Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics : Physical and Numerical Aspects

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-09-01
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science

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This book provides an introductory-level exploration of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), the principles governing air and water flows on large terrestrial scales. Physical principles are illustrated with the aid of the simplest existing models, and the computer methods are shown in juxtaposition with the equations to which they apply. It explores contemporary topics of climate dynamics and equatorial dynamics including the Greenhouse Effect, global warming, and the El Nino Southern Oscillation. *long-awaited second edition of the classic text *combines both physical and numerical aspects of geophysical fluid dynamics into a single affordable volume *includes CD-ROM with MatLab codes *explores contemporary topics such as the Greenhouse Effect, global warming and the El Nino Southern Oscillation *biographical and historical notes at the ends of chapters trace the intellectual development of the field

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Preface of the First Editionp. xvii
p. Fundamentals
Objectivep. 3
Importance of Geophysical Fluid Dynamicsp. 4
p. 6
Scales of Motionsp. 8
Importance of Rotationp. 10
Importance of Stratificationp. 12
Distinction between the Atmosphere and Oceansp. 14
Data Acquisitionp. 17
The Emergence of Numerical Simulationsp. 19
Scales Analysis and Finite Differencesp. 23
Higher-Order Methodsp. 28
Aliasingp. 33
Analytical Problemsp. 35
Numerica Exercisesp. 35
The Coriolis Force
Rotating Framework of Referencep. 41
Unimportance of the Centrifugal Forcep. 44
Free Motion on a Rotating Planep. 47
Analogy and Physical Interpretationp. 50
Acceleration on a Three-Dimensional Rotating Planetp. 52
Numerical Approach to Oscillatory Motionsp. 55
Numerical Convergence and Stabilityp. 59
Predictor-Corrector Methodsp. 63
Higher-Order Schemesp. 65
Analytical Problemsp. 69
Equations of Fluid Motion
Mass Budgetp. 77
Momentum Budget78
Equation of Statep. 79
Energy Budgetp. 80
Salt and Moisture Budgetsp. 82
Summary of Governing Equationsp. 83
Boussinesq Approximationp. 83
Flux Formulation and Conservative Formp. 87
Finite-Volume Discretizationp. 88
Analytical Problemsp. 92
Numerical Exercises
Equations Governing Geophysical Flows
Reynolds-Averaged Equationsp. 99
Eddy Coefficientsp. 101
Scales of Motionp. 103
Recapitulation of Equations Governing Geophysical Flowsp. 106
important Dimensionless Numbersp. 107
Boundary Conditionsp. 109
Numerical Implementation of Boundary Conditionsp. 117
Accuracy and Errorsp. 120
Analytical Problemsp. 125
Numerical Exercisesp. 126
Diffusive Processes
Sotropic, Homogeneous Turbulencep. 131
Turbulent Diffusionp. 137
One-Dimensional Numerical Schemep. 140
Numerical Stability Analysisp. 144
Other One-.Dimensional Schemesp. 150
Multi-Dimensional Numerical Schemesp. 154
p. 157
Numerical Exercisesp. 158
Transport and Fate
Combination of Advection and Diffusionp. 163
Relative Importance of Advection: The Peclet Numberp. 167
Highly Advective Situationsp. 168
Centered and Upwind Advection Schemesp. 169
Advection-Diffusion with Sources and Sinksp. 183
Multidimensional Approachp. 186
Analytical Problemsp. 196
Numerical Exercisesp. 198
Rotation Effects
Geostrophic Flows and Vorticity Dynamics
Homogeneous Geostrophic Flowsp. 205
Homogeneous Geostrophic Flows over an Irregular Bottomp. 208
Generalization to Nongeostrophic Flowsp. 210
Vorticity Dynamicsp. 212
Rigid-Lid Approximationp. 215
Numerical Solution of the Rigid-Lid Pressure Equationp. 217
Numerical Solution of the Streamfunction Equationp. 221
Laplacian Inversionp. 224
Analytical Problemsp. 231
Numerical Exercisesp. 233
The Ekman Layer
Shear Turbulencep. 239
Friction and Rotationp. 243
The Bottom Ekman Layerp. 245
Generalization to Nonuniform Currentsp. 247
The Ekman Layer over Uneven Terrainp. 250
The Surface Ekman Layerp. 251
The Ekman Layer in Real Geophysical Flowsp. 254
Numerical Simulation of Shallow Flowsp. 257
Analytical Problemsp. 265
Numerical Exercisesp. 267
Barotropic Waves
Linear Wave Dynamicsp. 271
The Kelvin Wavep. 273
Inertia-Gravity Waves (Poincaré Waves)p. 276
Planetary Waves (Rossby Waves)p. 278
Topographic Wavesp. 283
Analogy between Planetary and Topographic Wavesp. 287
Arakawa's Gridsp. 289
Numerical Simulation of Tides and Storm Surgesp. 300
Analytical Problemsp. 309
Numerical Exercisesp. 312
Barotropic Instability
What Makes a Wave Grow Unstable?p. 317
Waves on a Shear Flowp. 318
Bounds on Wave Speeds and Growth Ratesp. 322
A Simple Examplep. 324
Nonlinearitiesp. 328
Filteringp. 331
Contour Dynamicsp. 334
Analytical Problemsp. 340
Numerical Exercisesp. 341
Stratification Effects
