Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Loose-leaf Package
  • Copyright: 2015-07-06
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


This title is only available as a loose-leaf version with Pearson eText.


In this authoritative guide, leading scholars and researchers present information and evidence-based practices for dealing with the full range curriculum and instruction for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and autism. The case studies throughout Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities look at students of various ages and with a variety of disabilities, and each chapter includes an application to a student with autism. The content is presented with citations of supportive research, and the evidence-based practices are presented in clearly defined ways to ensure that teachers understand the practices and how to apply them in their own classrooms. PowerPoint slides created by the chapter authors are available for course instructors.


0134043383 / 9780134043388  Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package, 8/e

Package consists of: 

  • 013382716X / 9780133827163 Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, Loose-Leaf Version
  • 0134047982 / 9780134047980 Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, Pearson eText - Access Card

Author Biography

Dr. Martha Snell is a Professor Emeritus of Special Education in the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia where she directed the teacher preparation program in severe disabilities for 37 years. With others, she has authored a number of books on teaching methods and the definition of intellectual disability. She has been active in a number of professional organizations, in particular: TASH and the American Association for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. She has directed both federal and state grants directed toward research and the preparation of teachers. Her research has addressed primarily individuals with autism and intellectual disability and their teachers, but more recently has included Head Start classrooms and young children at risk; research topics have encompassed the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms, effective teaching strategies, intervention with communication, and positive behavior support for problem behavior.


Dr. Fredda Brown is Professor in the Programs in Special Education at Queens College, City University of New York.  In addition to Dr. Brown’s work as a Professor and teacher educator, she has spent many years providing educational and behavioral consultation to individuals with severe disabilities and their families.  She has co-edited several books, and has authored numerous journal articles and book chapters relating to the education of individuals with severe disabilities.  Most recently her work focuses on professional attitudes regarding behavioral treatment acceptability. Dr. Brown is past Editor-in-Chief of Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities (RPSD), and currently serves on several Editorial Boards, including the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions (JPBI), and RPSD.  She has sat on the National Board of Directors of the Association for Positive Behavior Supports (APBS) and TASH. She presents her work and ideas nationwide to professionals and families, advocating for positive, dignified and effective methods of addressing the learning and behavioral needs of individuals with disabilities.


Dr. John McDonnell is a Professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of Utah. His research is focused on curriculum and instruction, inclusive education, and transition programs for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. His obtained a number of state and federal research, model development, and outreach grants to support his work in these areas. He has co-authored five textbooks and he published numerous journal articles and book chapters focused effective educational services for students with severe disabilities. He serves on the editorial boards of several of the top journals in special education including Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, and The Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation.



Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Educating Students with Severe Disabilities 1
Michael F. Giangreco, Stacy K. Dymond, and Karrie A. Shogren
Who Are Students With Severe Disabilities? 2
    Definitions, 2
   Societal Perceptions and Expectations, 3
   Opportunities for Interaction and Reciprocal Benefit, 4
Reasons For Optimism and Concern 4
   Reasons for Optimism, 4
   Reasons for Concern, 6
Access to Quality Education 8
   Access to Inclusive Environments, 8
   Access to Individualized Curriculum, 10
   Access to Purposeful Instruction, 17
   Access to the Necessary Related Services and Supports, 22
Learning Outcome Summaries 25
Chapter 2 Fostering Family–Professional Partnerships 27
Ann P. Turnbull, H. Rutherford Turnbull, Kathleen Kyzar, and Nina Zuna
Two Families and Two Windows for Understanding Families in Special Education 29
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act: Parental Rights and Responsibilities 29
   IDEA’s Six Principles, 30
   Assisting Families to Advocate: Parent Training and Information Resource Centers, 36
A Family Systems Perspective 37
   Family Characteristics, 39
   Family Interaction, 42
   Family Functions, 46
   Family Life Cycle, 48
Learning Outcome Summaries 52
Suggested Activity: A Tale of Two Families 53
Chapter 3 Assessment and Planning 55
Diane M. Browder, Jenny Root, Leah Wood, and Caryn Allison
Assumptions of Assessment 56
Qualities and Types of Assessment 59
   Technical Adequacy, 59
   Types of Assessments, 59
Purpose of Assessment 64
   Multidisciplinary Assessments Used to Determine Eligibility, 65
    Assessments for School Accountability, 69
   Assessments Used for IEP and Other Educational Planning, 71
Using the Assessment Information 82
   Developing the IEP, 82
Learning Outcome Summaries 84
Chapter 4 Measuring Student Behavior and Learning 89
Fredda Brown, and Martha E. Snell
Why Measure Student Behavior? 89
   Using an Evidence Base to Guide Instruction, 90
   Accountability Through Evaluation, 91
Foundations of Meaningful Measurement 92
   Measurement of Important Behaviors, 92
   Measurement That Is Contextually Appropriate, 95
   Measurement That Is Accurate and Reliable, 96
Quantitative Measures 97
   Rationale, 97
   Measurement Strategies, 98
Organizing Student Performance Data 110
   Designing Data Sheets, 110
   Graphing Your Data, 110
   Computer-Generated Graphs, 113
   Saving Ungraphed Data, 114
   Frequency of Data Collection, 114
Data Analysis for Better Decision-Making 115
   Measures of Accuracy, 116
   Types of Data, 118
   Obtaining a Baseline, 119
   Baseline–Intervention Comparison, 119
   Graphing Conventions, 120
   Visual Analysis, 121
Learning Outcome Summaries 127
Suggested Activities 129
Chapter 5 Selecting Teaching Strategies and Arranging Educational Environments 130
Martha E. Snell, Fredda Brown, and John McDonnell
Principles to Guide Instruction 131
   Work as Collaborative Teams, 132
   Determine What to Teach, 132
   Understand How the Stage of Learning Affects Instruction, 132
   Reach Agreement on How Students Will Be Taught, 133
   Monitor Student Learning with Performance Data, 134
“Universal” Strategies that are Effective With a Wide Range of Students 134
   Information About Students, 135
   Materials and Universal Design, 135
   The Instructor, 137
   Schedule for Instruction, 138
   Teaching Arrangements, 139
   One-to-One Instruction, 140
   Small Group Instruction, 140
   Enhanced Group Instruction, 142
   Observation Learning, 142
   Cooperative Learning Groups, 143
   Group Instruction Guidelines, 144
   Peer-Mediated Instruction and Peer Support, 144 Ï Peer
Tutoring, 145 Ï Peer Support Programs, 146 Ï Individualized Adaptations: Accommodations and
Modifications, 147 Ï Self-Management, 147
Specialized Teaching Strategies that are Effective With Students Who Have Severe
Disabilities 150
Visual Modality Strategies, 150 Ï Visual Supports, 151 Ï Video Modeling, 155 Ï Task Analysis and Chaining,
157 Ï Task Analysis, 158 Ï Approaches for Teaching Chained Tasks, 160 Ï Elements of Discrete Teaching
