9780205290437

Introduction to Learning Disabilities

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780205290437

  • ISBN10:

    0205290434

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
  • View Upgraded Edition

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

Purchase Benefits

  • Free Shipping Icon Free Shipping On Orders Over $35!
    Your order must be $35 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
  • eCampus.com Logo Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
List Price: $100.00 Save up to $25.00
  • Buy Used
    $75.00
    Add to Cart Free Shipping Icon Free Shipping

    USUALLY SHIPS IN 2-4 BUSINESS DAYS

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This text presents the latest information on the characteristics of persons with learning disabilities, the causes of their problems, and educational interventions to help them in school and work. The authors have reorganized the chapters into five parts, moving those chapters devoted to teaching to the end of the book. This new structure allows the readers to obtain a broad foundation regarding characteristics of learning disabled students before discussing educational methods. The strengths of the first edition are contained in the second: places an emphasis on research; contains practical and applied examples; and is written in a clear, concise manner. Building upon that success, the second edition includes: updated material on the 1997 reauthorization of IDEA; expanded coverage on ADHD; and the latest information on the biological causes of learning disabilities.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
PART ONE: THE FIELD OF LEARNING DISABILITIES 1(58)
1 Ongoing Issues and Themes
1(34)
What Is Learning Disabilities Like as a Field of Study?
3(3)
Interdisciplinary, International, and Multicultural
3(2)
Research Based: Both Basic and Applied and Quantitative and Qualitative
5(1)
How Has Learning Disability Been Defined?
6(4)
Kirk's Definition (1962)
7(1)
Bateman's Definition (1965)
8(1)
Task Forces I and II Definitions (1966, 1969)
8(2)
National Advisory Committee on Handicapped Children Definition (1968)
10(1)
How Is Learning Disability Defined Today?
10(5)
U.S. Office of Education Definition (1977)
10(2)
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities Definition (1981)
12(1)
Learning Disabilities Association of America Definition (1986)
12(1)
Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities Definition (1987)
13(1)
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities Revised Definition (1988)
13(1)
Individuals with Learning Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Reauthorized Definition (1997)
14(1)
The Two Most Popular Definitions: USOE and NJCLD
14(1)
How Well Do Test Score Discrepancies Indicate Learning Disabilities?
15(4)
Objections to Ability-Achievement Discrepancy
16(1)
Objections to Use of Formulas
17(1)
The Future of the Learning Disabilities Definition
18(1)
To What Extent Is Learning Disability a Social Construct?
19(1)
What Characteristics Should Be Included in the Category of Learning Disabilities?
20(3)
Wide Interindividual Differences
21(1)
Wide Intraindividual Differences
21(1)
Association with Other Disabilities
22(1)
Can Learning Disabilities Be Overcome?
23(1)
How Can the Impact of a Learning Disability Be Lessened?
23(1)
How Many People with Learning Disabilities Are There?
24(4)
Who Are People with Learning Disabilities, and What Is Their Representation?
28(4)
Ethnicity
28(3)
Gender
31(1)
Summary
32(3)
2 Causes
35(24)
What Causes Learning Disabilities?
36(5)
Historical Context
36(1)
Reluctance to Accept Neurological Causes
37(2)
Toward an Acceptance of Neurological Causes
39(2)
How Does the Brain Function?
41(7)
Neurons Send and Receive Messages
41(1)
Different Parts of the Brain Have Different Functions
42(4)
Left and Right Hemispheres
46(2)
How Can We Infer Neurological Dysfunction in Children?
48(3)
Research on Brain Lateralization
49(1)
