Human Anatomy

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-03-01
  • Publisher: Pearson P T R
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Since its first edition Human Anatomy as been praised for its clarity of presentation, its outstanding visually-oriented illustration program, and its ability to help users understand anatomical structures. Past editions of Human Anatomy have won very prestigious awards, including the award for Textbook Excellence by the Text and Academic Authors Association and the award for Illustration Excellence by the Association of Medical Illustrators. Innovative pedagogical elements and a tightly integrated supplements package make this new edition an excellent choice for all anatomy studies. The exhaustive volume provides an introduction to anatomy and addresses cells, the tissue level of organization, integumentary system, the skeletal system, the muscular system, surface anatomy, the nervous system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system, the respiratory system, the digestive system, the urinary system, the reproductive system, and human development. For health care professionals of all kinds, massage therapists, forensic medical examiners and athletic trainers.

Table of Contents

An Introduction to Anatomyp. 1
Microscopic Anatomyp. 2
Gross Anatomyp. 3
Other Perspectives on Anatomyp. 3
Levels of Organizationp. 4
An Introduction to Organ Systemsp. 6
The Language of Anatomyp. 13
Superficial Anatomyp. 13
Anatomical Landmarksp. 13
Anatomical Regionsp. 14
Anatomical Directionsp. 15
Sectional Anatomyp. 16
Planes and Sectionsp. 16
Body Cavitiesp. 18
Clinical Discussion: Sectional Anatomy and Clinical Technologyp. 21
Related Clinical Termsp. 23
Related Clinical Issuesp. 784
Anatomy and Observation
The Cellp. 26
The Study of Cellsp. 27
Cellular Anatomyp. 27
The Cell Membranep. 29
Membrane Permeability: Passive Processesp. 31
Membrane Permeability: Active Processesp. 32
The Cytoplasmp. 33
The Cytosolp. 33
Organellesp. 34
Nonmembranous Organellesp. 34
The Cytoskeletonp. 34
Microvillip. 35
Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagellap. 36
Ribosomesp. 37
Membranous Organellesp. 37
Mitochondriap. 37
The Nucleusp. 38
The Endoplasmic Reticulump. 39
The Golgi Apparatusp. 40
Lysosomesp. 40
Peroxisomesp. 42
Membrane Flowp. 44
Intercellular Attachmentp. 42
The Cell Life Cyclep. 44
Interphasep. 44
Mitosisp. 45
Clinical Brief: Cell Division and Cancerp. 45
Related Clinical Termsp. 47
Related Clinical Issuesp. 784
Causes of Cancer
The Tissue Level of Organizationp. 51
Epithelial Tissuep. 52
Functions of Epithelial Tissuep. 52
Embryology Summary: Formation of Tissuesp. 53
Specializations of Epithelial Cellsp. 54
Maintaining the Integrity of the Epitheliump. 55
Intercellular Connectionsp. 55
Attachment to the Basement Membranep. 55
Epithelial Maintenance and Renewalp. 55
Classification of Epitheliap. 56
Squamous Epitheliap. 56
Cuboidal Epitheliap. 57
Columnar Epitheliap. 57
Glandular Epitheliap. 57
Types of Secretionp. 57
Gland Structurep. 60
Modes of Secretionp. 61
Embryology Summary: Development of Epitheliap. 63
Connective Tissuesp. 62
Classification of Connective Tissuesp. 64
Connective Tissue Properp. 64
Cells of Connective Tissue Properp. 64
Connective Tissue Fibersp. 65
Ground Substancep. 66
Embryonic Tissuesp. 66
Loose Connective Tissuesp. 66
Dense Connective Tissuesp. 68
Fluid Connective Tissuesp. 68
Supporting Connective Tissuesp. 70
Cartilagep. 70
Bonep. 71
Clinical Brief: Sharks and the Fight Against Cancer ("Jaws" to the Rescue)p. 71
Embryology Summary: Origins of Connective Tissuesp. 74
Membranesp. 75
Mucous Membranesp. 75
Serous Membranesp. 75
The Cutaneous Membranep. 76
Synovial Membranesp. 76
The Connective Tissue Framework of the Bodyp. 76
Muscle Tissuep. 77
Skeletal Muscle Tissuep. 77
Cardiac Muscle Tissuep. 77
Smooth Muscle Tissuep. 77
Neural Tissuep. 79
Tissues, Nutrition, and Agingp. 79
Embryology Summary: Development of Organ Systemsp. 80
Clinical Discussion: Tumor Formation and Growthp. 82
Related Clinical Termsp. 82
Related Clinical Issuesp. 784
Infants and Brown Fat
Cartilages and Knee Injuries
Problems with Serous Membranes
Tissue Structure and Disease
The Integumentary Systemp. 87
Integumentary Structure and Functionp. 88
The Epidermisp. 89
Layers of the Epidermisp. 89
Stratum Germinativump. 89
Stratum Spinosump. 90
Stratum Granulosump. 91
