Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication Volume 5 of Modular Series on Solid State Devices

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-10-17
  • Publisher: Pearson

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This introductory book assumes minimal knowledge of the existence of integrated circuits and of the terminal behavior of electronic components such as resistors, diodes, and MOS and bipolar transistors. It presents to readers the basic information necessary for more advanced processing and design books.Focuses mainly on the basic processes used in fabrication, including lithography, oxidation, diffusion, ion implementation, and thin film deposition. Covers interconnection technology, packaging, and yield.Appropriate for readers interested in the area of fabrication of solid state devices and integrated circuits.

Table of Contents

An Overview of Microelectronic Fabrication
A Historical Perspective
An Overview of Monolithic Fabrication Processes and Structures
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Processes
Basic Bipolar Processing
The Photolithographic Process
Etching Techniques
Photomask Fabrication
Exposure Systems
Exposure Sources
Optical and Electron Microscopy
Further Reading
Thermal Oxidation of Silicon
The Oxidation Process
Modeling Oxidation
Factors Influencing Oxidation Rate
Dopant Redistribution During Oxidation
Masking Properties of Silicon Dioxide
Technology of Oxidation
Oxide Quality
Selective Oxidation and Shallow Trench Formation
Oxide Thickness Characterization
Process Simulation
The Diffusion Process
Mathematical Model for Diffusion
The Diffusion Coefficient
Successive Diffusions
Solid-Solubility Limits
Junction Formation and Characterization
Sheet Resistance
Generation-Depth and Impurity Profile Measurement
Diffusion Simulation
Diffusion Systems
Ion Implantation
Implantation Technology
Mathematical Model for Ion Implantation
Selective Implantation
Junction Depth and Sheet Resistance
Channeling, Lattice Damage, and Annealing
Shallow Implantation
Source Listing
Film Deposition
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Further Reading
Interconnections and Contacts
Interconnections in Integrated Circuits
Metal Interconnections and Contact Technology
Diffused Interconnections
Polysilicon Interconnections and Buried Contacts
Silicides and Multilayer-Contact Technology
The Liftoff Process
Multilevel Metallization
Copper Interconnects and Damascene Processes
Further Reading
Packaging and Yield
Wafer Thinning and Die Separation
Die Attachment
Wire Bonding
Flip-Chip and Tape-Automated-Bonding Processes
Further Reading
MOS Process Integration
Basic MOS Device Considerations
MOS Transistor Layout and Design Rules
Complementary MOS (CMOS) Technology
Silicon on Insulator
Bipolar Process Integration
The Junction-Isolated Structure
Current Gain
Transit Time
Breakdown Voltages
Other Elements in SBC Technology
Layout Considerations
Advanced Bipolar Structures
Other Bipolar Isolation Techniques
Processes for Microelectromechanical Systems—MEMS
Mechanical Properties of Silicon
Bulk Micromachining
Silicon Etchants
Surface Micromachining
High-Aspect-Ratio Micromachining: The LIGA Molding Process
Silicon Wafer Bonding
IC Process Compatibility
Answers to Selected Problems
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.


The spectacular advances in the development and application of integrated circuit (IC) technology have led to the emergence of microelectronics process engineering as an independent discipline. Additionally, the pervasive use of integrated circuits requires a broad range of engineers in the electronics and allied industries to have a basic understanding of the behavior and limitations of ICs. One of the goals of this book is to address the educational needs of individuals with a wide range of backgrounds. This text presents an introduction to the basic processes common to most IC technologies and provides a base for understanding more advanced processing and design courses. In order to contain the scope of the material, we deal only with material related to silicon processing and packaging. The details of many problems specifically related to VLSI/ULSI fabrication are left to texts on advanced processing, a4ough problem areas are mentioned at various points in this text, and goals of the international Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors are discussed as appropriate. Chapter 1 provides an overview of IC processes, and Chapters 2-6 then focus on the basic steps used in fabrication, including lithography, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation and thin film deposition, and etching. Interconnection technology, packaging, and yield are covered in Chapters 7 and 8. It is important to understand interactions between process design, device design, and device layout. For this reason, Chapter 9 and 10 on MOS and bipolar process integration have been included. Chapter 11 provides a brief introduction to the exciting area of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). Major changes in the second edition of this text include new or expanded coverage of lithography and exposure systems, trench isolation, chemical mechanical polishing, shallow junctions, transient-enhanced diffusion, copper Damescene processes, and process simulation. The chapters on MOS and bipolar process integration have been substantially modified, and the chapter on MEMS is entirely new. The problem sets have been expanded, and additional information on measurement techniques has been included. The text evolved from notes originally developed for a course introducing seniors and beginning graduate students to the fabrication of solid-state devices and integrated circuits. A basic knowledge of the material properties of silicon is needed, and we use Volume I of this Series as a companion text. An introductory knowledge of electronic components such as resistors, diodes, and MOS and bipolar transistors is also useful. The material in the book is designed to be covered in one semester. In our case, the microelectronics fabrication course is accompanied by a corequisite laboratory. The students design a simple device or circuit based upon their individual capability, and the designs are combined on a multiproject polysilicon gate NMOS chip. Design, fabrication, and testing are completed within the semester. Students from a variety of disciplines, including electrical, mechanical, chemical, and materials engineering; computer science; and physics, are routinely enrolled in the fabrication classes. Before closing, I must recognize a number of other books that have influenced the preparation of this text. These includeThe Theory and Practice of MicroelectronicsandVLSI Fabrication Principlesby S. K. Ghandi,Basic Integrated Circuit Engineeringby D. J. Hamilton and W.G. Howard,Integrated Circuit Engineeringby A.H. Glaser and G.E. Subak-Sharpe,Microelectronic Processing and Device Designby R.A. Colclaser,Semiconductor Devices--Physics and Technologyby S.M. Sze,Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Processing Technologyby W.R. Runyon and K.E. Bean, andThe Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabricationby Stephen A. Campbell. Thanks also go to the many colleagues who hav

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