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Human Anatomy & Physiology plus MyA&P Student Access Kit

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780805354621

ISBN10:
080535462X
Format:
Package
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
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Summary

Elaine Marieb once again brings her dedicated attention to detail and unwavering commitment to quality to the Sixth Editionof her best-selling Human Anatomy and Physiology textbook. Each page of this new edition has been carefully reviewed and edited to give readers the most clear and concise explanations of difficult topics. The enhanced art program helps even the least-prepared readers understand key concepts, and the restructured and expanded media package offers readers convenient access to more animations, tutorials, and online resources than ever before. Cutting-edge research areas such as DNA fingerprinting and stem cell research have been added. For college instructors, students, and readers interested in human anatomy and physiology.

Table of Contents

UNIT ONE Organization of the Body
The Human Body: An Orientation
1(24)
An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
2(1)
Topics of Anatomy
Topics of Physiology
Complementarity of Structure and Function
Levels of Structural Organization
3(1)
Maintaining Life
4(5)
Necessary Life Functions
Survival Needs
Homeostasis
9(3)
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Homeostatic Imbalance
The Language of Anatomy
12(8)
Anatomical Position and Directional Terms
Regional Terms
Anatomical Variability
Body Planes and Sections
Body Cavities and Membranes
Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
A Closer Look Medical Imaging: Illuminating the Body
20(5)
Chemistry Comes Alive
25(38)
Basic Chemistry
26(1)
Definition of Concepts: Matter and Energy
26(1)
Matter
Energy
Composition of Matter: Atoms and Elements
27(4)
Atomic Structure
Identifying Elements
Radioisotopes
How Matter Is Combined: Molecules and Mixtures
31(1)
Molecules and Compounds
Mixtures
Distinguishing Mixtures from Compounds
Chemical Bonds
32(5)
The Role of Electrons in Chemical Bonding
Types of Chemical Bonds
Chemical Reactions
37(3)
Chemical Equations
Patterns of Chemical Reactions
Energy Flow in Chemical Reactions
Reversibility of Chemical Reactions
Factors Influencing the Rate of Chemical Reactions
Biochemistry
40(1)
Inorganic Compounds
40(4)
Water
Salts
Acids and Bases
Organic Compounds
44(19)
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Cells: The Living Units
63(54)
Overview of the Cellular Basis of Life
64(1)
The Plasma Membrane: Structure
65(4)
The Fluid Mosaic Model
Specializations of the Plasma Membrane
The Plasma Membrane: Functions
69(16)
Membrane Transport
Generating and Maintaining a Resting Membrane Potential
Cell-Environment Interactions
The Cytoplasm
85(11)
Cytoplasmic Organelles
Cellular Extensions
The Nucleus
96(2)
Nuclear Envelope
Nucleoli
Chromatin
Cell Growth and Reproduction
98(12)
The Cell Life Cycle
Protein Synthesis
Extracellular Materials
110(1)
Developmental Aspects of Cells
111
A Closer Look DNA Fingerprinting: Cracking Our Genetic ``Barcode''
95(22)
Tissue: The Living Fabric
117(34)
Epithelial Tissue
118(8)
Special Characteristics of Epithelium
Classification of Epithelia
Glandular Epithelia
Connective Tissue
126(12)
Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue
Structural Elements of Connective Tissue
Types of Connective Tissue
Covering and Lining Membranes
138(2)
Cutaneous Membrane
Mucous Membranes
Serous Membranes
Nervous Tissue
140(1)
Muscle Tissue
140(2)
Tissue Repair
142(2)
Steps of Tissue Repair
Regenerative Capacity of Different Tissues
Developmental Aspects of Tissues
144(1)
A Closer Look Cancer---The Intimate Enemy
145(6)
UNIT TWO Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
The Integumentary System
151(24)
The Skin
152(5)
Epidermis
Dermis
Skin Color
Appendages of the Skin
157(7)
Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands
Sebaceous (Oil) Glands
Nails
Hairs and Hair Follicles
Functions of the Integumentary System
164(2)
Protection
Body Temperature Regulation
Cutaneous Sensation
Metabolic Functions
Blood Reservoir
Excretion
Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin
166(3)
Skin Cancer
Burns
Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary System
169
A Closer Look Illuminating the Skin
162(8)
Making Connections
170(5)
Bones and Skeletal Tissues
175(27)
Skeletal Cartilages
176(1)
Basic Structure, Types, and Locations
Growth of Cartilage
Classification of Bones
176(2)
Functions of Bones
178(1)
Bone Structure
179(4)
Gross Anatomy
Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
Chemical Composition of Bone
Bone Development
183(4)
Formation of the Bony Skeleton
Postnatal Bone Growth
Bone Homeostasis: Remodeling and Repair
187(6)
Bone Remodeling
Bone Repair
Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone
193(3)