Introductionp. 347
Static Stabilityp. 348
A Note on Atmospheric Stratificationp. 349
Convective Adjustmentp. 354
The Importance of Stratification; The Froude Numberp. 356
Combination of Rotation and Stratificationp. 358
Analytical Problemsp. 361
Numerical Exercisesp. 361
Layered Models
From Depth to Densityp. 365
Layered Modelsp. 369
Potential Vorticityp. 374
Two-Layer Modelsp. 374
Wind-Induced Seiches in Lakesp. 379
Energy Conservationp. 381
Numerical Layered Modelsp. 383
Lagrangian Approachp. 387
Analytical Problemsp. 390
Numerical Exercisesp. 391
Interna! Waves
From Surface to Internal Wavesp. 395
Internal-Wave Theoryp. 397
Structure of an Internal Wavep. 399
Vertical Modes and Eigenvalue Problemsp. 401
Lee Waves!p. 412
Nonlinear Effectsp. 416
Analytical Problemsp. 419
Numerical Exercisep. 421
Turbulence in Stratified Fluids
Mixing of Stratified Fluidsp. 425
Instability of a Stratified Shear Flow: The Richardson Numberp. 429
TurbulencelClosure: k-Modelsp. 435
Other Closures: k- ¿ and k-klmp. 449
Mixed-Layer Modelingp. 450
Patankar-Type Discretizationsp. 455
Wind Mixing and Penetrative Convectionp. 458
Analytical Problemsp. 466
Numerical Exercisesp. 467
Combined Rotation and Stratification Effects
Dynamics of Stratified Rotating Flows
Thermal Windp. 473
Geostrophic Adjustmentp. 475
Energetics of Geostrophic Adjustmentp. 480
Coastal Upwellingp. 482
Atmospheric Frontogenesisp. 490
Numerical Handling of Large Gradientsp. 502
Nonlinear Advection Schemesp. 507
Analytical Problemsp. 512
Numerical Exercisesp. 516
Quasi-Geostrophic Dynamics
Simplifying Assumptionp. 521
Governing Equationp. 522
Length and Timescalep. 527
Energeticsp. 530
Planetary Waves in a Stratified Fluidp. 532
Some Nonlinear Effectsp. 539
Quasi-Geostrophic Ocean Modelingp. 542
Analytical Problemsp. 546
Numerical Exercisesp. 547
Instabilities of Rotating Stratified Flows
Two Types of Instabilityp. 553
Inertial instabilityp. 554
Baroclinic Instability-The Mechanismp. 561
Linear Theory of Baroclinic Instabilityp. 566
Heat Transportp. 574
Bulk Criteriap. 576
Finite-Amplitude Developmentp. 579
Analytical Problemsp. 584
Numerical Exercisesp. 585
Fronts, jets and Vortices
Fronts and Jetsp. 589
Vorticesp. 601
Geostrophic Turbulencep. 611
Simulations of Geostrophic Turbulence Analytical Problems Numerical Exercisesp. 613
Analytical Problemsp. 618
Numerical Exercisesp. 621
Special Topics
Atmospheric General Circulation
Climate Versus Weatherp. 627
Planetary Heat Budgetp. 627
Direct and Indirect Convective Cellsp. 631
Atmospheric Circulation Modelsp. 637
Brief Remarks on Weather Forecastingp. 642
Cloud Parameterizationsp. 642
Spectral Methodsp. 644
Semi-Lagrangian Methodsp. 649
Analitical Problemsp. 652
Numerical Exertisesp. 653
Oceanic General Circulation
What Drives the Oceanic Circulationp. 657
Large-Scale Ocean Dynamics (Sverdrup Dynamics)p. 660
Western Boundary Currentsp. 669
Thermohaiine Circulationp. 673
Abyssal Circulationp. 677
Oceanic Circulation Modelsp. 681
Analytical Problemsp. 695
Numerical Exercisesp. 696
Equatorial Dynamics
Equatorial Beta Planep. 701
Linear Wave Theoryp. 703
El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO)p. 707
ENSO Forecastingp. 716
Analytical Problemsp. 720
Numerical Exercisesp. 721
Data Assimilation
Need for Data Assimilationp. 725
Nudgingp. 730
Optimallilnterpolationp. 731
Kalman Filteringp. 739
Inverse Methodsp. 743
Operational Modelsp. 750
Analytical Problemsp. 754
Numerical Exercisesp. 756
Web site Information
Elements of Fluid Mechanics
Budgetsp. 763
Equations in Cylindrical Coordinatesp. 768
Equations in Spherical Coordinatesp. 769
Vorticity and Rotationp. 770
Analytical Problemsp. 771
Numerical Exercisep. 772
Wave Kinematics
Wavenumber and Wavelengthp. 773
Frequency, Phase Speed, and Dispersionp. 776
Group Velocity and Energy Propagationp. 778
Analytical Problemsp. 781
Numerical Exercisesp. 781
Recapitulation of Numerical Schemes
The Tridiagonal System Solverp. 783
1D Finite-Difference Schemes of Various Ordersp. 785
Time-Stepping Algorithmsp. 786
Partial-Derivatives Finite Differencesp. 787
Discrete Fourier Transform and Fast Fourier Transformp. 787
Analytical Problemsp. 792
Numerical Exercisesp. 793
Referencesp. 795
Indexp. 815
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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GFD made easy October 20, 2011
This book provides an easy yet advanced introduction to both physical and numerical aspects in geophysical fluid dynamics. Style is very clear and leaves out unnecessary complexity. Content is modern and advanced and is helpful for oceanographers and meteoroligists
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Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics : Physical and Numerical Aspects: 5 out of 5 stars based on 1 user reviews.

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