9781416028864

The Human Body in Health and Illness

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781416028864

  • ISBN10:

    1416028862

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-10-30
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science Health Science div

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This convenient, money-saving package is a must-have for students training for a career in nursing or allied health. It includes the Herlihy: The Human Body in Health and Illness, 3rd Edition textbook and Anatomy and Physiology Online. For more information on each individual product, please click on the links below.

Table of Contents

Introduction to the Human Body
1(13)
Anatomy and Physiology: What They are
2(1)
What's It Mean?
2(1)
Why Do I Need to Know This?
2(1)
The Body's Levels of Organization
3(1)
Organ to Organ System
3(1)
Major Organ Systems
3(1)
Homeostasis: Staying the Same
4(3)
Anatomical Terms: Talking About the Body
7(2)
Anatomical Position
7(1)
Relative Positions
7(1)
Planes and Sections of the Body
8(1)
Regional Terms
8(1)
Cavities of the Body
9(3)
Dorsal Cavity
9(1)
Ventral Cavity
10(2)
Summary Outline
12(2)
Basic Chemistry
14(15)
Matter, Elements, and Atoms
15(2)
Matter
15(1)
Elements
15(1)
Atoms
15(2)
Chemical Bonds
17(2)
Ionic Bonds
17(1)
Covalent Bonds
17(2)
Hydrogen Bonds
19(1)
Ions
19(1)
Cations, Anions, and Electrolytes
19(1)
Ion Formation
19(1)
Ionization
20(1)
Molecules and Compounds
20(1)
Molecules
20(1)
Compounds
20(1)
Some Important Compounds and Molecules
20(1)
Chemical Reactions
21(1)
Acids and Bases
22(2)
Acids
22(1)
Bases
22(1)
Neutralization of Acids and Bases
22(1)
Measurement: The pH Scale
22(2)
Energy
24(1)
Forms of Energy
24(1)
Conversion of Energy
24(1)
Energy Transfer: The Role of Adenosine Triphosphate
24(1)
Mixtures, Solutions, and Suspensions
25(1)
Mixtures
25(1)
Solutions
25(1)
Suspensions
26(1)
Summary Outline
26(3)
Cells
29(18)
A Typical Cell
30(5)
Cell Membrane
30(3)
Inside the Cell
33(1)
On the Cell Membrane
34(1)
Movement Across the Cell Membrane
35(6)
Passive Transport Mechanisms
35(5)
Active Transport Mechanisms
40(1)
Cell Division
41(1)
Cell Cycle
41(1)
Cell Differentiation
42(1)
Stem Cells
42(1)
Order, Disorder, and Death
42(2)
Summary Outline
44(3)
Cell Metabolism
47(15)
Metabolism
48(1)
Carbohydrates
49(2)
Monosaccharides
49(1)
Disaccharides
49(1)
Polysaccharides
50(1)
Uses of Glucose
50(1)
The Making of Glucose
50(1)
Lipids (FATS)
51(2)
Uses of Lipids
52(1)
Metabolism of Lipids
52(1)
Proteins
53(2)
Amino Acids
53(1)
Uses of Proteins
54(1)
Protein Synthesis and DNA
55(5)
DNA Structure
55(3)
Steps in Protein Synthesis
58(2)
Summary Outline
60(2)
Microbiology Basics
62(13)
What is Disease?
63(1)
Types of Pathogens
64(2)
Microorganisms (Microbes)
64(2)
Other (Multicellular) Disease-Causing Organisms
66(1)
Laboratory Identification of Pathogens
66(1)
The Spread of Infection
67(1)
Portals of Entry and Exit
68(1)
How Pathogens Spread
68(1)
Six Germ-Laden Stories
68(6)
Dr. Semmelweis Screams, ``Wash Those Mitts!''
69(1)
Flora and Her Vaginal Itch
69(1)
Rick, Nick, and the Sick Tick
69(1)
Why Typhoid Mary Needed to Lose Her Gallbladder
70(1)
A Pox News Alert!