Osteomalacia and Rickets
Osteoporosis
Paget's Disease
Developmental Aspects of Bones: Timing of Events
196
A Closer Look Them Bones, Them Bones Goin' to Walk Around---Clinical Advances in Bone Repair
194(3)
Making Connections
197(5)
The Skeleton
202(50)
The Axial Skeleton
203(1)
The Skull
203(16)
Overview of Skull Geography
Cranium
Facial Bones
Special Characteristics of the Orbits and Nasal Cavity
Paranasal Sinuses
The Hyoid Bone
The Vertebral Column
219(7)
General Characteristics
General Structure of Vertebrae
Regional Vertebral Characteristics
The Bony Thorax
226(2)
Sternum
Ribs
The Appendicular Skeleton
228(1)
The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
228(5)
Clavicles
Scapulae
The Upper Limb
233(4)
Arm
Forearm
Hand
The Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
237(4)
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Pelvic Structure and Childbearing
The Lower Limb
241(6)
Thigh
Leg
Foot
Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton
247(5)
Joints
252(27)
Classification of Joints
253(1)
Fibrous Joints
253(1)
Sutures
Syndesmoses
Gomphoses
Cartilaginous Joints
254(1)
Synchondroses
Symphyses
Synovial Joints
255(17)
General Structure
Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
Factors Influencing the Stability of Synovial Joints
Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints
Types of Synovial Joints
Selected Synovial Joints
Homeostatic Imbalances of Joints
272(3)
Common Joint Injuries
Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions
Developmental Aspects of Joints
275
A Closer Look Joints: From Knights in Shining Armor to Bionic Humans
274(5)
Muscles and Muscle Tissue
279(45)
Overview of Muscle Tissues
280(1)
Types of Muscle Tissues
Functional Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
Muscle Functions
Skeletal Muscle
281(28)
Gross Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle
Microscopic Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber
Sliding Filament Model of Contraction
Physiology of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber
Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle
Muscle Metabolism
Force of Muscle Contraction
Velocity and Duration of Contraction
Effect of Exercise on Muscles
Smooth Muscle
309(9)
Microscopic Structure of Smooth Muscle Fibers
Contraction of Smooth Muscle
Types of Smooth Muscle
Developmental Aspects of Muscles
318
A Closer Look Athletes Looking Good and Doing Better with Anabolic Steroids?
308(8)
Making Connections
316(8)
The Muscular System
324(63)
Interactions of Skeletal Muscles in the Body
325(1)
Naming Skeletal Muscles
325(1)
Muscle Mechanics: Importance of Fascicle Arrangement and Leverage
326(4)
Arrangement of Fasicles
Lever Systems: Bone-Muscle Relationships
Major Skeletal Muscles of the Body
330(5)
Table 10.1 Muscles of the Head, Part I: Facial Expression
335(3)
Table 10.2 Muscles of the Head, Part II: Mastication and Tongue Movement
338(2)
Table 10.3 Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Swallowing
340(2)
Table 10.4 Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Head and Trunk Movements
342(4)
Table 10.5 Muscles of the Thorax: Breathing
346(2)
Table 10.6 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall: Trunk Movements and Compression of Abdominal Viscera
348(2)
Table 10.7 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum: Support of Abdominopelvic Organs
350(2)
Table 10.8 Superficial Muscles of the Anterior and Posterior Thorax: Movements of the Scapula
352(2)
Table 10.9 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of the Arm
354(3)
Table 10.10 Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint: Flexion and Extension of the Forearm
357(1)
Table 10.11 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
358(4)
Table 10.12 Summary of the Actions of Muscles Acting on the Arm, Forearm, and Hand
362(2)
Table 10.13 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Fine Movements of the Fingers
364(3)
Table 10.14 Muscles Crossing the Hip and Knee Joints: Movements of the Thigh and Leg
367(6)
Table 10.15 Muscles of the Leg: Movements of the Ankle and Toes
373(6)
Table 10.16 Summary of Actions of Muscles Acting on the Thigh, Leg, and Foot
379(2)
Table 10.17 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Toe Movement and Arch Support
381(6)
UNIT THREE Regulation and Integration of the Body
Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
387(43)
Organization of the Nervous System
388(1)
Histology of Nervous Tissue
389(8)
Neuroglia
Neurons
Neurophysiology
397(24)
Basic Principles of Electricity
The Resting Membrane Potential
Membrane Potentials That Act as Signals
The Synapse
Postsynaptic Potentials and Synaptic Integration
Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors
Basic Concepts of Neural Integration
421(2)
Organization of Neurons: Neuronal Pools
Types of Circuits
Patterns of Neural Processing
Developmental Aspects of Neurons
423(1)
A Closer Look Pleasure Me, Pleasure Me!