Trials, 161 Ï Discriminative Stimuli, 163 Ï Instructional Cues, 165 Ï Stimulus and Response Prompting,
165 Ï Stimulus Prompts, 165 Ï Response Prompts, 166 Ï Types of Instructional Prompts, 167 Ï Response
Latency, 167 Ï Prompt Fading, 169 Ï Prompting Systems, 170 Ï General Guidelines for Using Structured
Prompts and Cues, 176 Ï Consequence Strategies, 176 Ï Positive Reinforcement 177 Ï Planned Ignoring,
180 Ï Response to Errors, 181 Ï Arranging Teaching Trials, 184 Ï Distributed or Massed Trial Instruction,
184 Ï Contextualized or Decontextualized Instruction, 185 Ï Embedding Instruction Within Activities, 186
Learning Outcome Summaries 188
Suggested Activities 188
Chapter 6 Designing and Implementing Instruction for Inclusive Classes 190
Rachel E. Janney, and Martha E. Snell
The Pyramid of Support/Response-to-Intervention Logic 191
Collaborative Teaming for Ongoing, Day-to-Day Planning and Delivery of Instruction 192
A Model for Making Individualized Adaptations 195
Criteria for Making Individualized Adaptations, 195 Ï Types of Adaptations: Curricular, Instructional, and
Alternative, 196 Ï Curricular Adaptations: Individualize the Learning Goal, 197 Ï Instructional Adaptations:
Individualize the Methods and/or Materials, 199 Ï Alternative Adaptations: Individualize the Goal, the Methods/
Materials, and the Activity, 201
Using the Model to Develop Individualized Adaptations 203
Step 1. Gather and Share Information About the Student(s) and the Classroom, 203 Ï Information About the
Classroom, 204 Ï In-depth Information About Class Activities and Participation, 205 Ï Step 2. Determine
When Adaptations Are Needed, 207 Ï Step 3. Plan and Implement Adaptations: First General, Then Specific
209 Ï General Adaptations, 209 Ï Specific Adaptations, 210 Ï Individualized Adaptations and Support Plans
211 Ï Step 4. Monitor and Evaluate, 216 Ï Monitoring Student Performance, 216 Ï Evaluating Student
Progress, 219
Learning Outcome Summaries 221
Suggested Activities 222
Chapter 7 Designing and Implementing Individualized Positive Behavior Support 223
Robert E. O’Neill, and J. Matt Jameson
Development of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) 225
Development of PBS in Schools: Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) 226
Inclusion of Students With More Severe Disabilities in MTSS 227
Components of Individualized PBS 228
Three Phases of Implementation, 228 Ï Person-Centered Planning, 229 Ï Ecological Assessment, 230 Ï Why
Conduct an FBA?, 230 Ï Outcomes of an FBA, 231 Ï Who Should Be Involved?, 231
Overview of the FBA Process 231
Assessment, 231 Ï Hypothesis Development, 232 Ï Direct Observations and Analyses, 232 Ï Development of
Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIPs), 232 Ï Specify Who Will Do What and When, 233 Ï Ongoing Data
Collection and Evaluation, 235
Indirect Data Collection 235
Archival Review, 235 Ï Interviews, 235 Ï Checklists, 239
Direct Observations 239
Validation of Summary Statements, 241
Functional Analysis 241
Procedures, 241
Behavior Intervention Plan Development 242
Important Characteristics of BIPs, 242 Ï Bridging the Gap from FBA to BIP: The Competing Behavior Model
243 Ï Formats for Behavior Intervention Plans, 246
Potential Intervention Plan Components 246
Lifestyle Changes, 246 Ï Classroom Modifications, 246 Ï Setting Events/Motivating Operations, 247 Ï Antecedent
Strategies, 248 Ï Teaching and Prompting Alternative/Replacement Behaviors, 249 Ï Consequence Strategies for
Appropriate and Challenging Behavior, 249 Ï Crisis/Emergency Intervention Strategies, 250 Ï Intervention Plan
Evaluation and Monitoring, 252 Ï Example Behavior Intervention Plan for Micah, 253
General Issues Regarding Ethical and Professional Behavior 253
Technology Supports for FBA 254
Direct Observation Tools, 255
Technology Tools to Support Intervention Strategies 257
Setting Events, 257 Ï Antecedent Interventions, 258 Ï Behavioral Teaching Applications, 258 Ï Consequence
Interventions, 259 Ï Communication, 259
Learning Outcome Summaries 261
Chapter 8 Understanding and Meeting the Health Care Needs of Students with Severe Disabilities 264
