9780072433036

Human Development 01/02

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780072433036

  • ISBN10:

    0072433035

  • Edition: 29th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2000-11-01
  • Publisher: McGraw Hill College Div
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This annually updated reader is a compilation of carefully selected articles from magazines, newspapers, and journals. Topics covered include genetic and parental influences on development, development during infancy and early childhood and many others. This title is supported by Dushkin Online (www.dushkin.com/online/), a student Web site that provides study support and tools and links to related Web sites.

Table of Contents

UNIT 1. Genetic and Prenatal Influences on Development

A. GENETIC INFLUENCES

1. Decoding the Human Body, Sharon Begley, Newsweek, April 10, 2000.

This article explains genetics and the Human Genome Project. The author not only unravels how the twenty-first century discoveries about gene sequencing will benefit humankind, but also sheds light on ethics and morality questions that will arise. Will our views of what we are and what we can become civilize us?

2. The Genome Is Mapped. Now What?, Michael D. Lemonick, Time, July 3, 2000.

Knowledge of the human genome will allow us to identify triggers for hundreds of diseases. Understanding each individual's unique genetics will give health maintenance added energy. Gene sequencing will guide drug therapy. Rapid discoveries may transform human physical status as we target specific problems and correct them.

B. PRENATAL INFLUENCES

3. A State of the Art Pregnancy, Karen Springen, Newsweek, Special Issue, Spring 1999.

Prenatal diagnosis in the twenty-first century will assess the health of unborn babies and predict future physical development very early in pregnancy. Fetal DNA analysis will also allow more fetal surgery to repair malformations. A transmitter in the uterus may prevent preterm deliveries. This article also gives 10 tips for a healthy pregnancy without using technological assistance.

4. Shaped by Life in the Womb, Sharon Begley, Newsweek, September 27, 1999.

The genetic basis of diabetes and other diseases is undisputed. However, new research suggests that conditions during gestation influence the risk of manifesting adult disease. This new health paradigm is creating a plethora of suggestions for altering nutrition, stress, exercise, and drug use during the prenatal period.

5. Fetal Psychology, Janet L. Hopson, Psychology Today, September/October 1998.

Two months before birth, the fetus has emotions and personality that predict infant behavior. Very active fetuses become irritable babies, while fetuses with high heart rates become unpredictable, inactive babies. A well-nourished, low stress, drug-free prenatal environment has the best chance of producing a baby with an easy temperament. It also enhances physical development and cognition.

UNIT 2. Development during Infancy and Early Childhood

A. INFANCY

6. Four Things You Need to Know About Raising Baby, Joanna Lipari, Psychology Today, July/August 2000.

In this article, Joanna Lipari explains the synthesis of important aspects of single areas of infant development-genetic inheritance, physical development, cognitive skills and emotional attachment-into a new view that equates parenting behaviors to software that promotes the growth of the baby's brain (hardware). Lipari discusses attachment theory and compares "old thinking" about raising baby with research-guided "new thinking."

7. The Cultural Context of Infant Caregiving, Navaz Peshotan Bhavnagri and Janet Gonzalez-Mena, Childhood Education, Fall 1997.

Recommendations for caregiving in infancy should give consideration to the beliefs, practices, and goals of the culture of the parents. The physical, cognitive, and emotional development of the baby is enhanced by collaboration and support between parents and child care professionals in infant care settings. Child care courses should reflect cultural diversity, not just the American way.

8. Relationships and the Developing Mind, Daniel J. Siegel, Child Care Information Exchange, November 1999.

Attachment relationships appear to promote cognitive development in infancy. Daniel Diegel explains how. Attuned, empathic communications allow the baby to experience positive emotions and personality growth. This, not sensory stimulation, is the most important stimulus to neurobiological growth. Four suggestions for improving relationships are given.

9. Baby Talk, Shannon Brownlee, U.S. News & World Report, June 15, 1998.

Linguists are discovering that infants too young to use language can discern incorrect use of language rules. Cognitive development in the brain is literally sculpted and reorganized by language perception. Computer neural networks (artificial intelligence) have yet to come close to the computation powers of babies.

B. EARLY CHILDHOOD

10. Defining the Trait That Makes Us Human, Beth Azar, APA Monitor, November 1997.

The development of empathy in early childhood is both a cognitive and an emotional achievement. While a genetic predisposition to empathize exists, education is important for shaping empathy. The author cites researchers' opinions on how it can best be taught in family/parenting contexts.