Right-Hemisphere Brain Dysfunction
50(1)
What Factors Contribute to Neurological Dysfunction?
51(5)
Hereditary Factors
51(3)
Teratogenic Factors
54(1)
Medical Factors
55(1)
Environmental Factors
55(1)
What Should Educators Keep in Mind Regarding Causes?
56(1)
Summary
56(3)
PART TWO: EDUCATIONAL PLANNING FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES 59(95)
3 Educational Approaches
59(32)
Why Understand Educational Models of Learning Disabilities?
60(1)
What Educational Models Were Applied in the Past?
61(3)
Medical Approaches
61(1)
Diagnostic-Remedial Approaches
62(1)
Behavioral Approaches
62(1)
Influences of Historical Models
63(1)
How Is Behavioral Theory Applied?
64(6)
Applied Behavior Analysis
64(1)
Task Analysis
64(1)
Direct Instruction
65(5)
How Is Cognitive Theory Applied?
70(5)
Information Processing
71(2)
Metacognition
73(1)
Cognitive-Behavior Modification
74(1)
Mnemonic Instruction
74(1)
How Is Constructivist Theory Applied?
75(5)
Authentic Tasks and Experiences
78(1)
Socially Mediated Learning
79(1)
What Does Research Tell about Effective Practices?
80(4)
How Do Educational Models Relate to Contemporary Practice?
84(5)
Points of Difference
84(2)
Shared Emphases
86(3)
Summary
89(2)
4 Assessment
91(36)
What Are the Purposes of Assessment?
92(2)
What Are Two General Approaches to Assessment?
94(2)
Trait Assessment Approach
94(2)
Direct Measurement Approach
96(3)
What Are the Domains of Assessment?
96(3)
Language Abilities
97(1)
Mathematics Abilities
98(1)
Cognitive Abilities
98(1)
Social Skills
98(1)
Environmental Factors
99(1)
What Are Some Assessment Strategies?
99(15)
Neuropsychological Assessment
100(1)
Contextual Assessment
101(1)
Standardized Testing
102(3)
Teacher-Made Tests
105(1)
Curriculum-Based Assessment
106(1)
Behavioral Assessment
107(1)
Interactive Assessment
108(1)
Authentic Assessment
109(5)
What Are Some Issues in Assessment?
114(10)
Legal Issues
115(8)
Ethical Issues
123(1)
Summary
124(3)
5 Service Delivery Models
127(27)
What Laws Govern the Delivery of Special Education?
128(6)
Influence of IDEA on Service Delivery
128(6)
How Is Special Education Defined?
134(4)
Definition and Practice of Special Education
135(2)
Related Services
137(1)
Continuum of Alternative Placements
137(1)
What Are Some Service Delivery Models?
138(6)
Collaborative Consultation in the General Education Classroom
139(1)
Co-teaching in the General Education Classroom
139(1)
Special Education Resource Room
140(1)
Self-Contained Special Education Classroom
141(1)
Special Day School
141(2)
Residential School
143(1)
What Are Some Issues in Service Delivery?
144(3)
Teaching Students in Inclusive Settings
145(1)
Maintaining a Continuum of Alternative Placements
146(1)
What Is the Effectiveness of Service Delivery Models?
147(4)
Research Issues
148(2)
Final Note on Service Delivery
150(1)
Summary
151(3)
PART THREE: DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVES ON LEARNING DISABILITIES 154(79)
6 Parents and Families
154(28)
How Have Professionals' Views of Parents Changed?
155(2)
Reciprocal Effects
156(1)
Individualized Family Service Plans
156(1)
What Treatment Models Are Used with Families?
157(2)
Family Systems Approach
157(2)
Social Support Systems Approach
159(1)
What Are Some Current Trends in American Family Life?
159(5)
Family Unit
160(1)
Race, Ethnicity, and Language
160(3)
Socioeconomic Status
163(1)
What Is the Family's Role?
164(8)
Family Adjustment
164(2)
Family Values and Attitudes toward Learning
166(1)
Parents and Homework
167(5)
Parents as Advocates
172(1)
How Can Communication Be Enhanced between the Family and Professionals?
172(4)
Parent-Teacher Conferences
173(3)
School-Home Note Programs
176(1)
How Can Parents Use the Internet and World Wide Web as Resources?
176(3)
Summary
179(3)
7 Prevention and Intervention in Early Childhood
182(24)
How Can Learning Disabilities Be Prevented?
183(5)
Addressing Risk Factors in Infancy and Early Childhood
186(1)
Distinguishing Disabilities from Cultural Differences
