Introduction to Human Factors Engineering

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-11-20
  • Publisher: Pearson

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This book describes the capabilities and limitations of the human operatorboth physical and mentaland how these should be used to guide the design of systems with which people interact. General principles of human-system interaction and design are presented, and included are specific examples of successful and unsuccessful interactions. It links theories of human performance that underlie the principles with real-world experience, without a heavy engineering-oriented perspective.Topics include design and evaluation methods; different systems such as visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, automated, and transportation; cognition, decision-making, and aesthetics; physiology; and stress, safety, accidents, and human error.An excellent reference for personnel and managers in the workplace.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
Introduction to Human Factorsp. 1
What Is the Field of Human Factors?p. 1
An Overview of the Bookp. 8
Research Methodsp. 10
Introduction to Research Methodsp. 10
Experimental Research Methodsp. 14
Descriptive Methodsp. 24
Ethical Issuesp. 28
Design and Evaluation Methodsp. 30
Overview of Design and Evaluationp. 31
Front-End Analysisp. 37
Iterative Design and Testingp. 50
Final Test and Evaluationp. 59
Conclusionp. 60
Visual Sensory Systemsp. 61
The Stimulus: Lightp. 62
The Receptor System: The Eyeball and the Optic Nervep. 66
Sensory Processing Limitationsp. 69
Bottom-Up Versus Top-Down Processingp. 74
Depth Perceptionp. 75
Visual Search and Detectionp. 78
Detectionp. 82
Discriminationp. 87
Absolute Judgmentp. 89
Conclusionp. 89
Auditory, Tactile, and Vestibular Systemp. 91
Sound: The Auditory Stimulusp. 91
The Ear: The Sensory Transducerp. 94
The Auditory Experiencep. 95
Alarmsp. 97
Sound Localizationp. 103
The Sound Transmission Problemp. 104
Noise Revisitedp. 110
Noise Remediationp. 112
The Other Sensesp. 116
Conclusionp. 119
Cognitionp. 120
Information Processing Modelsp. 121
Selective Attentionp. 122
Perceptionp. 124
Working Memoryp. 128
Long-Term Memoryp. 134
Situation Awarenessp. 144
Problem Solving and Troubleshootingp. 146
Planning and Schedulingp. 147
Metacognition and Effortp. 148
Conclusionp. 155
Decision Makingp. 156
Definition of Decision Makingp. 157
Decision-Making Modelsp. 157
Heuristics and Biasesp. 162
Dependency of Decision Making on the Decision Contextp. 170
Factors Affecting Decision-Making Performance: An Integrated Description of Decision Makingp. 173
Improving Human Decision Makingp. 177
Conclusionp. 183
Displaysp. 184
Ways of Classifying Displaysp. 185
Thirteen Principles of Display Designp. 186
Alerting Displaysp. 193
Labelsp. 193
Monitoringp. 195
Multiple Displaysp. 198
Navigation Displays and Mapsp. 208
Quantitative Information Displays: Tables and Graphsp. 213
Conclusionp. 217
Controlp. 218
Principles of Response Selectionp. 219
Discrete Control Activationp. 221
Positioning Control Devicesp. 222
Verbal and Symbolic Input Devicesp. 227
Voice Inputp. 229
Continuous Control and Trackingp. 231
Remote Manipulation or Teleroboticsp. 240
Engineering Anthropometry and Workspace Designp. 243
Human Variability and Statisticsp. 245
Anthropometric Datap. 248
General Principles for Workspace Designp. 258
Design of Standing and Seated Work Areasp. 266
Conclusionp. 268
Biomechanics of Workp. 269
The Musculoskeletal Systemp. 270
Biomechanical Modelsp. 273
Low-Back Problemsp. 276
Upper-Extremity Cumulative Trauma Disordersp. 289
Conclusionp. 296
Work Physiologyp. 297
Muscle Structure and Metobolismp. 298
Circulatory and Respiratory Systemsp. 302
Energy Cost of Work and Workload Assessmentp. 308
Physical Work Capacity and Whole-Body Fatiguep. 314
Conclusionp. 322
Stress and Workloadp. 324
Environmental Stressorsp. 326
Psychological Stressorsp. 329
Life Stressp. 333
Workload Overloadp. 334
Fatigue and Sleep Disruptionp. 340
Conclusionp. 349
Safety, Accidents, and Human Errorp. 351
Introduction to Safety and Accident Preventionp. 352
Safety Legislationp. 353
Factors That Cause or Contribute to Accidentsp. 356
Hazard Identification and Controlp. 369
Safety Managementp. 375
Risk-Taking and Warningsp. 378
Conclusionp. 382
Human-Computer Interactionp. 383
The Trouble with Computers and Software Designp. 385
Software Design Cycle: Understand, Design, and Evaluatep. 386
Understand System and User Characteristicsp. 387
Design Using Theories and Modelsp. 390
Design to Support Mental Models with Conceptual Models and Metaphorsp. 395
Design Using Principles and Guidelinesp. 396
Design of User Supportp. 404
Evaluate with Usability Heuristicsp. 406
Evaluate with Usability Tests and Metricsp. 406
Information Technologyp. 410
Conclusionp. 417
Automationp. 418
Why Automate?p. 419
Problems in Automationp. 422
Function Allocation Between the Person and Automationp. 428
Human-Centered Automationp. 430
Supervisory Control and Automation-Based Complex Systemsp. 433
Conclusionp. 435
Transportation Human Factorsp. 436
Automative Human Factorsp. 437
Automotive Automationp. 455
Public Ground Transportationp. 458
Conclusionp. 465
Selection and Trainingp. 466
Personnel Selectionp. 467
Performance Support and Job Aidsp. 473
Supporting People with Disabilitiesp. 476
Trainingp. 477
Training Program Designp. 487
Conclusionp. 491
Social Factorsp. 492
Types of Systemsp. 493
Groups and Teamsp. 494
Characteristics of Groups, Teams, and Crewsp. 494
Computer-Supported Cooperative Workp. 500
Macroergonomics and Industrial Interventionp. 503
Conclusionp. 505
Referencesp. 507
Author Indexp. 573
Subject Indexp. 581
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