11. Highlights of the Quality 2000 Initiative: Not by Chance, Sharon L. Kagan and Michelle J. Neuman, Young Children, September 1997.

Early childhood education programs help shape the physical, cognitive, and emotional development of the 13 million American children who attend them. This article describes the recommendations for state-of-the-art programs that use technologies and resources creatively, are cost-effective, and will enhance the well-being of our young children.

12. How Kids Learn, David L. Marcus, Anna Mulrine, and Kathleen Wong, U.S. News & World Report, September 13, 1999.

New research suggests that thinking, reasoning, predicting, explaining, and concluding occur in early childhood. However, people misunderstand how this occurs. Critical periods and enrichment activities have been overemphasized. Cognition is stimulated more by loving, playful interactions with attached caregivers in relaxed settings.

UNIT 3. Development during Childhood: Cognition and Schooling

A. COGNITION

13. From Brain Scan to Lesson Plan, Bridget Murray, Monitor on Psychology, March 2000.

Cognitive psychologists can help bridge the gap between neuroscience and education. This article reviews what brain imaging tells about how children learn and how failure to learn occurs. Cognitivists can use this new information to correct learning problems. It will require collaboration and resolution to translate neuroimaging to education.

14. Dyslexia and the New Science of Reading, Barbara Kantrowitz and Anne Underwood, Newsweek, November 22, 1999.

Neuroimaging techniques demonstrate areas of brain under- and overactivity that prevent connections between language and reading symbols in dyslexia. Children with dyslexia are creative but have different cognitive processes. Early detection with brain imaging and early education with the "new science of reading" will increase their self-esteem.

15. The First Seven . . . and the Eighth: A Conversation With Howard Gardner, Kathy Checkley, Educational Leadership, September 1997.

Howard Gardner believes that there are eight cognitive abilities that can be used to solve problems or create products: eight different kinds of intelligences. In this interview he describes the first seven plus an eighth, the naturalist intelligence. Children should be helped to discover what they are good at, and educational situations should nurture and enhance their areas of expertise.

B. SCHOOLING

16. "High Stakes Are for Tomatoes", Peter Schrag, The Atlantic Monthly, August 2000.

This article raises questions about the widespread use of assessment tests to judge the performance of students and schools. The frenzy for higher performance and accountability is shackling creative teaching, driving out good teachers, and creating undue student stress. Are tests culturally biased? Will a testing backlash lower educational standards?

17. The Death of Child Nature: Education in the Postmodern World, David Elkind, Phi Delta Kappan, November 1997.

David Elkind argues that education continues to see children as alike and amenable to universal rules even though the postmodern world stresses the importance of differences. Culture, race, gender, learning styles, and other phenomena have no regularity. Children should not be expected to melt into a common amalgam; as individuals, learning is always a creative activity.

18. In Search of . . . Brain-Based Education, John T. Bruer, Phi Delta Kappan, May 1999.

This essay supplies rebuttals to the brain-based literature that advocates changing education to comply with right-left (gender differentiated) brain functions and a sensitive period for cognitive development between ages 4 and 10. Critical evaluation of scientific brain research reveals that neurobiology has not yet revealed answers to questions of how children learn, remember, and think.

19. Caution--Praise Can Be Dangerous, Carol S. Dweck, American Educator, Spring 1999.

The right kind of praise can boost self-esteem and increase achievement motivation in school. Praise for effort increases the challenge to learn. However, praise of a student's intelligence is dangerous. Students praised as intelligent choose easy tasks to avoid making mistakes that could threaten their status. One sentence of praise (right or wrong) is pervasive and powerful.

20. Positive Peer Solutions: One Answer for the Rejected Student, Steven L. Rosenberg, Loren M. McKeon, and Thomas E. Dinero, Phi Delta Kappan, October 1999.

The education establishment has been blamed for failing to curb students' negative attitudes and behaviors. This article describes school-based positive peer group intervention. Students from diverse cultural backgrounds learn work, discipline, and responsibility in a team. Both individual and schoolwide problems are identified and solved. Problem students become part of the solution and gain self-esteem.

UNIT 4. Development during Childhood: Family and Culture

A. FAMILY

21. Father Love and Child Development: History and Current Evidence, Ronald P. Rohner, Current Directions in Psychological Science, October 1998.