Stratum Lucidump. 91
Stratum Corneump. 91
Clinical Brief: Transdermal Drug Administrationp. 91
Thick and Thin Skinp. 91
Epidermal Ridgesp. 91
Skin Colorp. 92
The Dermisp. 93
Dermal Organizationp. 93
Wrinkles, Stretch Marks, and Lines of Cleavagep. 94
Other Dermal Componentsp. 95
The Blood Supply to the Skinp. 95
The Nerve Supply to the Skinp. 95
The Subcutaneous Layerp. 95
Accessory Structuresp. 96
Hair Follicles and Hairp. 96
Hair Productionp. 96
Follicle Structurep. 96
Functions of Hairp. 98
Types of Hairsp. 98
Hair Colorp. 98
Growth and Replacement of Hairp. 98
Glands in the Skinp. 99
Sebaceous Glandsp. 99
Sweat Glandsp. 100
Control of Glandular Secretionsp. 101
Other Integumentary Glandsp. 101
Clinical Brief: Seborrheic Dermatitisp. 100
Nailsp. 104
Local Control of Integumentary Functionp. 104
Clinical Brief: Anthraxp. 105
Aging and the Integumentary Systemp. 105
Embryology Summary: Development of the Integumentary Systemp. 102
Related Clinical Termsp. 106
Related Clinical Issuesp. 786
Psoriasis and Xerosis
Skin Cancers
Tumors in the Dermis
Baldness and Hirsutism
Inflammation of the Skin
Complications of Inflammation
Burns and Grafts
Scar Tissue Formation
Synthetic Skin
The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structurep. 112
Structure of Bonep. 113
Histological Organizationp. 113
The Matrix of Bonep. 113
The Cells of Bonep. 113
Compact and Spongy Bonep. 114
Structural Differences Between Compact and Spongy Bonep. 114
Functional Differences Between Compact and Spongy Bonep. 116
The Periosteum and Endosteump. 117
Clinical Brief: Ricketsp. 118
Bone Development and Growthp. 118
Intramembranous Ossificationp. 118
Endochondral Ossificationp. 120
Increasing the Length of a Developing Bonep. 120
Increasing the Diameter of a Developing Bonep. 122
Formation of the Blood and Lymphatic Supplyp. 122
Bone Innervationp. 122
Factors Regulating Bone Growthp. 122
Bone Maintenance, Repair, and Remodelingp. 124
Changes in Bone Shapep. 124
Injury and Repairp. 124
Aging and the Skeletal Systemp. 125
Clinical Discussion: A Classification of Fracturesp. 126
Anatomy of Skeletal Elementsp. 126
Classification of Bonesp. 126
Bone Markings (Surface Features)p. 127
Integration with Other Systemsp. 129
Related Clinical Termsp. 129
Related Clinical Issuesp. 789
Inherited Abnormalities in Skeletal Development
Osteoporosis and Other Skeletal Abnormalities Associated with Aging
The Skeletal System: Axial Divisionp. 133
The Skull and Associated Bonesp. 135
Bones of the Craniump. 142
Occipital Bonep. 142
Parietal Bonesp. 142
Frontal Bonep. 142
Temporal Bonesp. 142
Sphenoidp. 147
Ethmoidp. 148
The Cranial Fossaep. 148
Bones of the Facep. 150
The Maxillaep. 150
The Palatine Bonesp. 150
The Nasal Bonesp. 150
The Inferior Nasal Conchaep. 150
The Zygomatic Bonesp. 150
The Lacrimal Bonesp. 150
The Vomerp. 150
The Mandiblep. 152
The Orbital and Nasal Complexesp. 152
The Orbital Complexp. 152
The Nasal Complexp. 153
Clinical Brief: Sinus Problems and Septal Defectsp. 153
Hyoid Bonep. 155
Embryology Summary: Development of the Skullp. 156
The Skulls of Infants, Children, and Adultsp. 161
Clinical Brief: Problems with Growth of the Skullp. 161
The Vertebral Columnp. 163
Spinal Curvaturep. 164
Clinical Brief: Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosisp. 164
Vertebral Anatomyp. 165
The Vertebral Bodyp. 165
The Vertebral Archp. 165
The Articular Processesp. 165
Vertebral Articulationp. 165
Vertebral Regionsp. 166
Cervical Vertebraep. 166
Thoracic Vertebraep. 167
Lumbar Vertebraep. 170
The Sacrump. 171
The Coccyxp. 171
Embryology Summary: Development of the Vertebral Columnp. 172
Clinical Brief: Spina Bifidap. 174
The Thoracic Cagep. 174
The Ribsp. 174
Clinical Brief: Cracked Ribsp. 174
The Sternump. 174
Related Clinical Termsp. 176
Related Clinical Issuesp. 789
The Thoracic Cage and Surgical Procedures
The Skeletal System: Appendicular Divisionp. 180
The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbp. 182
The Pectoral Girdlep. 182
The Claviclep. 182
The Scapulap. 182
The Upper Limbp. 185
The Humerusp. 185
The Ulnap. 185
The Radiusp. 190
The Carpal Bonesp. 190
The Handp. 190
Embryology Summary: Development of the Appendicular Skeletonp. 192
The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbp. 194
The Pelvic Girdlep. 195
The Coxap. 195
The Pelvisp. 195
The Lower Limbp. 201
The Femurp. 201
The Patellap. 204
The Tibiap. 204
The Fibulap. 204
The Tarsusp. 207
