Introduction to Counseling : An Art and Science Perspective

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-01-01
  • Publisher: PRENTICE HALL PTR
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Introduction to Counseling provides an overview of counseling and the helping professions from the perspective of art and science. The text begins by addressing what counseling is in terms of current and future trends, the counseling process, and professional issues (including legal-ethics issues). In-depth information on formulating a personal approach to counseling within a multicultural perspective is provided along with theories of counseling. The last section of the text is directed at special counseling skills such as marriage and family, child and adolescent, group and career, and special settings (school and mental health).

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
About the Authorp. xvii
An Overview of Counseling and the Counseling Processp. 1
An Overview of Counselingp. 3
Welcome to the Field of Counselingp. 3
What Is Counseling?p. 4
The Art and Science of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 4
Counseling as Storytellingp. 7
Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 8
Differentiating Formal from Informal Helpingp. 10
Personal Qualities of Effective Helpersp. 11
The Helping Professionp. 14
Counseling: Past, Present, and Futurep. 14
Counseling from a Historical Perspectivep. 14
Future Trendsp. 21
Summaryp. 25
Professional Preparation and Ethical and Legal Issuesp. 26
Becoming a Professional Counselorp. 26
Formal Study and Professional Affiliationp. 26
Certification and Licensurep. 27
Continuing Educationp. 30
Professional Involvementp. 30
Ethical-Legal Issuesp. 31
The Art and Science of Ethical-Legal Issuesp. 31
Ethical Issuesp. 32
Legal Issuesp. 38
Special Ethical and Legal Issuesp. 41
Ethical-Legal Decision Makingp. 46
Clinical Examplesp. 49
Summaryp. 51
The Counseling Processp. 52
The Art and Science of the Counseling Processp. 52
The Six Stages of the Counseling Processp. 53
Relationship Buildingp. 54
Assessment and Diagnosisp. 59
Formulation of Counseling Goalsp. 59
Intervention and Problem Solvingp. 61
Termination and Follow-Upp. 64
Research and Evaluationp. 64
Listening Skillsp. 64
Primary Listening Skillsp. 65
Secondary Listening Skillsp. 67
Counseling Vignettep. 68
Effective Listening "Don'ts"p. 69
Effective Listening "Do's"p. 69
A Final Thought Regarding Listening Skillsp. 70
Recent Trends in the Counseling Processp. 70
Emotionsp. 70
Postmodern Trendsp. 72
Brief-Counseling Approachesp. 75
Brief-Solution-Focused Counselingp. 76
Common Problems for Beginning Counselorsp. 79
Focusing on the First Issue in a Sessionp. 79
Overlooking Physical or Medical Issuesp. 79
Wanting to Rescue Clients from Their Unhappinessp. 80
Having Perfectionist Tendenciesp. 80
Having Unrealistic Expectationsp. 81
Getting Carried Away with the Latest Techniquep. 81
Getting Lost in the Counseling Processp. 82
Using Inappropriate Phrasesp. 82
Having an Excessive Desire to Helpp. 82
Having an Excessive Need to Be Likedp. 83
Getting Too Emotionally Involvedp. 83
Taking Things Too Personallyp. 83
Having Difficulty Differentiating Between Normal and Abnormalp. 84
Being Uncertain about Self-Disclosurep. 84
Being Uncertain about Confidentialityp. 84
Diversity Issuesp. 84
Summaryp. 85
Assessment and Diagnosisp. 87
The Art and Science of Assessment and Diagnosisp. 87
Assessment and Diagnosisp. 88
Assessmentp. 88
Evaluation of Testsp. 89
Administration and Interpretation of Testsp. 90
Test Biasp. 91
Types of Testsp. 93
Environmental/Ecological Assessmentp. 98
Diagnosisp. 99
Historical Perspectivep. 99
The DSM-IVp. 100
The Clinical Interviewp. 104
Treatment Planningp. 106
Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Assessment and Diagnosisp. 110
Summaryp. 111
Counseling Research and Evaluationp. 112
The Art and Science of Research and Evaluationp. 112
The Purpose of Research and Evaluationp. 113
Theory, Research, and Practicep. 113
Research, Evaluation, and Counselor Accountabilityp. 114
The Contribution of Research to the Counseling Fieldp. 115
Overview of the Types of Researchp. 117
Types of Research Methodologiesp. 117
Shortcomings of Traditional Counseling Researchp. 119
Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Research and Evaluationp. 129
Summaryp. 129
Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling from a Multicultural Perspectivep. 131
Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling with a Multicultural Perspectivep. 133
The Art and Science of Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling with a Multicultural Perspectivep. 133
Developing a Personal Approach to Counselingp. 134
An Eight-Stage Model for Developing a Personal Approachp. 136
