Improving Import Food Safety

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-01-09
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Improving Import Food Safety presents detailed information on solutions for addressing the safety of imported foods and ingredients. It provides a valuable reference for food companies and food professionals from industry, government, and academia, the book presents a thorough understanding of the issues and difficulties involved. Offering factual information from both U.S. and international perspectives, expert authors highlight issues, processes used by industry in the U.S. and other countries, and processes to be used going forward. Through numerous case studies, Improving Import Food Safety describes the efforts in a variety of sectors to improve the safety of products and ingredients used in both the food and diet supplement industries.

Table of Contents

Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

Acknowledgment xix

Part I Highlighting Key Issues 1

Chapter 1 Emerging Global Food System Risks and Potential Solutions 3

Shaun Kennedy

Overview 3

Supply Chain Complexity 4

Increasing Role of Imports 6

Unusual Sources for Imports 7

Other Emerging Food Safety Risks 10

Economically Motivated Adulteration 11

Other Emerging Intentional Threats 13

Potential Solutions 15

Conclusions 19

References 19

Chapter 2 A Cooperative Federal–State Approach for Monitoring Imported Foods: Reviewing the New York State Model 21

Joe Corby

Introduction 21

State and Local Government Strengths 23

The New York Model for a Cooperative Federal–State Approach for Monitoring the Safety of Imported Food 25

Examples of Violative Imported Food Products Found in the Pilot Cooperative Project 35

Discussion 41

Conclusions 42

References 42

Chapter 3 The Impact of the Chinese Development Model on Food Safety 45

Wenran Jiang

Introduction 45

China’s Explosive Economic Growth and its Impact 46

China as a Growing Food Superpower 51

China’s Food Safety Regimes 53

China’s Food Safety Challenges 57

Conclusions 61

Notes 62

References 63

Chapter 4 The Role of Public–Private Partnerships on the Access of Smallholder Producers of Mexican Cantaloupe to Fresh Produce Export Markets 65

Belem Avendano, Clare Narrod, and Marites Tiongco

Foodborne Outbreaks and the Increasing Demand for Food Safety in Fruit and Vegetables 66

Production Trends of the Cantaloupe Industry in Mexico 71

Responses to Food Safety Problems Associated with Cantaloupe Outbreaks 74

Major Barriers to Market Access for Small Mexican Producers in the Cantaloupe Supply Chain 76

The Role of Private–Public Partnerships in Facilitating Smallholders to Overcome Barriers to Export Market Entry 78

Summary and Conclusions 81

Notes 82

References 83

Part II Legal and Regulatory Issues/Structures in the United States and Abroad 87

Chapter 5 Improving US Regulation of Imported Foods 89

Neal Fortin

Introduction 89

The Major Federal Agencies 91

The FDA Import Process 92

Prior Notice of Import 93

USDA’s Import System 98

Other Import Controls 100

Country-of-origin Labeling 103

Challenges Facing Import Regulation 104

International Standards – Codex 106

Conclusions 106

References 108

Chapter 6 EU Food Safety Regulation and Trust-enhancing Principles 111

Ellen Vos

Introduction 111

Food Regulation: Between Market and Safety 112

The EU’s Failings in Ensuring Food Safety 114

The EU’s New Regime on Food Safety Regulation 115

Restoring Trust in EU Decision-making on Foods 118

Concluding Remarks 125

Acknowledgment 126

Notes 126

References 129

Chapter 7 Experience of Food Safety Authorities in Europe and the Rapid Alert System 133

Roger Wood

Introduction 133

The EU Approach to Legislation in the Food Sector 134

Food Crises 135

Risk Assessment and Risk Management and the EFSA 136

The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed 141

Notes 148

Chapter 8 The Development of and Challenges Facing Food Safety Law in the People’s Republic of China 151

Yuanyuan Shen

Introduction 151

From “Food Hygiene” to “Food Safety”: A Brief History of the Development of China’s Food Safeguard System (1978–2009) 153

China’s Food Safeguard System Today 165

The Challenges China Faces in Food Safeguard Improvement 181

Conclusions 186

Acknowledgments 187

Notes 187

References 192

Chapter 9 Defining Food Fraud and the Chemistry of the Crime 195

John Spink

Introduction 195

Food Fraud 196

Diversion, Parallel Trade, and Gray Market 203

Criminology and the Chemistry of the Crime 204

Improving Import Food Safety 208

Conclusions 213

References 214

Part III Potential Strategies to Improve Import Safety 217

Chapter 10 Tracking and Managing the Next Crisis 219

Henry Chin, Nancy Rachman, and Maia Jack

Introduction 219

Tracking the Next Crisis 220

Issue Management Tools 227

Conclusion 233

Notes 234

Chapter 11 Food Product Tracing 235

Jennifer McEntire

Introduction 235

Current US Recordkeeping Requirements 236

Global Recordkeeping Guidance and Practices 237

Commercial Product Tracing Standards 238

Food Industry Factors Affecting Traceability 241

Recommendations for Product Tracing 244

Commingling – A Special Case for

Product Tracing 246

Traceability Versus Recall Ability 247

Product Tracing as a Food Safety Tool for Imports 247

References 248

Chapter 12 Improving the Safety of Imported Foods with Intelligent Systems: The Case of United States–Mexico Fresh Produce Supply Chain 251

William Nganje, Na Hu, Timothy Richards and Albert Kagan

Introduction 252

Assessment of Threat and Vulnerability 259

Data and Procedure 261

Optimal Control Procedure 263

Results and Discussion 265

Notes 269

Appendix 270

References 272

Chapter 13 Testing with Confidence in the Pursuit of Global Food Safety 275

Ronald L. Johnson and Robert E. Koeritzer

Introduction 275

AOAC® International: Official Methods of Analysis sm 279

Evolution of Method Development and Validation 280

AOAC Research Institute 280

Initial Step in AOAC Harmonization of Rapid Microbiological Test Kits 284

The AOAC Guidelines Under Revision 289

References 291

Chapter 14 Global Food Protection: A New Organization is Needed 293

William H. Sperber

Introduction 293

Background 294

Proposal 298

Conclusion 301

Note 302

References 302

Chapter 15 Summary and Recommendations for the Safety of Imported Foods 303

Lorna Zach, M. Ellin Doyle, Vicki Bierand Chuck Czuprynski

Introduction 305

Summary of Current Concerns 306

Recommendations to Improve the Safety of Imported Foods 316

Concluding Recommendations 321

Conclusion 328

Acknowledgments 328

Notes 329

References 329

Index 335

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