424(6)
The Central Nervous System
430(59)
The Brain
431(25)
Embryonic Development
Regions and Organization
Ventricles
Cerebral Hemispheres
Diencephalon
Brain Stem
Cerebellum
Functional Brain Systems
Higher Mental Functions
456(7)
Brain Wave Patterns and the EEG
Consciousness
Sleep and Sleep-Awake Cycles
Memory
Protection of the Brain
463(6)
Meninges
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Blood-Brain Barrier
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Brain
The Spinal Cord
469(11)
Embryonic Development
Gross Anatomy and Protection
Cross-Sectional Anatomy
Spinal Cord Trauma and Disorders
Diagnostic Procedures for Assessing CNS Dysfunction
480(1)
Developmental Aspects of the Central Nervous System
480(2)
A Closer Look Stem Cells: A Medical Miracle?
482(7)
The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity
489(42)
Sensory Receptors and Sensation
490(1)
Sensory Receptors
490(3)
Classification by Stimulus Type
Classification by Location
Classification by Structural Complexity
Overview: From Sensation to Perception
493(4)
General Organization of the Somatosensory System
Transmission Lines: Nerves and Their Structure and Repair
497(1)
Nerves and Associated Ganglia
497(2)
Structure and Classification
Regeneration of Nerve Fibers
Cranial Nerves
499(9)
Spinal Nerves
508(10)
General Features
Innervation of Specific Body Regions
Motor Endings and Motor Activity
518(1)
Peripheral Motor Endings
518(1)
Innervation of Skeletal Muscle
Innervation of Visceral Muscle and Glands
Overview of Motor Integration: From Intention to Effect
519(1)
Levels of Motor Control
Reflex Activity
520(1)
The Reflex Arc
520(1)
Components of a Reflex Arc
521(1)
Spinal Reflexes
521(5)
Stretch and Golgi Tendon Reflexes
Developmental Aspects of the Peripheral Nervous System
526
A Closer Look Pain: Sound the Alarm, But Pain Me Not!
494(37)
The Autonomic Nervous System
531(23)
Introduction
532(2)
Comparison of the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
ANS Divisions
ANS Anatomy
534(7)
Parasympathetic (Craniosacral) Division
Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar) Division
Visceral Reflexes
ANS Physiology
541(6)
Neurotransmitters and Receptors
The Effects of Drugs
Interactions of the Autonomic Divisions
Control of Autonomic Functioning
Homeostatic Imbalances of the ANS
547(3)
Developmental Aspects of the ANS
550
Making Connections
548(6)
The Special Senses
554(49)
The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
555(5)
Taste Buds and the Sense of Taste
The Olfactory Epithelium and the Sense of Smell
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Chemical Senses
The Eye and Vision
560(21)
Accessory Structures of the Eye
Structure of the Eyeball
Physiology of Vision
The Ear: Hearing and Balance
581(15)
Structure of the Ear
Physiology of Hearing
Homeostatic Imbalances of Hearing
Mechanisms of Equilibrium and Orientation
Developmental Aspects of the Special Senses
596(7)
Taste and Smell
Vision
Hearing and Balance
The Endocrine System
603(41)
The Endocrine System: An Overview
604(1)
Hormones
605(6)
The Chemistry of Hormones
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
Target Cell Specificity
Half-Life, Onset, and Duration of Hormone Activity
Interactions of Hormones at Target Cells
Control of Hormone Release
Major Endocrine Organs
611(25)
The Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
The Thyroid Gland
The Parathyroid Glands
The Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands
The Pancreas
The Gonads
The Pineal Gland
The Thymus
Other Hormone-Producing Structures
636(1)
Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System
636
A Closer Look Sweet Revenge: Can Biotechnology Tame the DM Monster?
