Introducing Philosophy : A Text with Integrated Readings

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-09-02
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
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Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings,Tenth Edition, is an exciting, accessible, and thorough introduction to the core problems of philosophy and the many ways in which they are, and have been, answered. The authors combine substantial selections from significant works in the history of philosophy with excerpts from current philosophy, clarifying the readings and providing context with their own detailed commentary and explanation. Spanning 2,500 years, the selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge contemporary essays. Organized topically, the chapters present alternative perspectives--including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints--alongside the historical works of major Western philosophers. PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES: * Discussion questions, a summary, and a bibliography with suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter * Questions at the end of each subsection * Marginal quotations from the featured readings * Key philosophical terms, boldfaced in the text and collected at the end of each chapter * A glossary at the end of the book NEW TO THIS EDITION: * A second color and more than 230 images illustrating key concepts and depicting famous philosophical figures * New selections by William Paley, John Locke, Bertrand Russell, W. V. O. Quine, St. Thomas Aquinas, John Dewey, and Martin Luther King, Jr. * Careful revisions to the readings and the author commentary that make the material even more accessible * More than 100 brief profiles of philosophers interspersed throughout * A revisedInstructor's Manualprovides chapter summaries and goals; section summaries; a Test Bank with multiple-choice, essay, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank questions; lecture outlines; and downloadable PowerPoint-based slides * An updatedCompanion Websiteat www.oup.com/us/solomon includes all the material from the Instructor's Manual along with resources for students: chapter overviews; chapter goals; interactive flash cards with key terms and definitions; discussion and essay questions; web links and activities; self-quizzes; and suggestions for further reading

Author Biography

The late Robert C. Solomon was Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Business and Philosophy and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin.

Kathleen Higgins is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin.

Clancy Martin is Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Department at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Table of Contents