The Footp. 207
Individual Variation in the Skeletal Systemp. 209
The Skeletal System: Articulationsp. 213
The Classification of Jointsp. 214
Synarthroses (Immovable Joints)p. 214
Amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable Joints)p. 214
Diarthroses (Freely Movable Joints)p. 214
Synovial Fluidp. 215
Accessory Structuresp. 215
Strength versus Mobilityp. 216
Clinical Brief: Dislocation of a Synovial Jointp. 216
Articular Form and Functionp. 217
Describing Dynamic Motionp. 217
Types of Movementsp. 217
Linear Motion (Gliding)p. 218
Angular Motionp. 218
Rotationp. 218
Special Movementsp. 218
A Structural Classification of Synovial Jointsp. 218
Representative Articulationsp. 222
The Temporomandibular Jointp. 222
Intervertebral Articulationsp. 222
The Intervertebral Discsp. 222
Intervertebral Ligamentsp. 223
Vertebral Movementsp. 224
Clinical Discussion: Problems with the Intervertebral Discsp. 224
The Sternoclavicular Jointp. 224
The Shoulder Jointp. 225
Ligamentsp. 227
Skeletal Muscles and Tendonsp. 227
Bursaep. 227
Clinical Brief: Shoulder Injuriesp. 227
The Elbow Jointp. 227
Joints of the Wristp. 229
Stability of the Wristp. 229
The Joints of the Handp. 230
The Hip Jointp. 230
The Articular Capsulep. 230
Stabilization of the Hipp. 231
The Knee Jointp. 232
The Articular Capsulep. 232
Supporting Ligamentsp. 232
Locking of the Kneep. 235
Joints of the Ankle and Footp. 000
The Ankle Jointp. 235
Joints of the Footp. 236
Aging and Articulationsp. 236
Bones and Musclesp. 238
Related Clinical Termsp. 238
Related Clinical Issuesp. 790
The Thoracic Cage and Surgical Procedures
Rheumatism, Arthritis, and Synovial Function
Hip Fractures and the Aging Process
A Case Study: Bo Jackson's Hip Injury
Knee Injuries
Problems with the Ankle and Foot
The Muscular System: Skeletal Muscle Tissue and Muscle Organizationp. 244
Functions of Skeletal Musclep. 245
Anatomy of Skeletal Musclesp. 245
Gross Anatomyp. 245
Connective Tissue of Musclep. 245
Nerves and Blood Vesselsp. 246
Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibersp. 247
Myofibrils and Myofilamentsp. 247
Sarcomere Organizationp. 247
Muscle Contractionp. 251
The Sliding Filament Theoryp. 251
The Start of a Contractionp. 251
The End of a Contractionp. 252
Clinical Brief: Rigor Mortisp. 253
The Neural Control of Muscle Fiber Contractionp. 253
Muscle Contraction: A Summaryp. 254
Motor Units and Muscle Controlp. 255
Muscle Tonep. 255
Muscle Hypertrophyp. 255
Muscle Atrophyp. 255
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibersp. 256
Distribution of Fast, Slow, and Intermediate Fibersp. 256
The Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibersp. 257
Parallel Musclesp. 257
Convergent Musclesp. 257
Pennate Musclesp. 258
Circular Musclesp. 258
Levers: A Systems Design for Movementp. 259
Classes of Leversp. 259
Muscle Terminologyp. 260
Origins and Insertionsp. 260
Actionsp. 260
Names of Skeletal Musclesp. 261
Aging and the Muscular Systemp. 262
Related Clinical Termsp. 262
Related Clinical Issuesp. 791
Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
Myasthenia Gravis
The Muscular System: Axial Musculaturep. 266
The Axial Musculaturep. 267
Muscles of the Head and Neckp. 269
Muscles of Facial Expressionp. 269
Extraocular Musclesp. 273
Muscles of Masticationp. 273
Muscles of the Tonguep. 274
Muscles of the Pharynxp. 275
Anterior Muscles of the Neckp. 276
Clinical Discussion: What's New?p. 274
Muscles of the Vertebral Columnp. 278
Oblique and Rectus Musclesp. 278
The Diaphragmp. 278
Muscles of the Pelvic Floorp. 283
Embryology Summary: Development of the Muscular Systemp. 286
Related Clinical Termsp. 285
Related Clinical Issuesp. 791
The Muscular System: The Appendicular Musculaturep. 290
Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbsp. 291
Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdlep. 292
Muscles That Move the Armp. 295
Muscles That Move the Forearm and Handp. 297
Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingersp. 299
Clinical Brief: Carpal Tunnel Syndromep. 301
Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbsp. 305
Muscles That Move the Thighp. 305
Muscles That Move the Legp. 309
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toesp. 313
Clinical Brief: Intramuscular Injectionsp. 316
Clinical Discussion: Compartment Syndromep. 320
Related Clinical Termsp. 320
Related Clinical Issuesp. 792
Sports Injuries