Self-Assessmentp. 136
Survey of Supportive Disciplinesp. 136
Overview of Major Counseling Theoriesp. 142
Intensive Study of One Counseling Theoryp. 142
Sensitivity to Individual Differencesp. 142
Integration of Techniques from Counseling Theoriesp. 143
Implementationp. 143
Research and Evaluationp. 144
Multicultural Counselingp. 144
Terms and Conceptsp. 144
Theoretical Perspectives for Multicultural Counselingp. 145
Potential Challenges in Multicultural Counselingp. 146
Counseling as a White Middle-Class Activityp. 146
Social Classp. 146
Genderp. 146
The Intrapsychic Perspectivep. 147
Sexual Orientationp. 147
Stereotypingp. 149
Communication Problemsp. 149
Faulty Assumptionsp. 150
Test Biasp. 152
Prejudicep. 152
Racismp. 153
The Efficacy of Multicultural Counselingp. 155
Suggestions for Incorporating a Multicultural Perspectivep. 157
Beliefs, Knowledge, and Skillsp. 157
World Viewp. 158
Identity Developmentp. 159
Methods to Evaluate Counseling Theoriesp. 160
Guidelines for Multicultural Counselingp. 163
Summaryp. 165
The Classic Theories of Freud, Adler, and Jungp. 166
The Art and Science of the Classic Theoriesp. 166
An Overview of Freud, Adler, and Jungp. 167
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theoryp. 168
Background Informationp. 168
Theory of Personalityp. 169
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 173
Techniquesp. 174
Contemporary Issuesp. 175
Freudian Brief Approaches to Counselingp. 176
Summary and Evaluationp. 177
Adler's Individual Psychologyp. 178
Background Informationp. 178
Theory of Personalityp. 179
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 182
Techniquesp. 183
Contemporary Issuesp. 185
Adlerian Brief Approaches to Counselingp. 186
Postmodern Trends and Adlerian Psychologyp. 187
Summary and Evaluationp. 187
Jung's Analytic Psychologyp. 188
Background Informationp. 188
Jung's Theory of Personalityp. 189
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 191
Techniquesp. 192
Contemporary Issuesp. 192
Jungian Brief-Counseling Approachesp. 193
Summary and Evaluationp. 193
The Classic Theories and Their Use in Contemporary Practicep. 194
Diversity Issues in the Classic Theoriesp. 194
Brief Counseling and the Classic Theoriesp. 195
Summaryp. 195
Experiential Theories and Approachesp. 196
The Art and Science of Experiential Counselingp. 196
Experiential Counselingp. 197
Experiential Theoriesp. 197
Person-Centered Therapyp. 198
Background Informationp. 198
Theory of Personalityp. 199
View of Human Naturep. 199
Key Conceptsp. 200
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 200
Techniquesp. 201
Summary and Evaluationp. 202
Gestalt Therapyp. 202
Background Informationp. 202
Theory of Personalityp. 202
View of Human Naturep. 203
Key Conceptsp. 203
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 204
Techniquesp. 204
Summary and Evaluationp. 205
Existential Therapyp. 205
Background Informationp. 205
Theory of Personalityp. 206
Key Conceptsp. 206
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 207
Techniquesp. 208
Summary and Evaluationp. 209
Creative Arts Therapyp. 209
Professional Issuesp. 210
Music Therapyp. 210
Art Therapyp. 214
Drama Therapyp. 217
Dance Therapyp. 218
Bibliotherapyp. 219
Multimodality CATp. 220
Summary and Evaluation of CATp. 222
Research Trends in Experiential Counselingp. 222
Brief Approaches to Experiential Counselingp. 223
Diversity Issues in Experiential Counselingp. 224
Summaryp. 225
Cognitive-Behavioral Theoriesp. 226
The Art and Science of Cognitive-Behavioral Counselingp. 226
Cognitive-Behavioral Theoriesp. 227
Behavior Therapyp. 227
Background Informationp. 227
Theory of Personalityp. 229
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 230
Summary and Evaluationp. 233
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)p. 234
Background Informationp. 234
Theory of Personalityp. 235
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 237
Summary and Evaluationp. 238
Cognitive Therapyp. 239
Background Informationp. 239
Theory of Personalityp. 239
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 241
Summary and Evaluationp. 242
Transactional Analysis (TA)p. 243
Background Informationp. 243
Theory of Personalityp. 244
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 248
Summary and Evaluationp. 249
Reality Therapyp. 250
Background Informationp. 250
Theory of Personalityp. 251
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 253
Summary and Evaluationp. 254
Feminist Therapyp. 254
Background Informationp. 254
Theory of Personalityp. 255
Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapyp. 256
Summary and Evaluationp. 258
Special Issues in Cognitive-Behavioral Counselingp. 258
Cognitive-Behavioral Theories from a Brief-Counseling Perspectivep. 258
Diversity Issuesp. 260
Postmodern Trendsp. 261