70(1)
The Chief of Staph Reports
71(3)
Summary Outline
74(1)
Tissues and Membranes
75(15)
Epithelial Tissue
76(3)
Where Is It Found?
76(1)
What Does It Do?
76(1)
What Is It Like?
76(1)
Classification
77(2)
Simple Epithelia
79(1)
Stratified Epithelia
79(1)
Glandular Epithelia
79(1)
Connective Tissue
79(4)
Where Is It Found?
79(1)
What Does It Look Like?
79(1)
Types of Connective Tissue
80(3)
Nervous Tissue
83(1)
Neurons
83(1)
Muscle Tissue
83(2)
Skeletal Muscle
83(1)
Smooth Muscle
83(2)
Cardiac Muscle
85(1)
Tissue Repair
85(1)
Membranes
85(3)
Classification of Membranes
85(1)
Epithelial Membranes
85(3)
Summary Outline
88(2)
Integumentary System and Body Temperature
90(16)
Functions of the Skin
91(1)
Structure of the Skin
91(3)
Layers of the Skin
91(3)
Skin Color
94(1)
Accessory Structures of the Skin
94(4)
Hair
94(2)
Nails
96(1)
Glands
96(2)
Body Temperature
98(2)
Body Temperature: Heat Production
98(1)
Body Temperature: Heat Loss
98(1)
Body Temperature: Regulation
99(1)
When Skin is Burned
100(1)
Eschar
100(1)
A Note About Skin Care
100(3)
Summary Outline
103(3)
Skeletal System
106(31)
Arrangement and Functions of Bones
107(1)
The Skeletal System: What It Does
107(1)
Many Sizes and Shapes of Bones
107(1)
Bone Tissue and Bone Formation
107(6)
Compact and Spongy Bone
107(2)
Long Bone
109(2)
Ossification
111(1)
Growing Bones
111(2)
Divisions of the Skeletal System
113(14)
Axial Skeleton
114(7)
Appendicular Skeleton
121(6)
Joints (Articulations)
127(7)
Immovable Joints
128(1)
Slightly Movable Joints
128(1)
Freely Movable Joints
128(1)
Naming Joints
128(1)
Favorite Synovial Joints
129(1)
Moving Synovial Joints
130(3)
Aching Joints
133(1)
Types of Joint Movements
133(1)
Summary Outline
134(3)
Muscular System
137(24)
Types and Functions of Muscles
138(1)
Skeletal Muscle
138(1)
Smooth Muscle
138(1)
Cardiac Muscle
139(1)
Structure of the Whole Muscle
139(1)
Muscle
139(1)
Layers of Connective Tissue
139(1)
Muscle Attachments
139(1)
Structure and Function of a Single Muscle Fiber
139(1)
How Muscles Contract
140(1)
Sliding Filament Theory
140(1)
The Role of Calcium and ATP
141(1)
Skeletal Muscles and Nerves
141(4)
Somatic Motor Neuron
141(1)
The Neuromuscular Junction
141(4)
Responses of a Whole Muscle
145(1)
Partial Versus All-or-Nothing Response
145(1)
Muscle Tone
145(1)
Energy Source for Muscle Contraction
145(1)
Muscle Terms
146(1)
Origin and Insertion
146(1)
Prime Mover, Synergist, and Antagonist
146(1)
Muscle Overuse and Underuse Terms
146(1)
How Skeletal Muscles are Named
146(1)
Size
146(1)
Shape
146(1)
Direction of Fibers
146(1)
Location
147(1)
Number of Origins
147(1)
Origin and Insertion
147(1)
Muscle Action
147(1)
Muscles From Head to Toe
147(11)
Muscles of the Head
147(5)
Muscles of the Neck
152(1)
Muscles of the Trunk
153(1)
Muscles of the Shoulder and Upper Arm
154(1)
Muscles That Move the Lower Arm
154(1)
Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers
155(1)
Muscles That Move the Thigh, Leg, and Foot
155(3)
Summary Outline
158(3)
Nervous System: Nervous Tissue and Brain
161(25)
The Nervous System: Structure and Function
162(1)
Divisions of the Nervous System
162(1)
Functions of the Nervous System
162(1)
Cells That Make Up the Nervous System
162(4)
Neuroglia
163(1)
Neuron
163(2)
White Matter Versus Gray Matter
165(1)
The Neuron Carrying Information
