How to Write and Use Instructional Objectives

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1994-01-01
  • Publisher: PRENTICE HALL
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This leading book is a concise and practical resource to writing and using objectives. This adaptable guide tells and shows how to state instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes, and how to use them in teaching and assessment. Expanded coverage in key areas, along with thorough updates, makes it the essential ┐how-to-do-it┐ book regarding instructional objectives. Describes and illustrates how to state instructional objectives in performance terms that clearly define desired learning outcomes (intellectual, affective, and performance skills) and expected student performance. Demonstrates how to use them in planning, teaching, learning, and assessment.

Table of Contents

How To Write Instructional Objectivesp. I
Writing Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomesp. 3
What Are Instructional Objectives?p. 3
Why Use Instructional Objectives?p. 5
Role of Objectives in Teachingp. 5
Role of Objectives in Student Learningp. 6
Role of Objectives in Assessmentp. 7
Role of Objectives in Communicating Instructional Intent to Othersp. 7
Role of Objectives in Evaluating Instructionp. 7
Focusing on Intended Learning Outcomesp. 7
Learning Outcomes and the Instructional Processp. 9
Stating Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomesp. 10
What About Conditions and Standards?p. 13
Obtaining Clear Statements of Instructional Objectivesp. 15
Stating the General Instructional Objectivesp. 15
Selecting the Proper Level of Generalityp. 18
Stating the Specific Learning Outcomesp. 20
Obtaining a Representative Sample of Specific Learning Outcomesp. 22
Emphasizing Instructional Intentp. 23
Keeping the Specific Learning Outcomes Useful for Various Units of Studyp. 24
Making Sure the Specific Learning Outcomes Are Relevantp. 25
Revising the General Objectives as Neededp. 25
Getting Started in Preparing Instructional Objectivesp. 27
Obtaining the Proper Orientationp. 27
Using a Frame of Reference as a Guidep. 28
Taxonomy of Educational Objectivesp. 29
Alternative Frames of Referencep. 31
Cautions in Using Any Framework as a Guidep. 32
Other Guides in Preparing Instructional Objectivesp. 32
Curriculum Guidesp. 32
Books and Special Reportsp. 33
Test Manualsp. 33
Considerations in Selecting Instructional Objectivesp. 34
Do the Objectives Indieate Learning Outcomes That Are Appropriate to the Instructional Area?p. 34
Do the Objectives Represent All Logical Learning Outcomes of the Instructional Area?p. 34
Are the Objectives Attainable by These Particular Students?p. 34
Are the Objectives in Harmony with the Philosophy of the School in Which the Instruction Is to Be Given?p. 35
Are the Objectives in Harmony with Basie Principles of Learning?p. 35
Preparing Instructional Objectives Cooperativelyp. 36
Writing Instructional Objectives For Various Outcomesp. 39
Writing Objectives for Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Outcomesp. 41
Stating Objectives at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Levelsp. 42
Adapting Statements to Areas of Instructionp. 44
Adapting Statements to Levels of Instructionp. 45
The Problem of Limiting Objectives to Intellectual Outcomesp. 47
Writing Objectives for Higher-Level Thinking Skillsp. 49
Making a Useful List of Outcomesp. 52
Adapting Statements to Areas of Instructionp. 53
Adapting Statements to Levels of Instructionp. 53
Affective Components of Thinkingp. 54
Writing Objectives for Affective Outcomesp. 57
Basing Statements on the Taxonomy Categoriesp. 58
Basing Statements on Traditional Categoriesp. 59
Adapting Statements to Areas and Levels of Instructionp. 61
Writing Performance Objectives for Skills and Productsp. 63
Writing Objectives for Procedure Outcomesp. 64
Writing Objectives for Product Outcomesp. 66
Focusing on Both Procedure and Product Outcomesp. 67
Isolating Performance Skills When Writing Objectivesp. 68
Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives for Skills and Productsp. 69
Writing Performance Objectives for Problem-Solving Projectsp. 71
Stating Objectives for Restricted Problem-Solving Projectsp. 71
Stating Objectives for Extended Problem-Solving Projectsp. 73
Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives in Problem-Solving Projectsp. 75
Using Instructional Objectivesp. 79
Using Objectives in Teachingp. 81
Instructional Objectives at the Minimum-Essentials Levelp. 82
Instructional Objectives at the Developmental Levelp. 83
Using Objectives in Instructional Planningp. 84
Using Objectives to Motivate and Direct Studentsp. 86
Using Objectives in Guiding Student Learningp. 87
Using Objectives in Achievement Testingp. 89
Preparing the List of Instructional Objectivesp. 90
Outlining the Contentp. 91
Preparing the Table of Specificationsp. 91
Constructing Relevant Test Itemsp. 92
Preparing a File of Test Itemsp. 94
Using Detailed Specifications for Item Writingp. 95
Using Objectives in Performance and Affective Assessmentp. 97
Assessing Performance Skillsp. 98
Rating Scalesp. 98
Checklistsp. 99
Scoring Rubricsp. 101
Assessing Affective Outcomesp. 102
Using Student Portfoliosp. 104
Guidelines for Preparing and Using Assessment Instrumentsp. 104
Checklist for Evaluating the Final List of Objectivesp. 109
Taxonomy of Educational Objectivesp. 111
Illustrative Verbsp. 119
Referencesp. 123
Indexp. 125
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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