Surface Anatomyp. 323
Regional Approach to Surface Anatomyp. 324
The Head and Neckp. 324
The Thoraxp. 326
The Anterior Thoraxp. 326
Back and Shoulder Regionsp. 326
The Abdomenp. 327
The Upper Limbp. 328
The Forearm and Wristp. 329
The Pelvis and Lower Limbp. 330
The Knee, Leg, Ankle, and Footp. 331
The Nervous System: Neural Tissuep. 334
An Overview of the Nervous Systemp. 335
Cellular Organization in Neural Tissuep. 336
Neurogliap. 337
Neuroglia of the CNSp. 337
Neuroglia of the PNSp. 339
Neuronsp. 342
Neuron Classificationp. 343
Neural Regenerationp. 345
The Nerve Impulsep. 346
Synaptic Communicationp. 346
Chemical Synapsesp. 346
Electrical Synapsesp. 347
Neuron Organization and Processingp. 347
Embryology Summary: Introduction to the Development of the Nervous Systemp. 349
Anatomical Organization of the Nervous Systemp. 350
Related Clinical Termsp. 351
Related Clinical Issuesp. 792
Axoplasmic Transport and Disease
Demyelination Disorders
Growth and Myelination of the Nervous System
The Nervous System: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nervesp. 355
Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cordp. 356
Clinical Brief: Shinglesp. 356
Spinal Meningesp. 356
The Dura Materp. 356
The Arachnoidp. 359
The Pia Materp. 359
Clinical Discussion: Spinal Taps and Myelographyp. 360
Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cordp. 361
Organization of Gray Matterp. 361
Organization of White Matterp. 362
Clinical Brief: Spinal Cord Injuriesp. 362
Spinal Nervesp. 362
Peripheral Distribution of Spinal Nervesp. 363
Nerve Plexusesp. 363
The Cervical Plexusp. 364
The Brachial Plexusp. 367
The Lumbar Sacral Plexusesp. 370
Reflexesp. 373
Classification of Reflexesp. 373
Spinal Reflexesp. 374
Higher Centers and Integration of Reflexesp. 374
Embryology Summary: Development of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nervesp. 376
Related Clinical Termsp. 375
Related Clinical Issuesp. 793
Spinal Meningitis
Spinal Anesthesia
Technology and Motor Paralysis
Multiple Sclerosis
Retlexes and Diagnostic Testing
The Nervous System: The Brain and Cranial Nervesp. 381
An Introduction to the Organization of the Brainp. 382
Embryology of the Brainp. 382
Major Regions and Landmarksp. 382
Cerebrump. 382
Diencephalonp. 383
Mesencephalonp. 384
The Pons and Cerebellump. 384
Medulla Oblongatap. 384
Gray Matter and White Matter Organizationp. 384
The Ventricles of the Brainp. 384
Protection and Support of the Brainp. 384
The Cranial Meningesp. 384
The Dura Materp. 386
The Arachnoidp. 386
The Pia Materp. 386
Clinical Brief: Epidural and Subdural Hemorrhagesp. 386
The Blood-Brain Barrierp. 388
Cerebrospinal Fluidp. 389
Formation of CSFp. 389
Circulation of CSFp. 390
Clinical Discussion: Hydrocephalusp. 391
The Cerebrump. 391
The Cerebral Hemispheresp. 391
The Cerebral Lobesp. 391
Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortexp. 392
Association Areasp. 394
Integrative Centersp. 394
The Central White Matterp. 394
The Basal Nucleip. 394
Functions of the Basal Nucleip. 394
The Limbic Systemp. 395
The Diencephalonp. 400
The Epithalamusp. 400
The Thalamusp. 400
Functions of Thalamic Nucleip. 400
The Hypothalamusp. 400
Functions of the Hypothalamusp. 400
The Mesencephalonp. 403
Clinical Brief: The Substantia Nigra and Parkinson's Diseasep. 403
The Ponsp. 405
The Cerebellump. 406
The Medulla Oblongatap. 408
Cranial Nervesp. 409
The Olfactory Nerve (N I)p. 410
The Optic Nerve (N II)p. 411
The Oculomotor Nerve (N III)p. 412
The Trochlear Nerve (N IV)p. 412
The Trigeminal Nerve (N V)p. 412
Clinical Brief: Tic Douloureuxp. 414
Clinical Brief: Bell's Palsyp. 414
The Abducens Nerve (N VI)p. 414
The Facial Nerve (N VII)p. 414
The Vestibulocochlear Nerve (N VIII)p. 414
The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (N IX)p. 416
The Vagus Nerve (N X)p. 417
The Accessory Nerve (N XI)p. 418
The Hypoglossal Nerve (N XII)p. 418
A Summary of Cranial Nerve Branches and Functionsp. 419
Embryology Summary: Development of the Brain and Cranial Nervesp. 420
Clinical Discussion: Cranial Reflexesp. 422
Related Clinical Termsp. 422
Related Clinical Issuesp. 794
Cranial Trauma
Cerebellar Dysfunction
The Nervous System: Pathways and Higher-Order Functionsp. 427
Sensory and Motor Pathwaysp. 428
Sensory Pathwaysp. 428
The Posterior Column Pathwayp. 428
The Spinothalamic Pathwayp. 431
The Spinocerebellar Pathwayp. 431
Motor Pathwaysp. 432
The Corticospinal Pathwayp. 433