166(4)
The Nerve Impulse: What It Is
166(1)
The Nerve Impulse: What Causes It
167(2)
The Nerve Impulse: What Causes It to Move
169(1)
The Nerve Impulse: What Causes It to Move Quickly
169(1)
Synapse Across Neurons
170(1)
Parts of a Synapse
170(1)
Events at the Synapse
171(1)
Brain: Structure and Function
171(7)
Cerebrum
171(5)
Diencephalon
176(1)
Brain Stem
176(1)
Cerebellum
177(1)
Structures Across Divisions of the Brain
177(1)
Protecting the Central Nervous System
178(5)
Bone: First Layer of Protection
178(1)
Meninges: Second Layer of Protection
178(2)
Cerebrospinal Fluid: Third Layer of Protection
180(1)
Blood-Brain Barrier: Fourth Layer of Protection
181(2)
Summary Outline
183(3)
Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves
186(17)
What the Spinal Cord Is
187(2)
Location and Size
187(1)
Gray on the Inside, White on the Outside
187(2)
Spinal Nerves Attached to the Spinal Cord
189(1)
What the Spinal Cord Does
189(2)
Reflexes
191(2)
What Reflexes Are
191(1)
The Reflex Arc
192(1)
Many, Many Reflexes
192(1)
Peripheral Nervous System
193(8)
Nerves
193(1)
Classifying the Peripheral Nervous System
194(7)
Summary Outline
201(2)
Autonomic Nervous System
203(12)
Autonomic (Visceral) Reflexes
204(1)
What They Do
204(1)
Pathway
204(1)
Organization and Function of the Autonomic Nervous System
204(3)
Division of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
204(2)
Autonomic Terminology, Autonomic Pharmacology
206(1)
Autonomic Tone and Vasomotor Tone
206(1)
Autonomic Nervous System Neurons
207(2)
Numbers and Ganglia
207(1)
Neurons of the Sympathetic Nervous System
207(1)
Neurons of the Parasympathetic Nervous System
208(1)
Naming Fibers and Neurotransmitters
209(1)
Neurotransmitters: Termination of Activity
209(1)
Receptors of the Autonomic Nervous System
209(4)
Cholinergic Receptors
209(1)
Adrenergic Receptors
210(1)
Autonomic Terminology: ``Doing'' Autonomic Pharmacology
211(2)
Summary Outline
213(2)
Sensory System
215(23)
Receptors and Sensation
216(2)
Cells That Detect Stimuli
216(1)
What Sensation Is
216(1)
Experiencing a Sensation
216(2)
The General Senses
218(2)
Pain
218(1)
Touch and Pressure
219(1)
Temperature
220(1)
Proprioception
220(1)
The Special Senses
220(15)
Sense of Smell: The Nose
220(1)
Sense of Taste: The Tongue
221(1)
Sense of Sight: The Eye
222(8)
Sense of Hearing: The Ear
230(3)
Sense of Balance: The Ear
233(2)
Summary Outline
235(3)
Endocrine System
238(24)
Endocrine Glands
239(1)
Hormones
239(4)
Classification of Hormones
239(1)
Targets
239(1)
Hormone Receptors
239(2)
Control of Hormone Secretion
241(2)
The Pituitary Gland
243(4)
The Pituitary Gland and the Hypothalamus
243(1)
Anterior Pituitary Gland
243(3)
Posterior Pituitary Gland
246(1)
A Tiny Third Lobe
246(1)
Thyroid Gland
247(2)
Thyroid Follicle
247(1)
What Thyroid Hormones (T3 and T4) Do
247(1)
Regulation of Secretion
247(2)
The Need for Iodine
249(1)
Calcitonin
249(1)
Parathyroid Glands
249(2)
Blood Calcium: Regulation by PTH and Calcitonin
249(1)
Hyposecretion and Hypersecretion
249(2)
Adrenal Glands
251(3)
Adrenal Medulla
251(1)
Adrenal Cortex
251(3)
Pancreas
254(3)
Insulin
254(2)
Glucagon
256(1)
Gonads
257(1)
Thymus Gland
257(1)
Pineal Gland
257(1)
Other Hormones
258(2)
Organ-Specific Hormones
258(1)
Prostaglandins
258(1)
Adipose Tissue Hormones
258(2)