187(1)
How Are Learning Disabilities Identified in Infancy and Early Childhood?
188(4)
Two Approaches to Early Identification
190(1)
Promises and Pitfalls of Early Identification
191(1)
How Is Early Childhood Intervention Provided?
192(5)
Popular Early Intervention Programs
193(1)
Legal Requirements of Early Intervention
194(1)
Evaluating Early Childhood Program Quality
195(2)
What Are Some Trends and Controversies in Early Childhood Education?
197(6)
Inclusive Education
198(1)
Developmentally Appropriate Practices
198(1)
Alternative Assessment
199(1)
Education for Transition
200(1)
Family-Based Education
200(3)
Summary
203(3)
8 Transition Programming in Adolescence and Adulthood
206(27)
What Are Learning Disability Outcomes across the Life Span?
208(1)
Higher Dropout Rates
208(1)
Higher Underemployment
208(1)
Greater Dependency on Others
209(1)
What Transition Programs and Services Are Available?
209(4)
Federal Initiatives
209(1)
Interagency Collaboration and Service Delivery
210(1)
Social Skills and Self-Advocacy Training
211(1)
Parental Involvement
211(2)
Vocational Training and College Preparation
213(1)
How Are Students with Learning Disabilities Prepared for College?
213(2)
Programming Goals for College Preparation
214(1)
How Can Students with Learning Disabilities Succeed in College?
215(4)
Guidelines for Choosing a College
216(1)
Predictors of Success in College
216(2)
Instructional Accommodations
218(1)
How Can Students with Learning Disabilities Prepare for the Work World?
219(2)
Programming Goals for Vocational Training
220(1)
School-Business Partnerships
221(1)
How Can Employers Encourage Success for Adults with Learning Disabilities?
221(4)
Workplace Accommodations
222(3)
How Can Employees with Learning Disabilities Succeed in the Workplace?
225(5)
Choose a Job That Is a Good Match
226(1)
Use Personal Contacts to Find a Job
226(1)
Become a Self-Advocate
226(1)
Develop Compensatory Strategies
227(1)
Take Advantage of Technology
228(1)
Gain Control over One's Life
229(1)
Summary
230(3)
PART FOUR: STRATEGIES FOR HELPING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES ADJUST AND ADAPT 233(57)
9 Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems
233(30)
What Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems Sometimes Coexist with Learning Disabilities?
235(4)
Problems of Social Competence
236(2)
Conduct Problems
238(1)
Other Emotional or Behavioral Problems
239(1)
What Causes Emotional and Behavioral Problems?
239(2)
How Are Emotional and Behavioral Problems Assessed?
241(10)
Systematic Screening
242(2)
Prereferral, Referral, Observations, and Record Keeping
244(1)
Confirmation of Eligibility
245(1)
Including Behavior Problems in the IEP
245(5)
Special Discipline Considerations
250(1)
What Interventions Can Help with Emotional and Behavioral Problems?
251(9)
Modifying the Learning Environment for Proactive Management
252(3)
Teaching Desired Behavior
255(3)
Discouraging Undesired Behavior
258(2)
Summary
260(3)
10 Cognitive, Metacognitive, Motivational, and Attention Problems
263(27)
What Cognitive and Metacognitive Problems Sometimes Occur with Learning Disabilities?
264(5)
Early Research--Cognitive Styles
265(1)
Recent Cognitive Research--Memory Abilities
266(1)
Metacognitive Problems
267(2)
How Can Cognitive and Metacognitive Needs Be Addressed?
269(6)
Self-Instruction
269(2)
Self-Monitoring of Academic Performance
271(1)
Mnemonic Strategies
272(1)
Metamemory Training
273(1)
Metacomprehension Training
274(1)
Scaffolded Instruction
274(1)
What Motivational Problems Occur and What Can Be Done about Them?
275(2)
External Locus of Control
275(1)
Negative Attributions
275(1)
Learned Helplessness
276(1)
Strategies for Improving Motivation
276(1)
What Attention Problems Sometimes Occur with Learning Disabilities?
277(7)
Early Work--Strauss Syndrome
278(1)
Selective Attention and Maintaining Attention
278(1)
More Recent Work--Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
279(5)