634(4)
Making Connections
638(6)
UNIT FOUR Maintenance of the Body
Blood
644(31)
Overview: Blood Composition and Functions
645(1)
Components
Physical Characteristics and Volume
Functions
Blood Plasma
646(1)
Formed Elements
647(14)
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Platelets
Hemostasis
661(6)
Vascular Spasms
Platelet Plug Formation
Coagulation
Clot Retraction and Repair
Fibrinolysis
Factors Limiting Clot Growth or Formation
Disorders of Hemostasis
Transfusion and Blood Replacement
667(4)
Transfusion of Whole Blood
Plasma and Blood Volume Expanders
Diagnostic Blood Tests
671(1)
Developmental Aspects of Blood
671
A Closer Look Concocting Blood: Artificial Blood Substitutes
666(9)
The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
675(36)
Heart Anatomy
676(11)
Size, Location, and Orientation
Coverings of the Heart
Layers of the Heart Wall
Chambers and Associated Great Vessels
Pathway of Blood Through the Heart
Coronary Circulation
Heart Valves
Properties of Cardiac Muscle Fibers
687(3)
Microscopic Anatomy
Mechanism and Events of Contraction
Energy Requirements
Heart Physiology
690(13)
Electrical Events
Heart Sounds
Mechanical Events: The Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac Output
Developmental Aspects of the Heart
703(1)
A Closer Look From ``Oh, What a Beautiful Morning'' to Heart Boosters, Retreads, and Replacements
704(7)
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
711(60)
Overview of Blood Vessel Structure and Function
712(1)
Structure of Blood Vessel Walls
712(2)
Arterial System
714(6)
Elastic (Conducting) Arteries
Muscular (Distributing) Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venous System
720(1)
Venules
Veins
Vascular Anastomoses
721(1)
Physiology of Circulation
721(1)
Introduction to Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
721(1)
Definition of Terms
Relationship Between Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
Systemic Blood Pressure
722(2)
Arterial Blood Pressure
Capillary Blood Pressure
Venous Blood Pressure
Maintaining Blood Pressure
724(8)
Short-Term Mechanisms: Neural Controls
Short-Term Mechanisms: Chemical Controls
Long-Term Mechanisms: Renal Regulation
Monitoring Circulatory Efficiency
Alterations in Blood Pressure
Blood Flow Through Body Tissues: Tissue Perfusion
732(8)
Velocity of Blood Flow
Autoregulation: Local Regulation of Blood Flow
Blood Flow in Special Areas
Blood Flow Through Capillaries and Capillary Dynamics
Circulatory Shock
Circulatory Pathways: Blood Vessels of the Body
740(1)
Developmental Aspects of the Blood Vessels
740(4)
Table 19.3 Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations
744(2)
Table 19.4 The Aorta and Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation
746(2)
Table 19.5 Arteries of the Head and Neck
748(2)
Table 19.6 Arteries of the Upper Limbs and Thorax
750(2)
Table 19.7 Arteries of the Abdomen
752(4)
Table 19.8 Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
756(2)
Table 19.9 The Venae Cavae and the Major Veins of the Systemic Circulation
758(2)
Table 19.10 Veins of the Head and Neck
760(2)
Table 19.11 Veins of the Upper Limbs and Thorax
762(2)
Table 19.12 Veins of the Abdomen
764(2)
Table 19.13 Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
766
A Closer Look Atherosclerosis? Get Out the Cardiovascular Drano
716(26)
Making Connections
742(29)
The Lymphatic System
771(15)
Lymphatic Vessels
772(3)
Distribution and Structure of Lymphatic Vessels
Lymph Transport
Lymphoid Cells and Tissues
775(1)
Lymphoid Cells
Lymphoid Tissue
Lymph Nodes
776(1)
Structure of a Lymph Node
Circulation in the Lymph Nodes
Other Lymphoid Organs
777(5)
Spleen
Thymus
Tonsils
Aggregates of Lymphoid Follicles
Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System
782
Making Connections
780(6)
The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses
786(42)
Innate Defenses
787(1)
Surface Barriers: Skin and Mucosae
787(1)
Internal Defenses: Cells and Chemicals
788(8)
Phagocytes
Natural Killer Cells
Inflammation: Tissue Response to Injury
Antimicrobial Proteins
Fever
Adaptive Defenses
796(1)
Antigens
797(1)
Complete Antigens and Haptens
Antigenic Determinants
Self-Antigens: MHC Proteins
Cells of the Adaptive Immune System: An Overview
798(3)
Lymphocytes
Antigen-Presenting Cells
Humoral Immune Response
801(6)
Clonal Selection and Differentiation of B Cells
Immunological Memory
Active and Passive Humoral Immunity
Antibodies
Cell-Mediated Immune Response
807(11)
Clonal Selection and Differentiation of T Cells
Specific T Cell Roles
Organ Transplants and Prevention of Rejection
Homeostatic Imbalances of Immunity
818(5)
Immunodeficiencies
Autoimmune Diseases
Hypersensitivities
Developmental Aspects of the Immune System
823
A Closer Look Too Clean for Our Own Good?