Clinical Brief: Cerebral Palsyp. 000
Medial and Lateral Pathwaysp. 434
The Basal Nuclei and Cerebellump. 435
Levels of Somatic Motor Controlp. 436
Clinical Brief: Anencephalyp. 438
Higher-Order Functionsp. 438
Integrative Regions of the Cerebral Cortexp. 438
The General Interpretive Areap. 438
The Speech Centerp. 438
The Prefrontal Cortexp. 438
Brodman Areas and Cortical Functionp. 439
Hemispheric Specializationp. 439
Clinical Brief: Damage to the Integrative Centersp. 440
Memoryp. 440
Clinical Brief: Disconnection Syndromep. 441
Consciousness: The Reticular Activating Systemp. 441
Clinical Brief: Amnesiap. 441
Clinical Discussion: Levels of Consciousnessp. 442
Aging and the Nervous Systemp. 442
Clinical Brief: Cerebrovascular Diseasesp. 442
Clinical Brief: Alzheimer's Diseasep. 443
Related Clinical Termsp. 443
Related Clinical Issuesp. 795
Tay-Sachs Disease
Huntington's Disease
The Nervous System: Autonomic Divisionp. 447
An Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)p. 448
Pathways for Visceral Motor Outputp. 448
Subdivisions of the ANSp. 448
Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar) Divisionp. 448
Parasympathetic (Craniosacral) Divisionp. 448
Innervation Patternsp. 448
The Sympathetic Divisionp. 450
The Sympathetic Chain Gangliap. 450
Functions of the Sympathetic Chainp. 452
Anatomy of the Sympathetic Chainp. 445
Collateral Gangliap. 452
Functions of the Collateral Gangliap. 452
Anatomy of the Collateral Gangliap. 452
The Adrenal Medullaep. 452
Effects of Sympathetic Stimulationp. 454
Clinical Brief: Horner's Syndromep. 455
Sympathetic Activation and Neurotransmitter Releasep. 455
Membrane Receptors and Sympathetic Functionp. 455
Alpha and Beta Receptorsp. 456
Sympathetic Stimulation and AChp. 456
A Summary of the Sympathetic Divisionp. 456
The Parasympathetic Divisionp. 456
Organization and Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Divisionp. 456
General Functions of the Parasympathetic Divisionp. 457
Parasympathetic Activation and Neurotransmitter Releasep. 459
Membrane Receptors and Responsesp. 459
A Summary of the Parasympathetic Divisionp. 459
Relationships Between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisionsp. 459
Anatomy of Dual Innervationp. 459
A Comparison of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisionsp. 460
Integration and Control of Autonomic Functionsp. 460
Visceral Reflexesp. 461
Higher Levels of Autonomic Controlp. 463
Related Clinical Termsp. 464
The Nervous System: General and Special Sensesp. 467
Receptorsp. 468
Interpretation of Sensory Informationp. 468
Central Processing and Adaptationp. 468
Sensory Limitationsp. 469
The General Sensesp. 469
Nociceptorsp. 469
Thermoreceptorsp. 469
Mechanoreceptorsp. 470
Tactile Receptorsp. 470
Baroreceptorsp. 472
Proprioceptorsp. 472
Chemoreceptorsp. 472
Olfaction (Smell)p. 472
Olfactory Receptorsp. 472
Olfactory Pathwaysp. 474
Olfactory Discriminationp. 474
Gustation (Taste)p. 475
Gustatory Receptorsp. 475
Gustatory Pathwaysp. 475
Gustatory Discriminationp. 476
Equilibrium and Hearingp. 476
The External Earp. 477
The Middle Earp. 477
The Auditory Ossiclesp. 477
Clinical Brief: Otitis Media and Mastoiditisp. 479
The Inner Earp. 479
The Vestibular Complex and Equilibriump. 481
Clinical Brief: Nystagmusp. 481
Hearingp. 483
The Cochleap. 483
Sound Detectionp. 486
Clinical Brief: Hearing Lossp. 486
Auditory Pathwaysp. 486
Visionp. 487
Accessory Structures of the Eyep. 487
Eyelidsp. 487
The Lacrimal Apparatusp. 488
The Eyep. 489
The Fibrous Tunicp. 489
The Vascular Tunic (Uvea)p. 492
Clinical Brief: Conjunctivitisp. 492
Clinical Brief: Corneal Transplantsp. 492
The Neural Tunicp. 493
The Chambers of the Eyep. 493
The Lensp. 493
Clinical Brief: Glaucomap. 493
Visual Pathwaysp. 495
Cortical Integrationp. 497
The Brain Stem and Visual Processingp. 497
Clinical Brief: Cataractsp. 497
Embryology Summary: Development of Special Sense Organsp. 498
Related Clinical Termsp. 497
Related Clinical Issuesp. 795
The Control of Pain
Assessment of Tactile Sensitivities
Vertigo, Dizziness, and Motion Sickness
Testing and Treating Hearing Deficits
Scotomas and Floaters
The Endocrine Systemp. 506
An Overview of the Endocrine Systemp. 507
The Hypothalamus and Endocrine Regulationp. 509
The Pituitary Glandp. 510
The Posterior Lobe of the Pituitary Glandp. 511
The Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Glandp. 511