Philosopher Biographies
History of Philosophy
A. Socrates
Aristophanes, from The Clouds
Plato, from The Apology; from The Crito; from The Phaedo; from The Republic
B. What Is Philosophy?
Plato, from The Apology
Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'"
Laozi, from Dao De Jing
C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy
RenÚ Descartes, from Discourse on Method
D. A Brief Introduction to Logic
1. Deductive Arguments
2. Inductive Arguments
3. Argument by Analogy
4. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions, "Logical Possibility," and Arguments by Counterexample
5. Reductio ad Absurdum
6. The Most Insidious Kinds of Fallacies
Key Terms
Bibliography and Further Reading
A. What Is Religion?
John Wisdom, from "Gods"
Albert Einstein, On the Design of the Universe
Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"
B. The Western Religions
1. The Traditional Conception of God
C. Proving God: The Ontological Argument
St. Anselm, On the Ontological Argument
RenÚ Descartes, On the Ontological Argument
Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument
D. God as Creator: Intelligence and Design
St. Thomas Aquinas, On the Cosmological Argument
* William Paley, "The Watch and the Watchmaker"
St. Thomas Aquinas, On the "Fifth Way"
David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion
E. Religion, Morality, and Evil
1. Religion and "Practical Reason"
Immanuel Kant, on God and Morality
William James, from "The Will to Believe"
2. The Problem of Evil
St. Augustine, from Confessions
3. Hinduism, Buddhism, Karma, and Compassion
From The Bhagavadgita
F. Beyond Reason: Faith and Irrationality
1. God as Experience
Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error
2. The Leap of Faith
S°ren Kierkegaard, On Subjective Truth
3. God as Ultimate Concern
Paul Tillich, On the Ultimate Concern
G. Doubts about Religion
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers Karamazov
Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil; from The Antichrist; from The Gay Science
Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion
A. "The Way the World Really Is"
Aristotle, from Metaphysics
B. The First Greek Philosophers
1. The Ionian Naturalists
2. Monism, Materialism, and Immaterial "Stuff"
3. Heraclitus
4. Democritus, Atoms, and Pluralism
5. Animism
6. Pythagoras
7. The Appearance/Reality Distinction
8. Parmenides
Parmenides, from Fragments
9. The Sophists
10. Metaphysics
C. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and China
1. Reality as One: The Upanishads
From Upanishads
2. Reality, Good, and Evil: Zarathustra
From Zend-Avesta
3. Confucius
Confucius, from The Confucian Analects
4. Laozi, or the Poets of the Dao De Jing
Laozi, from Dao De Jing
5. Buddha
Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon"
D. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and Aristotle
1. Plato
Plato, from The Symposium; from The Republic; from The Meno
2. Aristotle
Aristotle, from Metaphysics; from Physics; from Metaphysics
E. Modern Metaphysics
1. RenÚ Descartes
RenÚ Descartes, On Substance; from "Meditation VI"
* John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
2. Benedictus de Spinoza
Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics
3. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology
Martin Heidegger, from "The Fundamental Question of Metaphysics"
Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
Plato, from Theatetus
A. The Rationalist's Confidence: Descartes
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation I"; from "Meditation II"; from "Meditation VI"
B. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke
John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding
C. Two Empiricist Theories of Knowledge
John Locke
John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Bishop George Berkeley
Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
D. The Congenial Skeptic: David Hume
David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature; from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
E. Kant's Revolution
Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason; from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
F. The Battle in Europe After Kant: Relativism and Absolutism
1. Hegel
G. W. F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit; from Reason in History
2. Schopenahuer
Arthur Schopenhauer, from The World as Will and Representation
3. Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche, On Truth
G. Phenomenology
Edmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"; from The 1929 Paris Lectures
H. Hermeneutics and Pragmatism: Relativism Reconsidered
Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?"
Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?"
* I. The Analytic Turn
* Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
* W. V. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized"
J. Feminist Epistemology
Elizabeth Grosz, On Feminist Knowledge
Uma Narayan, On Feminist Epistemology
A. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to Kant
Ren┤Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
John Locke, On Personal Identity
David Hume, On "There Is No Self"
Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul
Meredith Michaels, On "Personal Identity"
B. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of Choice
Jean-Paul Sartre, On Existentialism; On Bad Faith; from No Exit
C. The Individual and the Community
S°ren Kierkegaard, On "The Public"; On Self and Passion
Martin Heidegger, On "Dasein" and the "They"
David Reisman, On Individualism
1. Voices of Protest
Malcolm X, On Being "African"; from "At the Audubon"
Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"
Ann Ferguson, On Androgyny
D. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence"
Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf
Luce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not One
Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason"
From The Dhammapada
Laozi, from Dao De Jing
A. What Is Consciousness?
RenÚ Descartes, from "Meditation VI"; from "Meditation III"
B. The Problem of Dualism
RenÚ Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"
C. The Rejection of Dualism
1. Radical Behaviorism
2. Logical Behaviorism
Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind
3. The Identity Theory
J. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes"
Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory
4. Eliminative Materialism
Paul M. Churchland, On Eliminative Materialism
5. Functionalism: The Mind and the Computer
David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition
John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"; from Minds, Brains, and Science
6. Connectionism
D. The Problem of Consciousness
Sigmund Freud, On the "Unconscious"
Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions
Colin McGinn, On "The Mystery of Consciousness"
1. Changing Our Minds: Holism and Consciousness
Aristotle, from De Anima
Galen Strawson, On "Cognitive Experience"
William James, from "Does Consciousness Exist?"
Friedrich Nietzsche, On the "Genius of the Species"
A. Fatalism and Karma
Sophocles, from Oedipus the King
Keiji Nishitani, On Fate
B. Predestination
St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will
Mohammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
Jacqueline Trimier, on the Yoruba Ori
Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"
C. Determinism
1. Hard Determinism
Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature
Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room
2. Determinism Versus Indeterminism
Robert Kane, On Indeterminism
3. The Role of Consciousness
4. Soft Determinism
John Stuart Mill, On Causation and Necessity
David Hume, On Causation and Character
Robert Kane, On "Wiggle Room"
Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"
D. Compulsion and Ignorance
Aristotle, On Voluntary Action
Judith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom"
John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"
B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom
B. F. Skinner, from Walden Two
Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner
Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange
Catherine MacKinnon, On Coercion of Women's Sexuality
E. Freedom in Practice: Kant's Solution
F. Radical Freedom: Existentialism
Jean-Paul Sartre, On "Absolute Freedom"
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage"
Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television"
A. Morality
B. Is Morality Relative?
Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended"
* St. Thomas Aquinas, from The Summa Theologica
John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality
C. Egoism and Altruism
Plato, from The Republic
D. Are We Naturally Selfish? A Debate
Mencius, On Human Nature: Man Is Good
Xunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil"
Joseph Butler, Against Egoism
E. Morality as Virtue: Aristotle
Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
F. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and Rousseau
David Hume, On "Reason as Slave of the Passions"
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from ╔mile
G. Morality and Practical Reason: Kant
Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
H. Utilitarianism
Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
I. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and Existentialism
Friedrich Nietzsche, On "Morality as Herd-Instinct"; On "Master and Slave Morality"
Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism as a Humanism
* J. Pragmatism in Ethics
* John Dewey, from The Quest for Certainty
K. Ethics and Gender
Virginia Held, On Feminist Ethics
A. The Problem of Justice
B. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and Aristotle
Plato, from The Republic
Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
C. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and Rights
David Hume, on "Justice and Utility"
John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
D. The Social Contract
Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract
Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence
E. Fairness and Entitlement
John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"
Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
F. Justice or Care: A Feminist Perspective
Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"
G. Individual Rights and Freedom
John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government; from On Liberty
Malcolm X, On Civil and Human Rights
Amartya Sen, from "Property and Hunger"
H. Fighting for Rights and Justice: Civil Disobedience
Henry David Thoreau, from "Resistance to Civil Government" ("Civil Disobedience")
* Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

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