International Relations

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-12-28
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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What do we study in international relations? How do we study it? And how do we apply it? Using these guiding questions as a framework,International Relationsshows students how to think critically about issues in world politics. In each chapter, a brief opening case is followed by a description of key developments, an explanation of the main theoretical approaches used to analyze them, and applications of those theories in individual, state, and global contexts. The authors provide extensive historical information throughout, giving students a holistic frame of reference from which to understand current events. FEATURES: *A consistent analytical frameworkorganized around three questions encourages critical thinking *Three full chapters on theory--realism (Ch. 2), liberalism (Ch. 3), and constructivist and other modern approaches (Ch. 4)--along with coverage of relevant theories and levels of analysis in each chapter introduce students to a broad spectrum of approaches * Two chapters giveunique emphasis to cultural and identity factors(Ch. 8) andpredictions for the future(Ch. 12) *"Visual Review" summariesenable students to visualize how all the material fits together * Concluding"Past, Present, and Future"sections apply each chapter's material to both classic and contemporary challenges *"Debate" boxesfocus on controversial questions and issues and ask students to consider their own views *"Case in Point" featuresprovide in-depth examinations of current or historical events and includecritical-thinking questionsthat ask students to think deeply about these events *An Instructor's Resource Manual, a Computerized Test Bank, Videos, and a Companion Website www.oup.com/us/shiraevprovide additional resources for students and instructors

Author Biography

Eric Shiraev is a researcher and professor at George Mason University. He is the author, coauthor, or coeditor of twelve books and numerous publications, including Russian Government and Politics (2010) and Counting Every Vote: The Most Contentious Elections in American History (2008).

Vladislav Zubok is a professor at the London School of Economics. He is the author of numerous books and articles, including the prize-winning Inside the Kremlin's Cold War (1996) and A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War (2007).

Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with a Conclusion.
Maps of the World
Chapter 1. Introducing International Relations
What Do We Study? The Field of International Relations
What Is International Relations?
Key Concepts
Nations and states
Key Actors
State government and foreign policy
Intergovernmental organizations
Nongovernment organizations
Global Issues
Instability, violence, and war
Nuclear proliferation
Environmental problems
Human rights
Population and migration
Finding a path to peace and economic improvement
How Do We Study It?
Gathering Information
Government and nongovernment reports
Eyewitness sources
Experimental methods
Analyzing Information
Critical thinking in international relations
Distinguishing facts from opinions
Looking for multiple causes
Being aware of bias
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual context
The State context
The Global context
Past, Present, and Future: Can Democracy Be Exported?
Chapter 2. The Realist Perspective
What Do We Study?
Understanding Power in International Relations
The Development of Realism
Theoretical roots
Realism prevails in Europe
Realism becomes a theory
International Order
Polarity and international order
International order and policies
The Rise and Fall of Three Great Realist Powers
The Ottoman Empire
The British Empire
The United States: An "empire of freedom and the dollar"?
How great powers evolve
How Do We Study It?
Rules of engagement
Predator states
Power shifts
International Order and War
Types of responses to the use of force
Neorealist strategies
Nonmilitary Responses
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
The State Context
The Global Context
Putting the Contexts Together
Past, Present, and Future: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Chapter 3. The Liberal Perspective
What Do We Study?
The Development of Liberalism
Intellectual roots
Early attempts to implement liberal principles
1945: A new beginning for liberal principles
The Many Faces of Liberalism
How Do We Study It?
Comparing Liberalism and Realism
The obsolescence of big wars
Lessons of diplomacy
Democratic peace
Soft power
International and Nongovernment Institutions
Cross-national networks
Nongovernment organizations
The Spectrum of Liberalism
Multilateralism, interventionism, and isolationism
Illiberal views: From anarchism to religious fundamentalism
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
The State Context
Public support for foreign policy
Policy climate
The Global Context
Past, Present, and Future: The European Community and the Limits of the Liberal Project
Chapter 4. Alternative Views
What Do We Study?
How Do We Study It?
The Constructivist View
Socially constructed meanings
Three types of international environments
History lessons
Conflict Approaches
Marxism and Leninism
Other Marxist concepts
Dependency and world-systems theory
The politics of gender
Race and ethnic conflict
Political Psychology
Rational decision-making
Biased decision-making
Group pressure
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
Rational and biased choices
Analogies and individuals
Irrational decision-making
Early and late socialization
Conflict theories tested
The State Context
Constructivism in the bureaucratic and group context
Access to information and statesmanship
Two-level games
The democratic-authoritarian continuum
Whose state interests?
The Global Context
International factors and state interests
Gender and social conflict perspectives
Past, Present, and Future: The Cuban Missile Crisis
Chapter 5. International Security
What Do We Study?
Types of War
Security Policies
How Do We Study It?
Realism and security
The security dilemma
Nuclear deterrence
The domino theory
Security regimes
International Liberalism
Liberalism and security
International organizations and the security community
Perceptions, identities, and attitudes
Militarism and pacifism
Alternative and Conflict Theories
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
Leaders and advisers
The State Context
Public opinion
The Global Context
Regional security
Energy, resources, and security
Past, Present, and Future: Ending the Cold War
Chapter 6. International Law
What Do We Study?
Law, the Role of IGOs, and International Relations
Principles of International Law
Sources of International Law
The Development of International Law
Laws of the sea
Laws of war
Humanitarian issues
Early legal institutions
From the League of Nations to the United Nations
How Do We Study It?
The Realist View of International Law
State interest
Law enforcement
The Liberal View of International Law
Law and reason
Supranationalism and human rights
The legality of war
Constructivism and other views
Ideology and law
Perceptions of international law
Conflict theories
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
Political authority
The State Context
International law and the United States
The Global Context
From nationalism to supranationalism
Back to reality
Past, Present, and Future: War Crimes, Genocide, and the Legacy of Nuremberg
Chapter 7. International Political Economy
What Do We Study?
The Major Factors of International Political Economy
Production and Consumption
How Do We Study It?
Mercantilism: An economic realism?
Principles of mercantilism
Mercantilism and mealism
Economic Liberalism
The roots of economic liberalism
Principles of economic liberalism
The Keynesian challenge
International organizations
Regional trade agreements
National purpose
Economic climate
Conflict Theories
Economic dependency
Fair trade
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
Political leadership
The State Context
Domestic politics
Surplus or manageable deficit?
The Global Context
Which economic policy?
Global interdependence
Global poverty
International institutions and the global economy
Culture and conflict
Past, Present, and Future: "The Beijing Miracle"
Chapter 8. International Terrorism
What Do We Study?
Terrorism and Counterterrorism
Why Definitions Are Important
Legitimization of military actions
Mobilization of international law
Justification of other policies
How Terrorism Works
Assumptions and methods
The "logic" of terrorism
Terrorism: In the Name of What?
Extreme nationalists
Radical Socialists
Religious fundamentalists
How Do We Study It?
The Realist view of Terrorism
Power balance
Asymmetrical threats
The Liberal View of Terrorism
Understanding causes of terrorism
Criminalizing terrorism
Liberalism and counterterrorism
The Constructivist View of Terrorism
Three pillars of terrorism
Ideology and Identity
Conflict theories
Political socialization
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
The terrorist's profile
Bush and Obama on terrorism
Rehabilitation as counterterrorism
The State Context
Domestic costs of counterterrorism
Terrorism as a means to gain state power
Democratic governance and terrorism
The Global Context
Global waves
Global counterterrorism
Past, Present, and Future: Al-Qaeda
Chapter 9. Environmental Problems and International Politics
What Do We Study?
Environmental Problems
Acid rain
Air pollution
Ozone depletion
Climate change
Loss of wildlife
Loss of clean water
Disasters and Accidents
Natural disasters
Human-created disasters
Environmental Policies Today
Restriction and regulation
Green investments
Comprehensive policies
Policy implementation
How Do We Study It?
Environmental disasters and security
The global commons
Environment and sovereignty
International treaties and organizations
Nongovernment organizations
Public awareness
Environmental values
Alternative and critical views
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
Environmentalism and skepticism
A sense of mission and leadership
The State Context
National purpose and partisan politics
The democratic context
The Global Context
The environment and business
The need for global efforts
Global policy and climate change
Past, Present, and Future: Greenpeace
Chapter 10. Humanitarian Problems
What Do We Study?
Humanitarian Problems
Pandemics and infectious diseases
Chronic starvation and malnutrition
Acute suffering
Causes of Humanitarian Problems
Natural disasters
Mass violence
Extreme poverty
Involuntary migration
Interconnected problems
Humanitarian Policies
Humanitarian intervention
Relief efforts
Crisis prevention
Population policies
Anti-poverty policies
Refugee policies
How Do We Study It?
Theoretical principles
Global governance
Conflict Theories
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
Leaders' choices
Denying or hiding problems
The State Context
Political climate
Favorable conditions
The Global Context
New and evolving concerns
Policy arguments
Efficiency of aid
Sustainability of success
Past, Present, and Future: Celebrity Activism
Chapter 11. Hearts and Minds: Identity and Political Culture
What Do We Study?
Values and Identities
Political Culture
Types of political culture
Views of political authority
Cultures as Civilizations
Cultural identities
A clash of civilizations?
Political Attitudes
How Do We Study It?
Conflict Theories
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
Visionaries and fanatics
Political mobilization
The State Context
Collective Experiences
Political culture and state unity
Economic leverage
Democratic norms
The Global Context
Toward a global political culture
Resistance to globalization
Do cultures clash?
Hybrid political cultures
Past, Present, and Future: China's Changing Identity
Chapter 12. Forecasting the World of 2025
What Do We Study?
From Prophesies to Predictions: The International System
Sovereign States
Strong and weak states
Territorial claims
IGOs and NGOs
Multipolarity and Alliances
Latin America and Bolivarianism
South and East Asia
Russia and the post-Soviet space
How Do We Study It?
Conflict Theories
How Do We Apply It?
The Individual Context
The State Context
The United States
The European Union
The Global Context
Modernization theories
Democratic transition
Theories of scarcity
The clash of civilizations
"Rise and Fall" theories
Historical Perspective: A Glimpse into the Future

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