Introduction to Environmental Engineering

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-03-26
  • Publisher: Wiley-VCH

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Building on the first principles of environmental chemistry, engineering, and ecology, this volume fills the need for an advanced textbook introducing the modern, integrated environmental management approach, with a view towards long-term sustainability and within the framework of international regulations. As such, it presents the classic technologies alongside innovative ones that are just now coming into widespread use, such as photochemical technologies and carbon dioxide sequestration. Numerous case studies from the fields of air, water and soil engineering describe real-life solutions to problems in pollution prevention and remediation, as an aid to practicing professional skills. With its tabulated data, comprehensive list of further reading, and a glossary of terms, this book doubles as a reference for environmental engineers and consultants.

Author Biography

Stefan Fr?nzle, born 1961, is an instructor at Zittau University (Germany), teaching environmental sciences and technology, including analytics and ecotoxicology. His main research interests are applied (environmental) photochemistry, biological element cycles and element management in organisms, including bioinorganic chemistry and ecological stoichiometry. Dr. Fr?nzle has so far (co)published 6 books.

Bernd Markert, born 1958, is Professor of Environmental Technology and former director of the International Graduate School Zittau (Germany). His professional interests include the biogeochemistry of trace substances in the water/soil/plant system, instrumental analysis of chemical elements, eco- and human toxicology of hazardous substances, pollution control by use of bioindicators and technologies for waste management, environmental restoration, and remedial action on soils. Professor Markert has so far (co)published 18 books.

Simone W?nschmann, born 1967, is an environmental scientist. She works on human and ecotoxicology with emphasis on bioindication of trace elements in mammals and human milk. Dr. W?nschmann has so far (co)published 2 books

