An Introduction to Geological Structures and Maps, Eighth Edition

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2011-03-25
  • Publisher: Routledge

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An Introduction to Geological Structures and Mapsis a concise and accessible textbook providing simple structural terminology and map problems which introduce geological structures. It is a perfect introduction to mapping for students of geology, engineering geology and civil engineering. Each topic is explained and illustrated by figures, and exercises follow on successive maps. If students are unable to complete an exercise, they can read on to obtain more specific instructions on how theory may be used to solve the problem. An appendix at the end of the book provides the solutions. This new, eighth edition contains simplified introductory matter to make the subject as easy to grasp as possible. Color photographs illustrating geological structures bring the subject to life. There is more on outcrop patterns, which will help students to think in 3D, and on structures and the relationship of topography to geological structure. Cliff sections have been added to reinforce the concept of apparent dip. The section on planetary geology has been more closely tied to igneous geology to aid understanding of the connection between the two. Finally, a new map on economic geology has been added for the benefit of engineering students. A geological glossary helps students to understand and memorize key terms and a new, colorful, text design enlivens the appearance of this popular book.

Author Biography

Dr George M. Bennison, Chartered Geologist, formerly Senior Lecturer in Geology, University of Birmingham, UK Dr Paul A. Olver, Chartered Geologist, formerly Lifelong Learning Development Officer, Herefordshire Council, UK Dr Keith A. Moseley, Head of Physics and Geology, Monmouth School, UK

Table of Contents

List of platesp. vii
Preface to the current editionp. viii
Preface to previous editionsp. ix
Key to mapsp. x
Strata - the ground rulesp. 1
Horizontal stratap. 4
Contoursp. 6
Horizontal and vertical strata in the landscapep. 7
Geological mapsp. 7
Dipping stratap. 13
Structure contours (strike lines)p. 13
Construction of structure contoursp. 14
True and apparent dipp. 17
Calculation of the thickness of a bedp. 18
Width of outcropp. 18
Inliers and outliersp. 19
Exercises using geological survey mapsp. 22
Three-point problemsp. 23
Construction of structure contoursp. 23
Depth in boreholesp. 23
Insertion of outcropsp. 23
Unconformitiesp. 28
Overstepp. 30
Overlapp. 30
Sub-unconformity outcropsp. 33
Exercises using geological survey mapsp. 34
Foldingp. 35
Anticlines and synclinesp. 36
Asymmetrical foldsp. 38
Way-up criteriap. 43
Similar and concentric foldingp. 45
Two possible directions of strikep. 47
Exercise on published geological survey mapp. 51
Map solution without structure contours 1p. 52
Faultsp. 60
Normal and reversed faultsp. 60
The effects of faulting on outcropsp. 62
Classification of faultsp. 62
Calculation of the throw of a faultp. 65
Faults and economic calculationsp. 65
Wrench or tear faultsp. 69
Pre- and post-unconformity faultingp. 69
Structural inliers and outliersp. 71
Posthumous faultingp. 71
Isopachytesp. 71
"Exercises on published geological survey mapsp. 74
Map solution without structure contours 2p. 75
More folds and faulted foldsp. 85
Plunging foldsp. 85
Calculation of the amount of plungep. 86
The effects of faulting on fold structuresp. 86
Displacement of folds by strike-slip (wrench) faultsp. 89
Calculation of strike-slip displacementp. 90
Faults parallel to the limbs of a foldp. 90
Sub-surface structuresp. 90
Posthumous foldingp. 90
Polyphase foldingp. 91
Bed isopachytesp. 91
Exercises on geological survey mapsp. 95
Igneous and impact featuresp. 98
Lava flowsp. 98
Pyroclastic rocksp. 102
Concordant intrusionsp. 103
Discordant intrusionsp. 107
Impact featuresp. 113
Exercise on geological survey mapp. 113
Economic problemsp. 121
Complex structuresp. 134
Nappesp. 134
Thrust faultsp. 136
Axial plane cleavagep. 136
Description of a geological mapp. 137
The geological history of Map 45p. 137
Exercise on geological survey mapp. 138
Appendixp. 140
Glossaryp. 164
Indexp. 167
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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