Summaryp. 262
Special Approaches and Settingsp. 263
Marriage and Family Counselingp. 265
The Art and Science of Marriage and Family Counselingp. 265
Evolution of Marriage and Family Counselingp. 266
Professional Issues and Organizationsp. 267
Theoretical Foundationsp. 268
Systems Theoryp. 268
Key Conceptsp. 268
Evaluation of Systems Theoryp. 271
The Family Life Cyclep. 271
Evaluation of the Family Life Cyclep. 273
Marriage Counselingp. 273
The Counseling Processp. 274
Skills-Based Marriage Counselingp. 274
Marital Assessmentp. 275
Family Counselingp. 278
Psychodynamic Family Counselingp. 278
Experiential Family Counselingp. 278
Structural Family Counselingp. 280
Strategic Family Counselingp. 280
Adlerian Family Counselingp. 281
Postmodern/Social Constructionist Trends in Family Counselingp. 283
The Counseling Processp. 285
Diversity Issues in Marriage and Family Counselingp. 286
Evaluation of Marriage and Family Counselingp. 288
Summaryp. 289
Child and Adolescent Counselingp. 290
The Art and Science of Child and Adolescent Counselingp. 290
Children and Adolescents from a Historical Perspectivep. 291
Childrenp. 291
Adolescentsp. 292
Developmental Theoriesp. 293
Cognitive Theoriesp. 295
Theories of Moral Developmentp. 296
Psychosocial Theoriesp. 296
Developmental Psychopathologyp. 297
The Classic Theoriesp. 298
Emerging Developmental Trendsp. 298
Treatment Issuesp. 304
Assessment Proceduresp. 304
Child and Adolescent Counseling Goalsp. 307
Child and Adolescent Counseling Researchp. 307
Special Counseling Approaches for Children and Adolescentsp. 308
Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Counselingp. 313
Special Problems of Children and Adolescentsp. 315
Child Abuse and Neglectp. 315
Depressionp. 319
Suicidep. 321
Antisocial Behaviorp. 323
Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Child and Adolescent Counselingp. 327
Summaryp. 329
Group Counselingp. 330
The Art and Science of Group Counselingp. 330
Group Counselingp. 331
Group Counseling from a Historical Perspectivep. 331
Comparison to Individual and Family Counselingp. 332
Group Versus Individual Counselingp. 333
Group Versus Family Counselingp. 334
Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Counselingp. 335
Group Goals and Processesp. 336
Types of Groupsp. 336
Problem Solving and Group Processp. 338
Group Size, Composition, and Durationp. 339
Use of Coleadersp. 340
Pregroup Screening and Orientationp. 340
Stages in Group Counselingp. 341
Brief-Solution-Focused Group Counselingp. 342
Dealing with Disruptive Group Membersp. 342
Common Mistakes of Group Leadersp. 344
Qualities of Effective Group Leadersp. 344
Diversity Issuesp. 345
Summaryp. 347
Career Counselingp. 348
The Art and Science of Career Counselingp. 348
Evolution of Career Counselingp. 349
Theoretical Foundationsp. 350
Career Development Theoriesp. 350
Career Decision-Making Theoriesp. 354
Treatment Issuesp. 357
Personal Versus Career Counselingp. 357
Assessment Instrumentsp. 358
The Process of Career Counselingp. 360
Intervention Strategiesp. 361
Special Issuesp. 363
Career Counseling for Womenp. 363
Computer-Assisted Career Counselingp. 365
Diversity Issues in Career Counselingp. 366
Summaryp. 370
School Counselingp. 371
The Art and Science of School Counselingp. 371
A Comprehensive Developmental Model for School Counselingp. 372
A Developmental Perspectivep. 373
Role and Function of School Counselorsp. 374
A Historical Perspectivep. 375
The Current ASCA Role Statement, Definition, and Standardsp. 377
Role and Function by Grade Level and Settingp. 378
Special Skills and Problemsp. 382
Consultationp. 383
Counseling Exceptional Studentsp. 385
Special Problemsp. 392
Future Trends in School Counselingp. 398
Diversity Issuesp. 400
Brief-Solution-Focused Counselingp. 402
Use of Technologyp. 403
Summaryp. 404
Mental Health Counselingp. 405
The Art and Science of Mental Health Counselingp. 405
Professional Issuesp. 406
The Role and Function of Mental Health Counselorsp. 408
Direct Intervention Strategiesp. 409
Indirect Intervention Strategiesp. 411
Categories of Mental Health Servicesp. 414
Problems of Livingp. 414
Mental Disordersp. 415
Strategies for Suicidal Clientsp. 418
Causesp. 418
Myths about Suicidep. 419
Treatment Strategiesp. 419
Strategies for Clients with Substance-Abuse Problemsp. 423
Diagnosisp. 424
Special Treatment Issuesp. 425
Counseling Goalsp. 425
Treatment Strategiesp. 426
Stages of Changep. 429
Prevention of Relapsesp. 430
Current Trends and Perspectivesp. 431
Postmodern Trendsp. 431
Mental Health Counseling and the Internetp. 433
Ecosystemic Mental Health Counselingp. 434
Diversity Issuesp. 435
Managed Carep. 436
Summaryp. 437
Referencesp. 438
Name Indexp. 482
Subject Indexp. 494
Creditsp. 510
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