Summary Outline
260(2)
Blood
262(20)
What Blood Does
263(1)
Composition of Blood
263(2)
Characteristics
263(1)
Blood Has Two Parts
263(1)
Origin of Blood Cells
264(1)
Bone Marrow Misery
264(1)
Blood Cells
265(8)
Red Blood Cells
265(4)
White Blood Cells
269(3)
Platelets
272(1)
Complete Blood Count
273(1)
Hemostasis: Prevention of Blood Loss
273(3)
Blood Vessel Spasm
273(1)
Formation of a Platelet Plug
273(1)
Blood Clotting
273(3)
Blood Types
276(4)
Antigens and Blood Types
276(1)
Antibodies and Blood Type
277(1)
Antigen-Antibody Interaction
277(1)
Compatibility and Incompatibility of Blood Types
277(1)
Rh Classification System
278(2)
Summary Outline
280(2)
Anatomy of the Heart
282(16)
Function, Location, and Size of the Heart
283(1)
The Heart's Layers and Coverings
283(1)
Endocardium
283(1)
Myocardium
283(1)
Epicardium
283(1)
Pericardium
283(1)
A Double Pump and Two Circulations
284(1)
The Heart's Chambers and Great Vessels
285(3)
Right Atrium
285(1)
Right Ventricle
285(1)
Left Atrium
285(1)
Left Ventricle
285(2)
Great Vessels of the Heart
287(1)
Heart Valves
288(1)
Atrioventricular Valves
288(1)
Semilunar Valves
289(1)
Heart Sounds
289(1)
Pathway of Blood Flow Through the Heart
290(1)
Whoops and Detours
290(1)
Blood Supply to the Myocardium
291(2)
The ``Achy Breaky'' Heart
292(1)
Cardiac Enzymes and Leaky Cells
293(1)
Cardiac Conduction System
293(3)
Parts of the Cardiac Conduction System
293(1)
Automaticity and Rhythmicity
294(1)
Electrocardiogram
295(1)
Summary Outline
296(2)
Function of the Heart
298(1)
PART A. THE COORDINATED AND ADAPTABLE PUMP
299(4)
Cardiac Cycle
299(1)
Autonomic Control of the Heart
300(1)
Why the Autonomic Nervous System?
300(1)
Autonomic Wiring
300(1)
Autonomic Firing
301(1)
Cardiac Output
301(1)
Heart Rate
301(1)
Stroke Volume
302(1)
How to Change Stroke Volume
302(1)
Starling's Law of the Heart
302(1)
Inotropic Effect
302(1)
Changing Cardiac Output
303(1)
PART B. HEART TALK
303(3)
Heart Talk: Clinical Terms
303(2)
End-Diastolic Volume
303(1)
Preload
303(1)
Ejection Fraction
304(1)
Afterload
304(1)
Inotropic Effect
305(1)
Chronotropic Effect
305(1)
Dromotropic Effect
305(1)
Heart Talk: Receptor Language
305(1)
Beta1-Adrenergic Receptor Activation
305(1)
Beta1-Adrenergic Receptor Blockade
305(1)
Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptor Activation
305(1)
Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptor Blockade
305(1)
PART C. THE FAILING HEART: WHEN THE HEART CAN'T PUMP
306(191)
Left-Heart Failure
306(1)
Backward Failure
306(1)
Forward Failure
306(1)
Right-Heart Failure
307(3)
Goals of Treatment of Heart Failure
307(3)
Summary Outline
310(2)
Anatomy of the Blood Vessels
312(17)
Circles, Circuits, and Circulations
313(1)
Blood Vessels
313(3)
Naming the Blood Vessels
313(2)
Blood Vessel Walls: The Layered Look
315(1)
Blood Vessels: What They Do
315(1)
Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation
316(3)
Aorta
316(1)
Branches of the Aorta
316(3)
Major Veins of the Systemic Circulation
319(2)
Venae Cavae
319(1)
Veins That Empty into the Superior Vena Cava
319(1)
Veins That Empty into the Inferior Vena Cava
319(2)
Special Circulations
321(5)
Blood Supply to the Head and Brain
321(1)
Blood Supply to the Liver and the Hepatic Portal Circulation
322(2)
Fetal Circulation
324(2)
Pulse
326(1)
What Is the Pulse?