We wrote this book because we saw a need for engineers and system designers and other professionals to understand how knowledge of human strengths and limitations, both mental and physical, can lead to better system design, more effective training of the user, and better assessment of the usability of a system. The knowledge and methods to accomplish these goals are embodied in the study of human factors engineering. As we point out in the early chapters, acost-benefit analysisof human factors applications in system design usually provides a favorable evaluation of those applications. Our intention in this book is to focus on the clear and intuitive explanation of human factorsprinciples.We illustrate these principles with real-world design examples and, where relevant, show how these principles are based on understanding of the human's psychological, biological, and physical characteristics to give the reader an understanding of why the principles are formulated. Because of our focus on principles, we intentionally do not spend a great deal of time addressing psychological theory or research paradigms and experiments. We trust that the reader will know that the principles we describe are indeed based on valid research conclusions, and where relevant we provide citations as to where that research can be examined. Also, we do not expect that this will be a stand-alone reference manual for applying human factors in design. Many specific numbers, values, and formulae, necessary for fabricating systems with human limitations in mind, were not included in this text in the interest of space. However, we point to ample references where designers can proceed to find these details. Because of the way we have structured the book, emphasizing design principles and methodologies over theory and research, our primary target audience is the engineering undergraduate, who may well be participating in the design process. Hence we do not assume that the reader will necessarily have had an introductory course in psychology, and so we try to present some of the necessary psychological fundamentals. We also believe, however, that the book will be useful for applied psychology or undergraduate-level engineering psychology courses within a psychology department. This usefulness derives in part, because the book demonstrates how many aspects of psychological science are relevant to the effective design of systems in the workplace and on the highway. Human factors is a growing field. In many small industries, personnel are assigned to the position of human factors engineer why have no formal training in the discipline. Thus we hope that the book will not only reach the academic classroom in both engineering colleges and psychology departments but will also be available as a reference for personnel and managers in the workplace. We believe that the strengths of this book lie in its relatively intuitive and readable style, which attempts to illustrate principles clearly, with examples, and without excessive detail and which points to references where more information can be obtained. We have also tried to strike a balance between presenting the human factors associated with different aspects of human performance on the one hand (e.g., physical limitations, display processing, memory failures) and particularly important domains of current applications on the other. For example, there are separate chapters devoted to the human factors of transportation systems and of human computer interaction. In the second edition, we have not made fundamental changes to content or organization. Professor John Lee of the University of Iowa Industrial Engineering Department has been added as a co-author. He is an expert in automation and highway safety research. In addition to addressing some of the shortcomings of the previous edition, revealed by its users, we have included new sections on a variety of to

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