Donna Lehr, and Nancy Harayama
Introduction 265
Students with Special Health Care Needs Defined 265
General Knowledge of Health Care Procedures 267
Hygienic Practices in Schools, 267
Understanding Specialized Health Care Procedures 275
Knowledge and Training Levels, 275 Ï Responsible Personnel, 276 Ï Specialized Health Care Procedures, 276
Care Coordination Through Communication 281
Individualized Health Care Plans, 282 Ï Record Keeping, 283
Inclusion in the General Education Setting 285
Acceptance by Peers, 285 Ï Specialized Education Content, 286 Ï Maximizing Educational Opportunities, 287
Other Considerations Related to the Education of Students With Special
Health Care Needs 287
Medical Discrimination, 287 Ï Do Not Resuscitate, 289
Learning Outcome Summaries 290
Chapter 9 Key Concepts in Understanding Motor Disabilities 292
Mary Jane Rapport, Amy Barr, and Maria Jones
Impact on Education and Participation 294
International Classification on Function (ICF), 295 Ï Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS),
297 Ï Quality of Movement, 298
Team Support for Students 302
Team Collaboration and Communication, 302 Ï Service Delivery by the Team, 304
Meeting Students’ Needs 306
Daily Routines, 307 Ï Lifting, Transferring, Moving, 310 Ï Positioning, 311 Ï Learning, 313 Ï Ecological
Inventory, 314 Ï Playground and Recreation, 315 Ï Transition to Employment or Other Postsecondary
Settings, 316 Ï Use of Equipment to Enhance Participation, 317 Ï Use of Other Technologies and Equipment
in the Classroom, 323 Ï Transportation 324
Learning Outcome Summaries 326
Suggested Activities 326
Chapter 10 Teaching Self-Care Skills 327
Martha E. Snell, Monica E. Delano, and Virginia L. Walker
General Teaching Considerations 329
Identifying What to Teach, 329
Special Considerations for Toileting 336
Identify What to Teach, 337 Ï Identify Teaching Strategies, 342
Special Considerations for Eating and Mealtimes 349
Identify What to Teach, 350 Ï Identify Teaching Strategies for Eating and Mealtimes, 351 Ï Addressing
Problem Behaviors During Mealtime, 353
Special Considerations for Dressing and Grooming 358
Identify What to Teach, 359 Ï Identify Teaching Strategies for Dressing and Grooming Skills, 362
Learning Outcome Summaries 368
Suggested Activities 370
Chapter 11 Promoting Social Competence and Peer Relationships 371
Erik W. Carter, and Matthew E. Brock
Introduction 372
Contributions of Peer Relationships in the Lives of all Children 373
Friendships Are Important in the Lives of All Students, 373 Ï For Children and Youth with Severe Disabilities,
374 Ï For Peers Without Disabilities, 374
The Diversity of Peer Relationships 374
Defining Relationships, 375 Ï The Variety of Interactions and Relationships, 375 Ï The Role of Context and
Relationships, 378
The Importance of Intentional Efforts to Foster Relationships 379
Relationships with Peers Who Do Not Have Disabilities, 379
Promoting Peer Interaction and Social Relationships 380
Assessment to Identify Needs and Opportunities, 381
Strategies for Addressing Social Needs and Maximizing Relationship
Opportunities 385
Shared Space, 385 Ï Shared Activities, 385 Ï Shared Interests, 386 Ï Student-Focused Instruction,
386 Ï Peer-Focused Instruction, 387 Ï Promoting Valued Roles, 387 Ï Providing Appropriate Support, 387
Evidence-Based Strategies for Supporting Relationships 388
Inclusive General Education Classrooms, 388 Ï Peer Support Strategies, 388 Ï Informal School Contexts,
394 Ï Extracurricular and Other School-Sponsored Activities, 396 Ï After School, on Weekends, and During
the Summer, 398
Monitoring Progress and Refining Efforts 399
Monitoring Interactions with Peers in Class, 399 Ï Monitoring Participation in Extracurricular Activities,
400 Ï Monitoring Student and Family Satisfaction 400
Learning Outcome Summaries 401
Suggested Activities 403
Practical Guides and Resources 403
Chapter 12 Teaching Communication Skills 404
Susan S. Johnston
The Importance of Communication 404
Features of Communication 406
Preintentional or Intentional Communication, 406 Ï Presymbolic or Symbolic Communication, 407 Ï Modes