822(6)
The Respiratory System
828(53)
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
829(15)
The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
The Pharynx
The Larynx
The Trachea
The Bronchi and Subdivisions: The Bronchial Tree
The Lungs and Pleurae
Mechanics of Breathing
844(8)
Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity
Pulmonary Ventilation: Inspiration and Expiration
Physical Factors Influencing Pulmonary Ventilation
Respiratory Volumes and Pulmonary Function Tests
Nonrespiratory Air Movements
Basic Properties of Gases
852(1)
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Henry's Law
Composition of Alveolar Gas
853(1)
Gas Exchange Between the Blood, Lungs, and Tissues
853(3)
External Respiration: Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Internal Respiration: Capillary Gas Exchange in the Body Tissues
Transport of Respiratory Gases by Blood
856(5)
Oxygen Transport
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Control of Respiration
861(7)
Neural Mechanisms and Generation of Breathing Rhythm
Factors Influencing Breathing Rate and Depth
Respiratory Adjustments
868(1)
Adjustments During Exercise
Adjustments at High Altitude
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Respiratory System
869(2)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma
Tuberculosis
Lung Cancer
Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System
871
A Closer Look Dangerous Raptures of the Deep
866(8)
Making Connections
874(7)
The Digestive System
881(60)
Overview of the Digestive System
882(1)
Digestive Processes
883(1)
Basic Functional Concepts
884(1)
Digestive System Organs: Relationship and Structural Plan
885(3)
Relationship of the Digestive Organs to the Peritoneum
Blood Supply: The Splanchnic Circulation
Histology of the Alimentary Canal
Enteric Nervous System of the Alimentary Canal
Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System
888(1)
The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
888(9)
The Mouth and Associated Organs
The Pharynx
The Esophagus
Digestive Processes Occurring in the Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
The Stomach
897(10)
Gross Anatomy
Microscopic Anatomy
Digestive Processes Occurring in the Stomach
The Small Intestine and Associated Structures
907(13)
The Small Intestine
The Liver and Gallbladder
The Pancreas
Digestive Processes Occurring in the Small Intestine
The Large Intestine
920(5)
Gross Anatomy
Microscopic Anatomy
Bacterial Flora
Digestive Processes Occurring in the Large Intestine
Physiology of Chemical Digestion and Absorption
925(1)
Chemical Digestion
925(4)
Mechanism of Chemical Digestion: Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Chemical Digestion of Specific Food Groups
Absorption
929(3)
Absorption of Specific Nutrients
Malabsorption of Nutrients
Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System
932(2)
Making Connections
934(7)
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation
941(55)
Nutrition
942(13)
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Metabolism
955(27)
Overview
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
Protein Metabolism
Catabolic-Anabolic Steady State of the Body
Absorptive and Postabsorptive States
The Metabolic Role of the Liver
Energy Balance
982(7)
Regulation of Food Intake
Metabolic Rate and Heat Production
Regulation of Body Temperature
Developmental Aspects of Nutrition and Metabolism
989
A Closer Look Obesity: Magical Solution Wanted
980(16)
The Urinary System
996(37)
Kidney Anatomy
997(9)
Location and External Anatomy
Internal Anatomy
Blood and Nerve Supply
Nephrons
Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine Formation
1006(16)
Step 1: Glomerular Filtration
Step 2: Tubular Reabsorption
Step 3: Tubular Secretion
Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume
Renal Clearance
Urine
1022(1)
Physical Characteristics
Chemical Composition
Ureters
1023(2)
Urinary Bladder
1025(1)
Urethra
1025(1)
Micturition
1025(2)
Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System