The Hypophyseal Portal Systemp. 512
Hormones of the Anterior Lobep. 512
The Thyroid Glandp. 513
Thyroid Follicles and Thyroid Hormonesp. 513
The C Cells of the Thyroid Glandp. 513
The Parathyroid Glandsp. 515
The Thymusp. 5116
The Adrenal Glandp. 516
The Adrenal Cortexp. 516
The Zona Glomerulosap. 518
The Zona Fasciculatap. 518
The Zona Reticularisp. 518
The Adrenal Medullap. 518
Endocrine Functions of the Kidneys and Heartp. 519
The Pancreas and Other Endocrine Tissuesof the Digestive Systemp. 519
The Pancreasp. 519
Endocrine Tissues of the Reproductive Systemp. 521
Testesp. 521
Ovariesp. 521
Embryology Summary: Development of the Endocrine Systemp. 522
The Pineal Glandp. 524
Hormones and Agingp. 524
Clinical Discussion: Endocrine Disordersp. 524
Related Clinical Termsp. 525
Related Clinical Issuesp. 796
Diabetes Insipidus
Thyroid Gland Disorders
Disorders of Parathyroid Function
Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
Disorders of the Adrenal Medulla
Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine Disorders
The Cardiovascular System: Bloodp. 532
Functions of the Bloodp. 533
Composition of the Bloodp. 533
Clinical Brief: Transfusionsp. 534
Plasmap. 534
Differences Between Plasma and Interstitial Fluidp. 534
The Plasma Proteinsp. 535
Clinical Brief: Plasma Expandersp. 535
Formed Elementsp. 535
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)p. 535
Clinical Brief: Anemia and Polycythemiap. 536
Structure of RBCsp. 536
RBC Life Span and Circulationp. 537
RBCs and Hemoglobinp. 538
Blood Typesp. 538
Clinical Brief: Erythrocytosisp. 538
Clinical Brief: Elevating Hemoglobin Levelsp. 539
Clinical Brief: Testing for Compatibilityp. 540
White Blood Cells (WBCs)p. 540
Granular Leukocytesp. 541
Agranular Leukocytesp. 541
Plateletsp. 541
Clinical Brief: Hemophiliap. 543
Clinical Brief: Synthetic Bloodp. 543
Hempoiesisp. 543
Erythropoiesisp. 545
Stages in RBC Maturationp. 545
Clinical Brief: Blood Dopingp. 545
Leukopoiesisp. 545
Related Clinical Termsp. 546
Related Clinical Issuesp. 797
Blood Tests and RBCs
Sickle Cell Anemia
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
The Leukemias
Problems with the Clotting Process
The Cardiovascular System: The Heartp. 549
An Overview of the Circulatory Systemp. 550
The Pericardiump. 550
Structure of the Heart Wallp. 552
Cardiac Muscle Tissuep. 000
The Intercalated Discsp. 552
The Fibrous Skeletonp. 552
Orientation and Superficial Anatomy of the Heartp. 554
Internal Anatomy and Organization of the Heartp. 556
The Right Atriump. 556
The Right Ventriclep. 556
The Left Atriump. 556
The Left Ventriclep. 558
Structural Differences Between the Left and Right Ventriclesp. 558
The Structure and Function of Heart Valvesp. 558
Clinical Brief: Mitral Valve Prolapsep. 558
Heart Soundsp. 560
Coronary Blood Vesselsp. 560
The Right Coronary Arteryp. 560
The Left Coronary Arteryp. 560
The Cardiac Veinsp. 560
Clinical Discussion: Coronary Artery Diseasep. 562
The Cardiac Cyclep. 563
The Coordination of Cardiac Contractionsp. 563
The Sinoatrial and Atrioventricular Nodesp. 564
The Conducting System of the Heartp. 564
Clinical Brief: Myocardial Infarctionsp. 564
The Electrocardiogram (ECG)p. 566
Autonomic Control of Heart Ratep. 566
Embryology Summary: Development of the Heartp. 568
Related Clinical Termsp. 567
Related Clinical Issuesp. 800
The Cardiomyopathies
Valvular Heart Disease
Infection and Intlammation of the Heart
Rheumatic Heart Disease and Valvular Stenosis
Problems with Pacemaker Function
Monitoring the Living Heart
The Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulationp. 572
Histological Organization of Blood Vesselsp. 573
Distinguishing Arteries from Veinsp. 574
Arteriesp. 575
Elastic Arteriesp. 575
Muscular Arteriesp. 575
Arteriolesp. 575
Capillariesp. 575
Capillary Bedsp. 575
Veinsp. 577
Venulesp. 577
Medium-Sized Veinsp. 578
Large Veinsp. 578
Venous Valvesp. 578
Clinical Discussion: Arteriosclerosisp. 578
The Distribution of Bloodp. 579
Blood Vessel Distributionp. 579
The Pulmonary Circuitp. 580
The Systemic Circuitp. 580
Systemic Arteriesp. 580
Systemic Veinsp. 594
Cardiovascular Changes at Birthp. 601
Exercise and Cardiovascular Diseasep. 603
Aging and the Cardiovascular Systemp. 603
Embryology Summary: Development of the Cardiovascular Systemp. 604
Related Clinical Termsp. 603
Related Clinical Issuesp. 801
Problems with Venous Valve Function
The Lymphatic Systemp. 612