Table of Contents

The Authorsp. X
Prefacep. XI
Definition, History, Disciplinep. 1
Definition of Environmental Engineeringp. 1
History and Development of Environmental Engineeringp. 3
From Environmental Chemistry and Technology to Environmental Engineering: Understanding and Diversifying Anthropogenic Environmental Influencesp. 20
Meaning of Pollutant Degradationp. 26
Substances and Their Sourcesp. 43
Transport and Chemical Alteration of Environmental Chemicalsp. 50
Reactions and Effectsp. 53
Examples of Lipophilic Behavior, Accumulation and Toxicity: Kinds and Reasons of Effects Caused by Organotin Compoundsp. 55
The Term "Heavy Metals" and Its (Purported) Chemical and Toxicological Ramificationsp. 57
How to Determine Environmental Pollutionp. 59
From Methods of Trace Analysis up to Understanding the Underlying Processesp. 59
Inorganic and Organic Compoundsp. 63
Speciation and Concentrationp. 65
Quality Control of Analysisp. 66
Accreditation of Laboratoriesp. 68
Physical Methods in Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Modeling Ecosystems and the Role of Ecotoxicology in Integrative Environmental Sciencesp. 70
Analytical Chemistryp. 71
Geographical Information Systemsp. 72
Biotest-Biological and Ecotoxicological Implicationsp. 74
Locating Soil Pollution Sites by Geoelectric and Other Meansp. 77
Biological System of the Elementsp. 80
Specificityp. 85
Essentialityp. 86
Bioavailabilityp. 88
Toxicityp. 91
Information and Communicationp. 93
What Is This Thing Called Information?p. 94
Information Processing and Communication-The Ratio and Relationship between Subjective and Objective Factors in Processes of Recognitionp. 95
Ways of Producing Knowledge Established in Natural Sciences Lead Us Back to Accepting and Integrating Plurality of Views and Opinionsp. 98
Examples from Environmental Researchp. 101
Performance of Brain and Modern Computers; a Comparison-Artificial Intelligence and the Internetp. 103
Emotional Intelligencep. 105
How to Shape Dialogic Education Processes (DEP) as a Future Principle of Communicationp. 107
Ethical Aspects for Societyp. 107
A Market-Based Economyp. 109
Democracy and Its Limitationsp. 112
Protocol for the Future: Grow along with Your Challengesp. 114
Thoughts on the Futurep. 114
International Quality Endsp. 116
Learn How to Learnp. 117
Transborder and International Regions of Educationp. 119
Think Tanks Can Be Sites and Means of Smart Conflict Handling and Identify Integrative Solutions for Problems of Societyp. 120
How Much Time Is Left for Solutions Taking Care of and Integrating the Present Problems?p. 120
Conclusionp. 122
The Compartments of the Environment-Structure, Function and Chemistryp. 125
The Three Environmental Compartments and Their Mutual Interactions: Lessons for Environmental Situation Analysis and Technologies to be Learned from Comparative Planetologyp. 125
Properties of Earth's Environmental Compartments and Resulting Options to Clean Themp. 133
Atmospherep. 133
The Reactor Concept Applied to the Atmospherep. 138
Structure and Layers of the Atmospherep. 140
The Atmosphere Acting as a Reactor: the Specific Role(s) of Highly Reactive Speciesp. 143
Chemical Peculiarities: Acidic and/or Hydrophilic Gases in the Atmospherep. 148
Air is a Multiphase Systemp. 149
Catalytic Processes in the Atmospherep. 151
Chemical Reactivity, Growth and Removal (Precipitation) of Particles from Atmospherep. 155
Conclusions Concerning Air Quality Integrityp. 156
Water (Fresh-, Marine-, Groundwater)p. 156
Water as a Medium: Density, Optical and Thermal Properties, and Effects thereof on Biological Processesp. 157
Chemical Properties and Their Variationp. 161
Water as a Multiphase Systemp. 163
Freshwater, Seawater, Osmotic Pressure, Redox States and Biologyp. 164
Non-Equilibria among Different Water Layers Can Promote Chemistry, Biological Processes and Deposition of Materialsp. 169
Biogeochemical Cycles in Water, Stoichiometric Ecology and the Design of Sewage Treatment Plants Making Use of Biotechnologyp. 170
Soils and Sedimentsp. 173
Soil as a Multiphase Systemp. 174
Important Chemical Features of Soilsp. 177
Soil as a Bioreactorp. 178
Gradients Do Form in Soilsp. 180
Perturbations of Soil Developmentp. 182
Implications for Soil Sanitationp. 183
A Comparison among Environmental Compartments: Phase Composition, Miscibility toward Key Reactants and Contaminants, Transparency and Biological Activityp. 190
Conclusionsp. 195
Innovative Technologiesp. 197
Criteria for Innovationp. 197
Sustainabilityp. 198
National and International Jurisdictionp. 200
Cost/Benefit Calculationsp. 202
Examples of Innovative Environmental Technologiesp. 203
Precipitation, Adsorption and Immobilizationp. 205
Precipitationp. 205
Adsorptionp. 208
Immobilizationp. 211
Redox Potentials, Pourbaix Diagrams and Speciationp. 212
Reaction Kinetics and Hammett Equationp. 226
When Can Charge Density Patterns Control Kinetics of Entire (Larger) Molecules?p. 227
Chemical Properties of Aromatic Compoundsp. 228
Kinetic Modeling of Reactions at Non-aromatic Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Taft Equationp. 235
Partition of Volatile Aromatics and Their Respective Oxidation Kinetics between Air and Water: Practical Examples from Environmental Chemistryp. 237
Activation Barriers versus Catalysisp. 240
Reaction Kinetics and Mutual Repulsion among Moleculesp. 240
Kinetics, Catalysis, Equilibriump. 242
Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Catalysisp. 244
Throughflow Equilibria and How to Run a Processp. 248
Equilibrium, Equilibrium Constant and Reaction Kineticsp. 248
From Equilibrium Thermodynamics into Flow Systems: Which Are the Effects by Adding and Removing Substances Steadily?p. 249
Nonlinear Chemical Kinetics Can Occur in Throughflow Systemsp. 251
Flow Equilibria in Biology: The Blueprint and Precondition for Biomimetic Processesp. 252
The Hard Way into Flow Equilibriump. 254
Specific Studiesp. 257
Atmospherep. 258
Bioindication and Biomonitoringp. 258
The Problemp. 259
Definitionsp. 260
Using Plants as Bioindicators/Biomonitorsp. 263
Comparision of Instrumental Measurements and the Use of Bioindicators with Respect to Harmonization and Quality Controlp. 266
Examples of Bioindication/Biomonitoring: Controlling the Atmospheric Deposition of Chemical Elements by Using Mosses and Spanish "Moss" (Tillandsia usneoides)p. 267
Conclusion/Outlook: Construction of a Setup for Preventive Healthcarep. 276
CO2 Reductionp. 276
The Problemp. 276
Applicable Principles and Technical Solutionsp. 285
A Practical Examplep. 291
CO2-based Radiative Forcing versus Other Sources and Distributions of Waste Heat: What about Nuclear Energy?p. 294
Conclusionp. 295
Soils and Sedimentsp. 296
Phytoremediationp. 296
The Problemp. 296
Purposes of Mitigation of Noxious Effectsp. 297
The Use of Certain Plants and Trees to Clean up Soilp. 299
The Efficacy of Bioremediation Has Been Determined Chemicallyp. 302
Conclusionp. 304
Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid-Its Chemical Properties, Persistence, Ecological Hazards and Methods of Removalp. 305
The Problemp. 305
Fields and Amounts of EDTA Applicationp. 306
The Compound and Its Properties: Why a Complexing Agent Makes Troublep. 309
Principles of Action (Pathways of EDTA Degradation) and Technical Remediation: A Survey of Chances and Obstaclesp. 314
Practical Experiencep. 320
Conclusionp. 321
Waterp. 322
Reactive Wallsp. 322
The Problemp. 322
Principles of Action and Practical Solutionsp. 324
Conclusionp. 335
Pharmaceuticals in the Environment-Special Emphasis on Diclofenac (Voltaren™)-An Analgetic Agent with Difficult and Interesting Propertiesp. 335
The Problemp. 335
Toxicological Effects to Animalsp. 337
Novel Methods of Removing Diclofenacp. 339
Energy-One of the Biggest Challenges of the Twenty-first Century. The Need for Renewable Energyp. 342
The Problemsp. 342
Energy Depletion of Fossil Fuelsp. 342
Climate Protectionp. 346
The Role of Nuclear Powerp. 348
Rethinking to the Way for Ecological Economicsp. 354
Global View of Renewable Energyp. 355
Renewable Energy in Germany and the Planned Nuclear Exitp. 366
The Growth Region Ems Axis, Lower Saxony (Northwestern Germany)p. 367
Conclusionp. 371
Glossaryp. 373
Referencesp. 391
Periodic Table of Elementsp. 415
Indexp. 417
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