Incretins and Insulin Secretion

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-12-01

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First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. In the early days of the serial, the subjects of vitamins and hormones were quite distinct. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology, and enzyme mechanisms. Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists, and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines.

Table of Contents

Contributorsp. xiii
Prefacep. xvii
Evolution of Genes for Incretin Hormones and their Receptorsp. 1
Introductionp. 2
Evolution on Incretin Hormone Genesp. 5
Evolution of Incretin Hormone Receptor Genesp. 12
Evolution of Incretinsp. 15
Acknowledgmentsp. 16
Referencesp. 17
Pleiotropic Actions of the Incretin Hormonesp. 21
Introductionp. 22
GIP and GLP-1 Actions: Hormonal and Neuronal Pathwaysp. 24
Effects of GIP and GLP-1 on Early Events During Feedingp. 27
Effects of Incretins on Functions of the Endocrine Pancreasp. 28
Effects of GLP-1 on Food Intake and Satietyp. 44
Gastrointestinal Effects of GIP and GLP-1p. 46
Cardiovascular Effects of GIP and GLP-1p. 48
Effects of GIP and GLP-1 on Nutrient Storage and Fluxp. 51
Effects of GIP and GLP-1 on Bonep. 54
The Futurep. 55
Acknowledgmentsp. 56
Referencesp. 56
Dietary Effects on Incretin Hormone Secretionp. 81
Introductionp. 82
Physiology of the Incretin Hormonesp. 82
Dietary Influence on Incretin Hormone Secretionp. 85
Mechanisms by Which Nutrients Stimulate Incretin Releasep. 92
Incretin Responses in Obesity and Diabetesp. 97
Therapeutic Implicationsp. 98
Conclusionsp. 100
Acknowledgmentsp. 101
Referencesp. 101
K-cells and Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide in Health and Diseasep. 111
History of K-cells and GIPp. 112
The GIP Gene and Regulation of its Expressionp. 115
Anatomical Localization and Development of K-cellsp. 117
Secretion, Degradation, and Elimination of GIPp. 120
Biological Actions of GIPp. 126
GIP and K-cells in Health and Diseasep. 128
Clinical Application of GIP and K-cellsp. 133
Referencesp. 135
The Emerging Role of Promiscuous 7TM Receptors as Chemosensors for Food Intakep. 151
Introductionp. 153
Family C Receptors as Promiscuous Sensors for L--Amino acids, Peptides, Divalent cations, and Carbohydratesp. 153
Family A Receptors as Promiscuous Sensors for Peptone and Free Fatty Acids (FFAs)p. 164
Therapeutic Perspectivesp. 174
Acknowledgmentsp. 175
Referencesp. 175
Central Regulation of Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Secretionp. 185
Introductionp. 186
Structure and Action of GIPp. 186
Regulation of GIP Secretionp. 187
Neural Regulation of GIP Secretionp. 188
The Role of Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 188
Concluding Remarksp. 196
Referencesp. 196
Incretin Hormone Secretion Over the Dayp. 203
Introductionp. 204
GIP and GLP-1 Secretion After Meal Ingestionp. 204
Regulation of GIP and GLP-1 Secretionp. 206
Mechanisms of GIP and GLP-1 Secretionp. 209
GIP and GLP-1 Secretion Over the Dayp. 209
Incretin Hormone Secretion in Glucose Intolerance and Disease Statesp. 211
GIP and GLP-1 Secretion in Fasting Statep. 214
Conclusion and Perspectivep. 215
Acknowledgmentsp. 216
Referencesp. 216
Using the Lymph Fistula Rat Model to Study Incretin Secretionp. 221
Introductionp. 222
The Incretin Hormonesp. 223
Anatomy and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal and Lymphatic Systemsp. 227
The Lymph Fistula Modelp. 229
Using the Lymph Fistula Rat Model to Study Incretin Secretionp. 232
Concluding Remarks and Future Directionsp. 242
Acknowledgmentsp. 244
Referencesp. 244
Structural Basis for Ligand Recognition of Incretin Receptorsp. 251
G-Protein-Coupled Receptorsp. 252
The GLP-1 Receptorp. 254
The GIP Receptorp. 267
Common and Divergent Features of GLP-1R and GIPR Ligand Bindingp. 271
Referencesp. 274
Epac2-Dependent Rap1 Activation and the Control of Islet Insulin Secretion by Glucagon-Like Peptide-1p. 279
Introductionp. 280
PKA and Epac2 Regulate Insulin Secretion from Cellsp. 280
Epac2 Activates Rap1 GTPasep. 283
Rap1 Effectors and Their Potential Roles in the Control of GSISp. 285
Interactions of Epac2 with Secretory Granule-Associated Proteinsp. 294
Conclusionsp. 296
Acknowledgmentp. 297
Referencesp. 297
Central GLP-1 Actions on Energy Metabolismp. 303
Introductionp. 304
CNS Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Energy Intakep. 305
CNS Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Glucose Metabolismp. 308
CNS Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Lipid Metabolismp. 310
Future Directionsp. 311
Acknowledgmentsp. 313
Referencesp. 313
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1: Gastrointestinal Regulatory Role in Metabolism and Motilityp. 319
Introductionp. 320
GLP-1 in Metabolismp. 321
GLP-1 in Satietyp. 323
GLP-1 in GI Motilityp. 324
GLP-1 in Perspectivep. 327
Acknowledgmentsp. 327
Referencesp. 328
The Role of GLP-1 in Neuronal Activity and Neurodegenerationp. 331
A Causal Link Between Diabetes and Alzheimer's Diseasep. 332
An Insulin-Supporting Messenger: Glucagon-Like Peptide-1p. 334
GLP-1 Analogues Have Neuroprotective Effects in Mouse Models of ADp. 342
Many Other Growth Factors Show Neuroprotective Effectsp. 346
Acknowledgmentp. 347
Referencesp. 347
Wnt and Incretin Connectionsp. 355
What Are Incretins, What They Do, Where, and Howp. 356
WNTs: What They Are and What They Dop. 360
WNT/-catenin Increases the Synthesis of Incretinsp. 364
Does WNT Influence Incretin Secretion?p. 369
Does WNT Influence Incretin Receptors and/or Their Signaling?p. 370
Do Incretins Influence Wnt Signaling? GLP-1 Uses WNT Effectors in Pancreasp. 371
What is the Meaning of the Wnt-Incretin Interplay for Health and Disease?p. 372
Perspectivesp. 375
Acknowledgmentsp. 377
Referencesp. 378
Incretin-Based Therapy and Type 2 Diabetesp. 389
Introductionp. 390
The Incretin Hormonesp. 392
Incretin Hormones in Type 2 Diabetesp. 396
Incretin-Based Therapyp. 397
Conclusion and Perspectivesp. 404
Referencesp. 405
GPR119 Agonists for the Potential Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Related Metabolic Disordersp. 415
Introductionp. 416
GPR119 Receptor Expressionp. 418
GPR119 Signaling and Deorphanizationp. 419
GPR119 Agonism and Glucose Homeostasisp. 420
GPR119 Agonists: Medicinal Chemistryp. 423
Conclusionsp. 441
Acknowledgmentsp. 441
Referencesp. 442
Indexp. 449
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