An Overview of the Lymphatic Systemp. 613
Functions of the Lymphatic Systemp. 613
Structure of Lymphatic Vesselsp. 614
Lymphatic Capillariesp. 615
Valves of Lymphatic Vesselsp. 615
Major Lymph-Collecting Vesselsp. 616
The Thoracic Ductp. 617
The Right Lymphatic Ductp. 617
Lymphocytesp. 617
Types of Lymphocytesp. 617
Lymphocytes and the Immune Responsep. 617
Distribution and Life Span of Lymphocytesp. 619
Lymphopoiesis: Lymphocyte Productionp. 619
Lymphoid Tissuesp. 620
Lymphoid Organsp. 621
Lymph Nodesp. 621
Distribution of Lymphoid Tissues and Lymph Nodesp. 622
Clinical Brief: Lymphadenopathy and Metastatic Cancerp. 623
The Thymusp. 624
The Spleenp. 624
Embryology Summary: Development of the Lymphatic Systemp. 629
Age and the Lymphatic Systemp. 628
Related Clinical Termsp. 628
Related Clinical Issuesp. 801
Infected Lymphatic Nodules
Breast Cancer
Disorders of the Spleen
Immune Disorders
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
The Respiratory Systemp. 634
Overview of the Respiratory Systemp. 635
Functions of the Respiratory Systemp. 636
The Respiratory Epitheliump. 636
Clinical Brief: Cystic Fibrosisp. 637
The Upper Respiratory Systemp. 637
The Nose and Nasal Cavityp. 637
The Pharynxp. 637
The Nasopharynxp. 639
The Oropharynxp. 639
The Laryngopharynxp. 639
The Lower Respiratory Systemp. 639
The Larynxp. 639
Cartilages of the Larynxp. 639
Laryngeal Ligamentsp. 641
The Laryngeal Musculaturep. 641
The Tracheap. 642
Clinical Brief: Tracheal Blockagep. 642
The Primary Bronchip. 642
The Lungsp. 645
Lobes of the Lungsp. 645
Lung Surfacesp. 645
The Pulmonary Bronchip. 000
Branches of the Right Primary Bronchusp. 645
Branches of the Left Primary Bronchusp. 645
Branches of the Secondary Bronchip. 648
The Bronchopulmonary Segmentsp. 648
Clinical Brief: Asthmap. 648
The Bronchiolesp. 648
Alveolar Ducts and Alveolip. 648
The Alveolus and the Respiratory Membranep. 648
Clinical Brief: Emphysemap. 648
The Blood Supply to the Lungsp. 651
The Pleural Cavities and Membranesp. 651
Respiratory Muscles and Pulmonary Ventilationp. 654
Respiratory Musclesp. 654
Respiratory Movementsp. 654
Respiratory Changes at Birthp. 654
Embryology Summary: Development of the Respiratory Systemp. 652
Respiratory Centers of the Brainp. 655
Clinical Brief: Artificial Respiration and CPRp. 656
Aging and the Respiratory Systemp. 656
Related Clinical Termsp. 656
Related Clinical Issuesp. 804
Overloading the Respiratory Defenses
Disorders of the Larynx
Examining the Living Lung
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
Pulmonary Embolism
Lung Cancer, Smoking, and Diet
The Digestive Systemp. 662
An Overview of the Digestive Systemp. 663
Histological Organization of the Digestive Tractp. 663
The Mucosap. 663
The Submucosap. 664
The Muscularis Externap. 664
The Serosap. 664
Muscularis Layers and the Movement of Digestive Materialsp. 665
Peristalsisp. 666
Segmentationp. 666
The Peritoneump. 667
Clinical Brief: Peritonitisp. 667
Mesenteriesp. 667
The Oral Cavityp. 667
Anatomy of the Oral Cavityp. 667
The Tonguep. 669
Salivary Glandsp. 672
Embryology Summary: Development of the Digestive Systemp. 670
Clinical Brief: Mumpsp. 673
The Teethp. 673
Clinical Brief: Dental Problemsp. 675
The Pharynxp. 675
The Swallowing Processp. 675
The Esophagusp. 676
Histology of the Esophageal Wallp. 676
The Stomachp. 677
Anatomy of the Stomachp. 677
Mesenteries of the Stomachp. 677
Blood Supply to the Stomachp. 680
Musculature of the Stomachp. 680
Histology of the Stomachp. 680
Clinical Brief: Gastritis and Peptic Ulcersp. 681
Regulation of the Stomachp. 681
The Small Intestinep. 681
Clinical Brief: Drastic Weight Loss Techniquesp. 683
Regions of the Small Intestinep. 683
The Duodenump. 683
The Jejunump. 683
The Ileump. 683
Support of the Small Intestinep. 683
Histology of the Small Intestinep. 685
The Intestinal Epitheliump. 685
Intestinal Cryptsp. 685
The Lamina Propriap. 685
Regional Specializationsp. 686
Regulation of the Small Intestinep. 686
The Large Intestinep. 686
The Cecump. 686
The Colonp. 688
Regions of the Colonp. 688
The Rectump. 688
Histology of the Large Intestinep. 688
Regulation of the Large Intestinep. 689
Accessory Digestive Organsp. 689
The Liverp. 689
Anatomy of the Liverp. 690
Histological Organization of the Liverp. 690
The Gallbladderp. 693
Clinical Brief: Problems with Bile Storage and Secretionp. 694
The Pancreasp. 693
Histological Organization of the Pancreasp. 695