How Can Problems of Attention Be Addressed in the Classroom?
284(3)
Stimulus Reduction and Structure
284(1)
Functional Assessment
285(1)
Cognitive Training
285(2)
Summary
287(3)
PART FIVE: STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES IN KEY CONTENT AREAS 290(155)
11 Teaching Students with Oral Language Problems
290(37)
What Are the Major Dimensions of Language?
292(5)
Reception
292(1)
Expression
292(2)
Phonology
294(1)
Syntax
294(2)
Morphology
296(1)
Semantics
296(1)
Pragmatics
297(1)
How Does Language Develop Normally?
297(2)
What Are the Characteristics of Students with Oral Language Problems?
299(6)
Problems with Reception and Expression
300(1)
Problems with Language Systems
301(4)
How Are Oral Language Abilities Assessed?
305(8)
Comprehensive Assessments
306(4)
Specific Assessments
310(2)
Methods of Monitoring Progress
312(1)
How Can Oral Language Problems Be Addressed?
313(12)
Theoretical Approaches
313(5)
Psycholinguistic Interventions
318(3)
Task-Analytic Interventions
321(2)
Effective Practices
323(2)
Summary
325(2)
12 Teaching Students with Reading Problems
327(41)
What Are the Characteristics of Students with Reading Problems?
329(9)
Problems with Reading Performance
330(3)
Problems with Aspects of Language
333(5)
What Is the Prevalence of Students with Reading Difficulties?
338(1)
How Is Reading Performance Assessed?
339(9)
Comprehensive Measures
339(1)
Diagnosing Problems and Planning Programs
340(6)
Monitoring Student Progress
346(2)
How Should Beginning Literacy Be Taught?
348(9)
Code-Emphasis Approach
350(1)
Whole-Language Approach
351(1)
Effectiveness of Beginning Reading Approaches
352(3)
Emerging Synthesis in Beginning Reading Instruction
355(1)
Promoting Phonological Awareness
356(1)
How Should Reading Problems Be Corrected?
357(9)
Traditional Approaches
357(2)
Current Remedial Reading Instruction
359(3)
Instructional Strategies
362(4)
Summary
366(2)
13 Teaching Students with Writing Problems
368(45)
What Handwriting Problems Do Students Experience?
370(2)
Problems with Letter Formation
370(1)
Problems with Fluency
371(1)
Causes and Effects of Handwriting Problems
372(1)
How Is Handwriting Performance Assessed?
372(4)
Planning Handwriting Instruction
374(1)
Monitoring Handwriting Progress
374(2)
What Interventions Can Help with Handwriting Difficulties?
376(4)
Developmental Interventions
377(1)
Technology
378(1)
Effective Teaching Procedures
379(1)
What Spelling Problems Do Students Experience?
380(4)
Spelling Errors
382(2)
Effects of Spelling Problems
384(1)
How Is Spelling Performance Assessed?
384(4)
Standardized Assessment
385(1)
Planning Spelling Instruction
386(1)
Monitoring Progress in Spelling
387(1)
What Interventions Help Students' Spelling Difficulties?
388(8)
Developmental Interventions
388(4)
Remedial Interventions
392(1)
Technology
393(1)
Effective Teaching Procedures
394(2)
What Composition Problems Do Students Experience?
396(2)
How Is Composition Performance Assessed?
398(3)
Screening
399(1)
Planning Composition Instruction
399(1)
Monitoring Progress in Composition
400(1)
What Interventions Help Students with Composition Difficulties?
401(9)
Developmental Interventions
402(2)
Remedial Interventions
404(1)
Technology
404(1)
Effective Teaching Procedures
405(5)
Summary
410(3)
14 Teaching Students with Mathematics Problems
413(32)
How Does Mathematical Knowledge Develop Normally?
414(4)
What Problems in Mathematics Do Students Experience?
418(5)
Problems in Cognitive Development
419(1)
Problems in Arithmetic Performance
420(3)
How Are Mathematics Abilities Assessed?
423(8)
Achievement Tests
424(1)
Formal Diagnostic Testing
424(2)
Informal Inventories
426(1)
Error Analysis
426(1)
Monitoring Progress
427(4)
What Interventions Help Students with Mathematics Difficulties?
431(11)
Developmental Interventions
433(2)
Remedial Interventions
435(1)
Technology
435(3)
Effective Teaching Procedures
438(4)
Summary
442(3)
Glossary 445(8)
References 453(46)
Name Index 499(10)
Subject Index 509

Rewards Program

Write a Review