326(1)
What Can You Learn About Patients by Feeling Their Pulse?
326(1)
Summary Outline
327(2)
Functions of the Blood Vessels
329(16)
The Blood Vessels Deliver
330(1)
Blood Vessels Regulate Blood Pressure
330(8)
Measurement of Blood Pressure
330(1)
Blood Pressure in Different Blood Vessels
331(1)
How Venous Blood Flows Back to the Heart
331(2)
How the Heart and Blood Vessels Determine Blood Pressure
333(2)
Putting It Together: Determining Blood Pressure
335(1)
How Blood Pressure Stays Within Normal Limits
336(2)
Blood Vessels Act as Exchange Vessels
338(2)
What Is an Exchange Vessel?
338(1)
Why Capillaries Are Good Exchange Vessels
338(1)
Capillary Forces: Running Downhill, Pushing, and Pulling
338(2)
Blood Vessels Distribute Blood Flow
340(1)
Blood Vessels Regulate Body Temperature
341(1)
Summary Outline
342(3)
Lymphatic System
345(9)
The Lymphatic System
346(2)
Lymph: What It Is, Where It Comes From
346(1)
Lymphatic Vessels
346(1)
Movement Through the Lymphatic Vessels
347(1)
Lymphoid Organs
348(4)
Lymph Nodes
348(1)
Tonsils
348(2)
Thymus Gland
350(1)
Spleen
350(2)
Summary Outline
352(2)
Immune System
354(15)
Classification of the Immune System
355(8)
Nonspecific Immunity
356(3)
Specific Immunity: Third Line of Defense
359(4)
Types of Immunity
363(2)
Genetic Immunity
363(1)
Acquired Immunity
363(2)
Other Immunologic Responses
365(2)
Allergic Reactions
365(1)
Autoimmune Disease
366(1)
Organ Rejection
366(1)
Summary Outline
367(2)
Respiratory System
369(26)
Structure: Organs of the Respiratory System
370(8)
Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract
370(1)
Nose and Nasal Cavities
370(2)
Pharynx
372(1)
Larynx
372(2)
Trachea
374(2)
Bronchial Tree: Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Alveoli
376(1)
Lungs
377(1)
Pleural Membranes
377(1)
Collapsed and Expanded Lungs
378(3)
Why Lungs Collapse
378(1)
Why Lungs Expand
379(2)
Saying It Another Way: Compliance
381(1)
Respiratory Function
381(11)
Three Steps in Respiration
381(6)
Amounts of Air
387(1)
Control of Breathing
388(2)
Variations of Respirations
390(2)
Summary Outline
392(3)
Digestive System
395(30)
Overview of the Digestive System
396(2)
Digestion and Absorption
396(1)
Layers of the Digestive Tract
396(1)
Innervation
397(1)
Peritoneal Membranes
397(1)
Structures and Organs
398(12)
Mouth
398(2)
Pharynx
400(1)
Esophagus
400(1)
Stomach
401(3)
Small Intestine
404(1)
Large Intestine
405(5)
Accessory Digestive Organs
410(4)
Liver
410(2)
Gallbladder
412(1)
Pancreas
412(1)
When Accessory Digestive Organs Are Not Working Right
413(1)
Digestion and Absorption
414(3)
Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate-Splitting Enzymes
414(1)
Proteins and Protein-Splitting Enzymes
415(1)
Fats, Bile, and Fat-Splitting Enzymes
416(1)
Nutrition: Concepts to Know
417(5)
Carbohydrates
417(1)
Proteins
417(1)
Fats (Lipids)
417(1)
Vitamins
418(1)
Minerals
418(1)
Health and a Balanced Diet
419(1)
Body Energy
420(2)
Summary Outline
422(3)
Urinary System
425(18)
Excretion
426(1)
Organs of Excretion
426(1)
Urinary System Organs