1027
A Closer Look Chronic Renal Disease: A National Health Crisis in the Making
1020(13)
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
1033(30)
Body Fluids
1034(2)
Body Water Content
Fluid Compartments
Composition of Body Fluids
Fluid Movement Among Compartments
Water Balance and ECF Osmolality
1036(5)
Regulation of Water Intake
Regulation of Water Output
Influence of ADH
Disorders of Water Balance
Electrolyte Balance
1041(7)
The Central Role of Sodium in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Regulation of Sodium Balance
Regulation of Potassium Balance
Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance
Regulation of Anions
Acid-Base Balance
1048(10)
Chemical Buffer Systems
Respiratory Regulation of H+
Renal Mechanisms of Acid-Base Balance
Abnormalities of Acid-Base Balance
Developmental Aspects of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
1058
A Closer Look Sleuthing: Using Blood Values to Determine the Cause of Acidosis or Alkalosis
1055(1)
Making Connections
1056(7)
UNIT FIVE Continuity
The Reproductive System
1063(46)
Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
1064(6)
The Scrotum
The Testes
The Penis
The Male Duct System
Accessory Glands
Semen
Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
1070(9)
Male Sexual Response
Spermatogenesis
Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive Function
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
1079(9)
The Ovaries
The Female Duct System
The External Genitalia
The Mammary Glands
Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
1088(8)
Oogenesis
The Ovarian Cycle
Hormonal Regulation of the Ovarian Cycle
The Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle
Extrauterine Effects of Estrogens and Progesterone
Female Sexual Response
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
1096(1)
Gonorrhea
Syphilis
Chlamydia
Genital Warts
Genital Herpes
Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System: Chronology of Sexual Development
1097
Embryological and Fetal Events
Puberty
Menopause
A Closer Look Erectile Dysfunction and Passion Pills
1077(26)
Making Connections
1103(6)
Pregnancy and Human Development
1109(30)
From Egg to Embryo
1110(8)
Accomplishing Fertilization
Preembryonic Development
Events of Embryonic Development
1118(11)
Formation and Roles of the Embryonic Membranes
Gastrulation: Germ Layer Formation
Organogenesis: Differentiation of the Germ Layers
Events of Fetal Development
1129(1)
Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
1129(2)
Anatomical Changes
Metabolic Changes
Physiological Changes
Parturition (Birth)
1131(2)
Initiation of Labor
Stages of Labor
Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
1133(1)
Taking the First Breath
Occlusion of Special Fetal Blood Vessels and Vascular Shunts
The Transitional Period
Lactation
1134
A Closer Look Contraception: To Be or Not to Be
1124(15)
Heredity
1139(29)
The Vocabulary of Genetics
1140(1)
Gene Pairs (Alleles)
Genotype and Phenotype
Sexual Sources of Genetic Variation
1141(2)
Chromosome Segregation and Independent Assortment
Crossover of Homologues and Gene Recombination
Random Fertilization
Types of Inheritance
1143(4)
Dominant-Recessive Inheritance
Incomplete Dominance
Multiple-Allele Inheritance
Sex-Linked Inheritance
Polygene Inheritance
Environmental Factors in Gene Expression
1147(1)
Nontraditional Inheritance
1147(1)
Genomic Imprinting
Extrachromosomal (Mitochondrial) Inheritance
Genetic Screening, Counseling, and Therapy
1147(6)
Carrier Recognition
Fetal Testing
Human Gene Therapy
Appendices
A The Metric System
1153(2)
B The Amino Acids
1155(1)
C Two Important Metabolic Pathways
1156(3)
D Periodic Table of the Elements
1159(1)
E Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine Studies
1160(5)
F Answers to Clinical Connections, Multiple Choice, and Matching Questions
1165(3)
Glossary 1168(21)
Text, Photography, and Illustration Credits 1189(4)
Index 1193


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