Introducing Ethics For Here and Now

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-02-08
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Students learn how traditional ethical theories can be applied to practical problems . Introducing Ethicsis a brief text that encourages students to determine how the common wisdom of traditional ethical theories can be applied to practical problems such as the distribution of income and wealth, torture, terrorism, and gay and lesbian rights. The text begins by challenging students to think about whether or not ethics is useful for making choices. It poses three questions: 1) Is morality determined by religion rather than reason? 2) Is everything relative? 3) Is it better to be an egoist? Then, after laying out Utilitarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and Aristotelian ethics, the author poses an additional three challenges focused on the traditional conceptions of ethics: the environmental challenge, the feminist challenge, and the multicultural challenge. Learning Goals Upon completing this book readers will be able to: Answer the question: Do I make ethical or moral choices well? Determine their own responses to ethical challenges Note:MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit:www.mysearchlab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205903843 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205903849.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Introductionp. 1
Why Do We Need This Knowledge?p. 2
Three Challenges to Ethicsp. 3
Three Traditional Ethical Perspectivesp. 4
Three More Challenges to Ethicsp. 5
Conclusionp. 5
Notesp. 5
Religion and Moralityp. 6
The Euthyphro Questionp. 6
Medieval Developments of Divine Command Theoryp. 7
Morality Dependent on God Through Creationp. 7
Problems for Divine Command Theoryp. 8
How Are We to Understand God's Commands?p. 8
Are God's Commands justified by Creation?p. 9
How Are We to Identify God's Commands?p. 10
Radically Modified Divine Command Theoryp. 11
Religion and the Public Arenap. 11
Is Rawls's Requirement of Public Reason Unfair?p. 13
Seeing Different Kinds of Unfairnessp. 14
Can Religious Moral Teachings Be Required by Reason?p. 17
How Public Reasons Are to Be Made Accessiblep. 18
Conclusionp. 19
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 19
Notesp. 20
The Challenge of Moral Relativismp. 22
Negative Consequences from Endorsing Moral Relativismp. 23
Tolerance-A Benefit from Endorsing Moral Relativism?p. 23
But Is It True?p. 25
Analysis of the Case of Rape and Marriagep. 28
Analysis of the Case of Widows and Sutteep. 30
Analysis of the Case of Female Circumcisionp. 31
A Comparison to Divine Command Theoryp. 33
The Standard Criticism of Moral Relativismp. 33
Our Six Purported Cases of Moral Relativismp. 34
Conclusionp. 35
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 35
Notesp. 35
The Challenge of Egoismp. 37
Psychological Egoismp. 37
Ethical Egoismp. 39
Individual Ethical Egoismp. 39
Universal Ethical Egoismp. 40
Appealing to Publicityp. 41
Paralleling Egoism and Racismp. 41
Appealing to Consistencyp. 42
Is There No Way to Meet the Challenge of Universal Ethical Egoism?p. 43
From Rationality to Moralityp. 44
Lifeboat Casesp. 47
Morality as Compromisep. 47
Conclusionp. 48
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 48
Notesp. 48
Utilitarian Ethicsp. 51
Introducing Utilitarian Ethicsp. 52
An Implication of Utilitarian Ethics: Sacrificing the Few for the Manyp. 53
Osama Bin Laden and Terrorismp. 54
Hypothetical Examplesp. 56
An Objection to Utilitarian Ethics: Never Do Evilp. 57
Refining and Answering the Objection: Necessary Harm and Independent Reasonsp. 57
A Further Defense: Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianismp. 59
A Better Defense: The "Ought" Implies "Can" Principlep. 60
Conclusionp. 62
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 63
Notesp. 63
Kantian Ethicsp. 65
Kant's Categorical Imperative Testp. 65
Kant, Egoism and Hypothetical Imperativesp. 66
A Central Requirement of Moralityp. 67
Universalizability Not Enoughp. 68
Other Formulations of Kant's Testp. 68
Two Interpretations of Kant's Ethicsp. 69
Welfare Liberalismp. 69
Libertarianismp. 70
Supporting Examplesp. 71
Conflicting Libertiesp. 73
An Expanded "Ought" Implies "Can" Principle Againp. 73
Libertarian Objectionsp. 74
Conclusionp. 76
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 76
Notesp. 77
Aristotelian Ethicsp. 78
Happiness and the Virtuous Lifep. 78
Characterizing the Virtuous Lifep. 80
Conflicts with Kantian Ethicsp. 81
The Importance of Rulesp. 82
Focusing on How We Should Actp. 82
The Priority Questionp. 83
Ayn Rand's Aristotelian Ethicsp. 84
The No-Conflict Thesisp. 85
Conflicts of Self-interest in Rand's Novelsp. 87
The No-Duty Thesisp. 88
The Importance of Rejecting the No-Conflict Thesisp. 89
Conclusionp. 90
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 90
Notesp. 91
Taking-Stock Interludep. 93
The Challenge of Environmentalismp. 95
Singer's Utilitarian Environmentalismp. 95
Regan's Kantian Environmentalismp. 96
Biocentrismp. 96
Principles of Conflict Resolutionp. 98
Individualism and Holismp. 101
An Objection from a Somewhat Alien Perspectivep. 104
Conclusionp. 106
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 107
Notesp. 107
The Challenge of Feminismp. 109
Gilligan's Challengep. 109
The Practical Inadequacy of Traditional Theories of Justicep. 111
Is It Discrimination or Is It Choice?p. 112
The Practical Inadequacy of the Traditional Ideals of a Morally Good Personp. 115
Conclusionp. 118
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 119
Notesp. 9
The Challenge of Multiculturalismp. 122
Correcting and Interpreting Traditional Ethicsp. 124
Using American Indian Culturep. 124
Using Confuciusp. 126
New Obligations for Traditional Ethicsp. 128
Applying Traditional Ethics Cross-Culturallyp. 133
Conclusionp. 135
MySearchLab Connectionsp. 136
Notesp. 136
Conclusionp. 138
Three Challengesp. 138
Three Conceptions of Ethicsp. 138
Three More Challengesp. 139
Practicing Ethicsp. 140
Summing-Upp. 144
Notesp. 144
Glossaryp. 145
Indexp. 147
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