426(1)
Urinary System Terms
426(1)
Kidneys
426(2)
Location
426(1)
Structure
427(1)
Blood Supply
428(1)
Nerve Supply
428(1)
Functions of the Kidneys
428(1)
Urine Making: The Nephron Unit
428(3)
Structures
428(1)
Urine Formation
428(3)
Hormones That Work on the Kidneys
431(2)
Aldosterone
431(1)
Antidiuretic Hormone
431(1)
Natriuretic Peptides
432(1)
Parathyroid Hormone
433(1)
Composition of Urine
433(2)
When the Parts Don't Work
435(1)
Nephrotic Syndrome
435(1)
Glomerulonephritis
435(1)
Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
435(1)
Uremia and Dialysis
435(1)
Your Plumbing
436(4)
Ureters
436(2)
Urinary Bladder
438(1)
Urination
438(1)
Urethra
439(1)
An Autonomic Moment
439(1)
Summary Outline
440(3)
Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
443(12)
Body Fluids: Distribution and Composition
444(1)
Fluid Compartments
444(1)
Composition of Body Fluids
444(1)
Water Balance
445(1)
Water Intake
445(1)
Water Output
445(1)
Water Imbalances
446(1)
Fluid Spacing--In Other Words
446(1)
Electrolyte Balance
446(2)
Quick Reference
447(1)
Most Important Ions
447(1)
Acid-Base Balance
448(2)
Quick Reference
448(1)
Where the Acid (H+) Comes From
449(1)
How the Body Regulates pH
449(1)
Acid-Base Imbalances
450(3)
Acidosis
450(1)
Alkalosis
451(2)
Summary Outline
453(2)
Reproductive Systems
455(20)
Male Reproductive System
456(5)
Testes
456(3)
Genital Ducts
459(1)
Accessory Glands
459(1)
Semen
460(1)
External Genitals
460(1)
Male Sexual Response: Erection, Emission, Ejaculation, and Orgasm
460(1)
Male Sex Hormones
460(1)
Female Reproductive System
461(8)
Ovaries
461(2)
Genital Tracts
463(2)
External Genitals
465(1)
Female Sexual Response
466(1)
Hormonal Control of the Reproductive Cycles
466(1)
Two Reproductive Cycles
466(3)
Methods of Birth Control
469(3)
Barrier Methods of Birth Control
469(1)
Hormonal Contraceptives
469(1)
Surgical Methods of Birth Control
470(1)
Intrauterine Devices
470(1)
Behavioral Methods of Birth Control
470(1)
Emergency Contraception
471(1)
Summary Outline
472(3)
Human Development and Heredity
475(22)
Fertilization
476(1)
When Fertilization Occurs
476(1)
Where Fertilization Occurs
476(1)
How Fertilization Occurs
476(1)
Human Development
476(1)
Prenatal Development
477(7)
Early Embryonic Period
477(1)
Embryonic Period
478(5)
Fetal Period
483(1)
Changes in the Mother's Body During Pregnancy
484(1)
Birth of Baby
485(1)
Labor
485(1)
Female Breast and Lactation
486(2)
Structure of a Breast: The Mammary Glands
486(1)
Got Milk?
486(2)
Postnatal Changes and Developmental Stages
488(1)
Immediate Adjustments
488(1)
Development as a Lifelong Process
488(1)
Heredity
489(4)
DNA, Genes, and Chromosomes
489(2)
It's a Boy, It's a Girl: How the Sex of the Child Is Determined
491(1)
Congenital and Hereditary Disease
492(1)
Summary Outline
493(4)
Appendix A: Medical Terminology and Eponymous Terms 497(4)
Appendix B: Laboratory Values 501(2)
Appendix C: Answers to Review Your Knowledge Questions 503(4)
Glossary 507

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