Pancreatic Enzymesp. 695
The Regulation of Pancreatic Secretionp. 695
Clinical Brief: Pancreatitisp. 695
Aging and the Digestive Systemp. 695
Related Clinical Termsp. 696
Related Clinical Issuesp. 806
Achalasia and Esophagitis
Stomach Cancer
Diverticulitis and Colitis
The Urinary Systemp. 702
The Kidneysp. 703
Superficial Anatomy of the Kidneyp. 703
Sectional Anatomy of the Kidneyp. 703
The Blood Supply to the Kidneysp. 705
Innervation of the Kidneysp. 705
Histology of the Kidneyp. 708
An Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Nephronp. 708
The Renal Corpusclep. 708
The Proximal Convoluted Tubulep. 709
The Loop of Henlep. 712
The Distal Convoluted Tubulep. 712
The Collecting Systemp. 712
Clinical Discussion: Examination of the Kidneys and Urinary Systemp. 713
Structures for Urine Transport, Storage, and Eliminationp. 712
The Uretersp. 714
Histology of the Uretersp. 714
The Urinary Bladderp. 714
Histology of the Urinary Bladderp. 714
Clinical Brief: Problems with the Conducting Systemp. 714
The Urethrap. 714
Histology of the Urethrap. 716
Clinical Brief: Urinary Tract Infectionsp. 716
The Micturition Reflex and Urinationp. 717
Aging and the Urinary Systemp. 717
Embryology Summary: Development of the Urinary Systemp. 718
Related Clinical Termsp. 717
Related Clinical Issuesp. 806
Urine Composition
Problems with the Micturition Reflex
The Reproductive System: Organization of the Reproductive Systemp. 725
Anatomy of the Male Reproductive Systemp. 725
The Testesp. 725
Descent of the Testesp. 725
The Spermatic Cordp. 725
Clinical Brief: Cryptorchidismp. 727
The Scrotum and the Position of the Testesp. 728
Structure of the Testesp. 728
Histology of the Testesp. 728
Spermatogenesis and Meiosisp. 729
Spermiogenesisp. 729
Sustentacular Cellsp. 731
Anatomy of a Spermatozoonp. 731
The Male Reproductive Tractp. 732
The Epididymisp. 732
The Ductus Deferensp. 732
The Urethrap. 732
The Accessory Glandsp. 733
The Seminal Vesiclesp. 733
The Prostate Glandp. 735
The Bulbourethral Glandsp. 735
Clinical Brief: Prostatitisp. 735
Semenp. 735
The Penisp. 735
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive Systemp. 737
The Ovariesp. 737
The Ovarian Cycle and Oogenesisp. 740
Age and Oogenesisp. 742
The Uterine Tubesp. 742
Histology of the Uterine Tubep. 742
Clinical Brief: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)p. 742
The Uterusp. 743
Suspensory Ligaments of the Uterusp. 743
Internal Anatomy of the Uterusp. 743
The Uterine Wallp. 744
Clinical Brief: Cervical Cancerp. 745
Blood Supply to the Uterusp. 745
Histology of the Uterusp. 745
The Uterine Cyclep. 745
The Vaginap. 747
Histology of the Vaginap. 748
Clinical Brief: Vaginitisp. 748
The External Genitaliap. 749
The Mammary Glandsp. 749
Development of the Mammary Glands During Pregnancyp. 750
Embryology Summary: Development of the Reproductive Systemp. 751
Pregnancy and the Female Reproductive Systemp. 754
Aging and the Reproductive Systemp. 754
Menopausep. 754
The Male Climactericp. 754
Related Clinical Termsp. 754
Related Clinical Issuesp. 807
Testicular Torsion
Prostate Cancer
Uterine Tumors and Cancers
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Conception Control
Human Development: An Overview of Developmentp. 761
Fertilizationp. 761
The Oocyte at Ovulationp. 761
Pronucleus Formation and Amphimixisp. 761
Prenatal Developmentp. 762
The First Trimesterp. 762
Cleavage and Blastocyst Formationp. 763
Implantationp. 764
Placentationp. 766
Embryogenesisp. 766
The Second and Third Trimestersp. 772
Labor and Deliveryp. 774
Stages of Laborp. 774
The Dilation Stagep. 774
The Expulsion Stagep. 774
The Placental Stagep. 774
Clinical Brief: Forceps Deliveries and Breech Birthsp. 774
Premature Laborp. 774
The Neonatal Periodp. 774
Clinical Brief: Evaluating the Newborn Infantp. 776
Related Clinical Termsp. 776
Related Clinical Issuesp. 809
Chromosomal Analysis
Technology and the Treatment of Infertility
Problems with the Implantation Process
Problems with Placentation
Teratogens and Abnormal Development
Complexity and Perfection: An Improbable Dream
Appendixesp. 783
Clinical Issuesp. 784
Weights and Measuresp. 811
Answers to Review Questionsp. 813
Foreign Word Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Formsp. 823
Eponyms in Common Usep. 824
Glossary of Key Termsp. 826
Indexp. 847
Photo Creditsp. 867
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