the needs of medieval society?


Origins


Legal and Medical Training


Theology and Philosophy


University Students


How did literature and architecture express medieval values?


Vernacular Literature and Drama


Churches and Cathedrals


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Thinking Like a Historian Social and Economic Relations in Medieval English Villages


Evaluating Written Evidence Apprenticeship Contract for a Money-Changer


Evaluating Visual Evidence Healthy Living


Individuals in Society Abelard and Heloise


Viewpoints Male and Female Troubadours



11 The Later Middle Ages 1300–1450


How did climate change shape the late Middle Ages?


Climate Change and Famine


Social Consequences


How did the plague affect European society?


Pathology


Spread of the Disease


Care of the Sick


Economic, Religious, and Cultural Effects


What were the causes, course, and consequences of the Hundred Years’ War?


Causes


English Successes


Joan of Arc and France’s Victory


Aftermath


Why did the church come under increasing criticism?


The Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism


Critiques, Divisions, and Councils


Lay Piety and Mysticism


What explains the social unrest of the late Middle Ages?


Peasant Revolts


Urban Conflicts


Sex in the City


Fur-Collar Crime


Ethnic Tensions and Restrictions


Literacy and Vernacular Literature


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Viewpoints Italian and English Views of the Plague


Evaluating Visual Evidence Dance of Death


Evaluating Written Evidence The Trial of Joan of Arc


Individuals in Society Meister Eckhart


Thinking Like a Historian Popular Revolts in the Late Middle Ages




12 European Society in the Age of the Renaissance 1350–1550


How did political and economic developments in Italy shape the Renaissance?


Trade and Prosperity


Communes and Republics of Northern Italy


City-States and the Balance of Power


What new ideas were associated with the Renaissance?


Humanism


Education


Political Thought


Christian Humanism


The Printed Word


How did art reflect new Renaissance ideals?


Patronage and Power


Changing Artistic Styles


The Renaissance Artist


What were the key social hierarchies in Renaissance Europe?


Race and Slavery


Wealth and the Nobility


Gender Roles


How did nation-states develop in this period?


France


England


Spain


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Viewpoints Venice vs. Florence


Individuals in Society Leonardo da Vinci


Thinking Like a Historian Humanist Learning


Evaluating Written Evidence Thomas More, Utopia


Evaluating Visual Evidence A Gold Coin of Ferdinand and Isabella



13 Reformations and Religious Wars 1500–1600


What were the central ideas of the reformers, and why were they appealing to different social groups?


The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century


Martin Luther


Protestant Thought


The Appeal of Protestant Ideas


The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War


Marriage, Sexuality, and the Role of Women


How did the political situation in Germany shape the course of the Reformation?


The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty


Religious Wars in Switzerland and Germany


How did Protestant ideas and institutions spread beyond German-speaking lands?


Scandinavia


Henry VIII and the Reformation in England


Upholding Protestantism in England


Calvinism


The Reformation in Eastern Europe


What reforms did the Catholic Church make, and how did it respond to Protestant reform movements?


Papal Reform and the Council of Trent


New and Reformed Religious Orders


What were the causes and consequences of religious violence, including riots, wars, and witch-hunts?


French Religious Wars


The Netherlands Under Charles V


The Great European Witch-Hunt


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Evaluating Written Evidence Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty


Evaluating Visual Evidence Lucas Cranach’s The True Church and the False Church, ca. 1546


Individuals in Society Anna Jansz of Rotterdam


Thinking Like a Historian Social Discipline in the Reformation


Viewpoints Catholic and Calvinist Churches




14 European Exploration and Conquest 1450–1650


What was the Afro-Eurasian trading world before Columbus?


The Trade World of the Indian Ocean


The Trading States of Africa


The Middle East


Genoese and Venetian Middlemen


How and why did Europeans undertake ambitious voyages of expansion?


Causes of European Expansion


Technology and the Rise of Exploration


The Portuguese Overseas Empire


Spain’s Voyages to the Americas


Spain "Discovers" the Pacific


Early Exploration by Northern European Powers


What was the impact of European conquest on the New World?


Conquest of the Aztec Empire


The Fall of the Incas


Portuguese Brazil


Colonial Empires of England and France


Colonial Administration


How did Europe and the world change after Columbus?


Economic Exploitation of the Indigenous Population


Society in the Colonies


The Columbian Exchange and Population Loss


Sugar and Slavery


Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects


The Birth of the Global Economy


How did expansion change European attitudes and beliefs?


Religious Conversion


European Debates About Indigenous Peoples


New Ideas About Race


Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity


William Shakespeare and His Influence


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Evaluating Written Evidence Columbus Describes His First Voyage


Thinking Like a Historian Who Was Doña Marina?


Individuals in Society Catarina de San Juan


Viewpoints Aztec and Spanish Views on Christian Conversion in New Spain


Evaluating Visual Evidence Depictions of Africans in European Portraiture



15 Absolutism and Constitutionalism ca. 1589–1725


What made the seventeenth century an "age of crisis" and achievement?


The Social Order and Peasant Life


Economic Crisis and Popular Revolts


The Thirty Years’?War


State-Building and the Growth of Armies


Baroque Art and Music


Why did France rise and Spain fall during the late seventeenth century?


The Foundations of French Absolutism


Louis XIV and Absolutism


Life at Versailles


Louis XIV’s Wars


The French Economic Policy of Mercantilism


The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century


What explains the rise of absolutism in Prussia and Austria?


The Return of Serfdom


The Austrian Habsburgs


Prussia in the Seventeenth Century


The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism


What were the distinctive features of Russian and Ottoman absolutism?


Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow


Building the Russian Empire


The Reforms of Peter the Great


The Ottoman Empire


Why and how did the constitutional state triumph in the Dutch Republic and England?


Religious Divides and Civil War


The Puritan Protectorate


The Restoration of the English Monarchy


Constitutional Monarchy


The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Thinking Like a Historian What Was Absolutism?


Evaluating Written Evidence Peter the Great and Foreign Experts


Individuals in Society Hürrem


Viewpoints Stuart Claims to Absolutism and the Parliamentary Response


Evaluating Visual Evidence Gonzales Coques, The Young Scholar and His Wife, 1640




16 Toward a New Worldview 1540–1789


What revolutionary discoveries were made in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?


Contributions from the Muslim World


Scientific Thought to 1500


The Copernican Hypothesis


Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right


Newton’s Synthesis


Natural History and Empire


Magic and Alchemy


What intellectual and social changes occurred as a result of the Scientific Revolution?


The Methods of Science: Bacon and Descartes


Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry


Science and Religion


Science and Society


How did the Enlightenment emerge, and what were major currents of Enlightenment thought?


The Early Enlightenment


The Influence of the Philosophes


Enlightenment Movements Across Europe


How did the Enlightenment change social ideas and practices?


Global Contacts


Enlightenment Debates About Race


Women and the Enlightenment


Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere


What impact did new ways of thinking have on politics?


Frederick the Great of Prussia


Catherine the Great of Russia


The Austrian Habsburgs


Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism


LOOKING BACK / LOOKING AHEAD


REVIEW & EXPLORE


Evaluating Written Evidence Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger


Evaluating Visual Evidence Andreas Vesalius, Frontispiece to On the Structure of the Human Body


Thinking Like a Historian The Enlightenment Debate on Religious Tolerance


Viewpoints Rousseau and Wollstonecraft Debate Women’s Equality


Individuals in Society Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment

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