of Communication, 407 Ï Communicative Functions, 410 Ï Conversational Functions, 410 Ï More Complex
Communication, 411 Ï Comprehension, 412
Identifying and Assessing Communication Skills and Abilities—Deciding What to
Teach 412
Formal and Informal Assessment Procedures, 413 Ï Indirect and Direct Observation Assessment Strategies, 413
Linking Assessment to Intervention, 416
Developing an Instructional Plan—Deciding How to Teach 417
Identify Opportunities for Instruction, 417 Ï Prompting the Communicative Behavior, 420 Ï Prompt Fading
423 Ï Consequences, 423 Ï Response Efficiency, 424 Ï Monitoring Progress, 425
Learning Outcome Summaries 435
Suggested Activities 436
Additional Resources 436
Chapter 13 Teaching Academic Skills 438
John McDonnell, and Susan R. Copeland
Selecting Academic Skills for Instruction 440
General Guidelines, 440 Ï Strategies for Developing Academic IEP Goals and Objectives, 441
Determining the Instructional Approach 443
Teaching Within Typical Instructional Routines and Activities, 443 Ï Teaching Academics in Parallel
Instructional Activities, 444 Ï Teaching Academics in Community-Based Activities, 444
Literacy Instruction 445
Definition of Literacy, 445 Ï Comprehensive Literacy Instruction, 445 Ï Teaching Conventional Early Reading
and Writing, 447 Ï Word Recognition, 448
Math Instruction 462
Numeracy and Computation, 462
Science Instruction 470
Learning Outcome Summaries 471
Suggested Activities 472
Chapter 14 Building Skills for Home and Community 474
Linda M. Bambara, Freya Koger, Raquel Burns, and Dolly Singley
Guidelines for Planning Instruction to Enhance Skills for the Home and Community 476
Guideline One: Use Person-Centered Planning Strategies to Create a Vision, 477 Ï Guideline Two: Coordinate
Instruction with Families, 478 Ï Guideline Three: Encourage Self-Determination Through Choice-Making, Self-
Cuing, and Self-Management Skills, 478 Ï Guideline Four: Select Appropriate Instructional Settings,
484 Ï Guideline Five: Incorporate General Case Instruction, 487 Ï Guideline Six: Coordinate Instruction with
Transition Planning, 488
Strategies for Teaching Home and Community Skills 491
Skills for the Home, 491 Ï Skills for the Community, 500
Learning Outcome Summaries 507
Chapter 15 Transitioning from School to Employment 508
Valerie L. Mazzotti, and David W. Test
Introduction 511
Definition of Transition 511
Transition Planning 514
Indicator 13 Requirements, 514 Ï Age-Appropriate Transition Assessment, 516 Ï Person-Centered Planning,
519 Ï Self-Determination and Student Involvement in the IEP 520
Teaching Employment Skills 523
Where to Provide Instruction, 523 Ï Where to Provide Instruction: School-Based Instruction (SBI) Options,
524 Ï Where to Provide Instruction: Community-Based Instruction (CBI) Options, 529 Ï How to Provide
Instruction, 535 Ï How to Collect Instructional Data, 538 Ï Using Assistive Technology, 539 Ï Meeting
Medical and Health Needs, 541
Adult Outcomes and Meaningful Employment Outcomes 542
Supported Employment, 542 Ï Natural Supports, 543 Ï Customized Employment, 544
Family Roles in Transition 544
Interagency Collaboration 546
Vocation Rehabilitation Services, 546 Ï Developmental Disabilities Services, 547 Ï Social Security
Administration, 548 Ï One-Stop Career Centers, 550
Chapter 16 The Promise of Adulthood 554
Dianne L. Ferguson, and Philip M. Ferguson
Exploring the Promise of Adulthood 556
Understanding Adulthood 557
The Changing Status of Adulthood, 557 Ï The Dimensions of Adulthood, 559
Denying Adulthood 566
Unending Childhood, 567 Ï Unfinished Transitions, 568 Ï Unhelpful Services, 570 Ï The Dilemma of
Adulthood 572
Achieving Adulthood 573
The Concept of Support, 574 Ï What Is Different About Supported Adulthood?, 575 Ï Components of
Supported Adulthood, 575
Living the Promise 579
Multidimensional Adulthood, 584 Ï A Cautionary Conclusion About Unkept Promises, 584
Learning Outcome Summaries 585
Suggested Activities 587
References 588
Name Index 623
Subject Index 630

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