Parental influence has historically viewed mother love as prime mover. New research shows that father love and acceptance is very important to a child's cognitive and emotional development in both genders and in all cultures. Ronald Rohner reviews six types of studies that demonstrate the power of father love. Depression, drug abuse, and violence outcomes, for example, are more linked to father love than to mother love.

22. Generation XXL, Geoffrey Cowley, Newsweek, July 3, 2000.

Obese children suffer physically and emotionally. In the United States one in three children is overweight or at risk of becoming so. Health problems due to obesity affect 6 million American children. Physical education classes have vanished in a majority of schools. Family/parenting recommendations include more exercise, and better nutrition, including portion control, for children to achieve vigor and self-esteem benefits.

23. Kids Who Don't Fit In, Pat Wingert, Newsweek, March 22, 1999.

A child's emotional intelligence may have a genetic basis, but family/parenting skills can help children fit in better with peers and in social situations. This article discusses early signs of emotional disability. Play and kindness stories in school and at home can foster more empathy. Social skills therapy may also help both parents and children.

B. CULTURE

24. Boys to Men: Emotional Miseducation, Bridget Murray, APA Monitor, July/August 1999.

Sadness and depression are increasing in boys. Parents cultivate gender differences and the culture emphasizes hypermasculinity/bravado. Schools tend to discipline boys more harsher. Moral lessons, such as caring, empathy, and trust are generally not directed toward boys. Gentle boys are victims of jeering and aggression. Emotional education would help boys to develop needed self-esteem.

25. Effects of Maltreatment and Ways to Promote Children's Resiliency, Barbara Lowenthal, Childhood Education, Summer 1999.

Violence (abuse, severe injuries, natural disorders) leaves children at risk for stress disorders, emotional/personality disorders, health problems, cognitive disorders, and depression. Such negative experiences cause abnormal neuronal activity that, in turn, disrupts brain development, creating greater risks to the neurons than in adulthood. Interventions to prevent further maltreatment and to promote resiliency are suggested.

26. Tomorrow's Child, Jerry Adler, Newsweek, November 2, 1998.

What will the twenty-first century culture of childhood be like? This article reviews hallmarks of family life in the twentieth century and predicts landmarks for the future, such as that half of the children in the United States will be non-Caucasian, having their health ensured by DNA manipulations, going to free preschools and health clubs, having computer Internet expertise, and eating genetically engineered foods packed with nutritional supplements.

UNIT 5. Development during Adolescence and Young Adulthood

A. ADOLESCENCE

27. Inside the Teen Brain, Shannon Brownlee, U.S. News & World Report, August 9, 1999.

Brain research shows that the emotional centers are the last to mature in adolescence. This explains how attachment dissolves into declarations of independence with rash peer compliance and odd moral/ethical standards. Teen depression predisposes the brain toward adult depression. Gender makes a difference; for example, female brains mature earlier. Recommendations are given for exercises to assist in the development of emotional maturity.

28. Why the Young Kill, Sharon Begley, Newsweek, May 3, 1999.

Quotes from experts on adolescent psychology and neurobiology show that aggression/violence probably requires a particular environment of stress, lack of morality training, and/or negligent parenting imposed on a temperamentally vulnerable child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial personality. Such doubly jeopardized youth lack the skills to restore their sense of self-esteem when faced with perceived injustices.

29. The Secret Life of Teens, John Leland, Newsweek, May 10, 1999.

This selection points out the importance of parents entering the secret world of adolescence. Parents need to learn the secret language used to communicate about sex and drugs. Television, videos, and computer games present teens with a landscape of aggression/violence and sex/gender fantasies. Parental incursions can help replace poor quality role models with ethics/morality training.

B. YOUNG ADULTHOOD

30. Human Nature: Born or Made?, Erica Goode, New York Times, March 14, 2000.

This report suggests that gender differences in language, parenting, violence, and even rape have genetically evolved to solve specific human problems. In 2000 many negative behaviors may abound; evolutionary biologists argue that once they developed for adaptive reasons. Such speculations raise moral/ethical misgivings and criticisms of the science, but also stimulate quests for more study.

31. Brain Sex and the Language of Love, Robert L. Nadeau, The World & I, November 1997.

Young adults show gender differences in intimacy. Male communication emphasizes action and autonomy. Female language promotes sharing and consensus. Women give "lack of communication" as a reason for divorce. Robert Nadeau explains that some of these differences may result from sex-specific brain hemisphere functioning.

32. The Science of a Good Marriage, Barbara Kantrowitz and Pat Wingert, Newsweek, April 19, 1999.

This article contradicts the Mars-Venus gender differences in emotion/personality as a factor in divorce. Young adults with happy relationships share power. They keep the demons of criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling at bay. The birth of a first baby requires extra work in household and child-care roles. Happy marriages have a significant effect on good health.

33. The Power of Play, Hara Estroff Marano, Psychology Today, July/August 1999.

Is play a language? A cultural form? Yes, and play also can attract marriage partners, stimulate creativity, provide exercise, improve emotional and physical health, lift stress, and stimulate the brain. Is the opposite of play depression? The author believes that our fears that play will waste time and undermine our success come from not playing.

UNIT 6. Development during Middle and Late Adulthood

A. MIDDLE ADULTHOOD

34. The Age of Anxiety, Donna Foote and Sam Seibert, Newsweek, Special Issue, Spring/Summer 1999.

Middle-aged adults have many stress-related ailments in which gender differences exist: Women have more depression and nutrition disorders; men have more aggression and drug-related disorders. The physical status of mens' and womens' brains differs at midlife. Women have much less serotonin (a neurotransmitter) while men have less limbic system reactions to stress. Sex hormones are not the only cause of differences between the sexes.

35. The Betrayal of the American Man, Susan Faludi, Newsweek, September 13, 1999.

Middle-aged men face a crisis in masculinity in the twenty-first century. Antiheroic descriptors abound: deadbeat dads, harassers, batterers, stalkers, militiamen. Is manhood defined by Promise Keepers? The Million Man March? Viagra? Is gender equality hurting marriage and placing undue stress on the American man? Susan Faludi explains her views.

36. Understanding Perimenopause, Sharon Begley, Newsweek, Special Issue, Spring 1999.

Women undergo a few years of perimenopause in middle adulthood. It can masquerade as a physical status decline or depression, but it is neither. It can be treated. This article explains the symptoms and the different therapies used for different women. It is not imaginary--it does not begin when menstrual periods end, and each woman experiences it uniquely.

B. LATE ADULTHOOD

37. The Johns Hopkins Prescription for Longevity, The Johns Hopkins Medical Letter Health after 50, December 1998.

Late adulthood can be a healthy time of life. This article reviews lifestyle factors that can make it salubrious. Exercise is the single most recommended antiaging measure. Other lifestyle choices should include good nutrition, avoiding sun exposure, drinking water, reducing stress, challenging the mind, and cultivating friendships.

38. New Nerve Cells for the Adult Brain, Gerd Kempermann and Fred H. Gage, Scientific American, May 1999.

Until recently it was accepted as truth that neurons could not undergo mitosis after birth. Scientists have discovered that neurons in the hippocampus can regenerate. Stem cells in other brain locations may also have this potentiality. If so, many neurological diseases of late adulthood may be cured. This article reviews the current knowledge about this startling discovery.

39. Successful Aging: The Second 50, Joe Volz, Monitor on Psychology, January 2000.

In order to maintain good physical and cognitve health in late adulthood, the author suggests neurobic exercises: experiencing the unexpected and using all the senses. Aerobic exercise and nutrition help. Close relationships such as marriage and social support also ensure that longevity is accompanied by wholesome emotions and personality.

40. Alzheimer's: Unlocking the Mystery, Geoffrey Cowley, Newsweek, January 31, 2000.

In 10 years, about 6 million late adulthood Americans will have Alzheimer's disease. Scientists have learned how undissolved proteins change into plaques and tangles that destroy neurons. Nutrition (Vitamin E), anti-inflammatory drugs, and mental exercise may postpone its onset. Genetic factors and lack of education speed its onset. New drugs to prevent Alzheimer's maybe on the way.

41. The Centenarians Are Coming!!, Cynthia G. Wagner, The Futurist, May 1999.

Jeanne Calment lived to be 122 and broke the documented human longevity record. However, late adulthood now has many centenarians. This article analyzes the trend toward longevity. Occupational choices of the future will reflect both longer careers as well as careers servicing the old-old (home care, prosthetics, etc.). Planning tips and resources for longer living are included.

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