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Introduction to Mineralogy

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ISBN13:

9780195106916

ISBN10:
0195106911
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/7/1999
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press, USA
List Price: $129.00

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Summary

Introduction to Mineralogy consolidates much of the material now covered in traditional mineralogy and optical mineralogy courses and focuses on describing minerals within their geologic context. It presents the important traditional content of mineralogy including crystallography, chemicalbonding, controls on mineral structure, mineral stability, and crystal growth to provide a foundation that enables students to understand the nature and occurrence of minerals. Physical, optical, and X-ray powder diffraction techniques of mineral study are described in detail, and common chemicalanalytical methods are outlined as well. Detailed descriptions of over 100 common minerals are provided, and the geologic context within which these minerals occur is emphasized. Appendices provide tables and diagrams to help students with mineral identification, using both physical and opticalproperties. Numerous line drawings, photographs, and photomicrographs help make complex concepts understandable. Introduction to Mineralogy not only provides specific knowledge about minerals but also helps students develop the intellectual tools essential for a solid, scientific education. Thiscomprehensive text is useful for undergraduate students in a wide range of mineralogy courses.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART I: CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY
Introduction
3(3)
Minerals
3(1)
Mineraloids
4(1)
Mineralogy
4(1)
Mineral Names
4(1)
General References on Mineralogy
5(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
5(1)
Crystallography
6(33)
Introduction
6(1)
Translational Symmetry
6(6)
Plane Lattices
6(1)
Space Lattices and Unit Cell
7(1)
Bravais Lattices and Crystal Systems
8(4)
Point Symmetry
12(2)
Reflection
12(1)
Rotation
12(1)
Inversion
12(1)
Compound Symmetry Operations
12(1)
Symmetry Notation
13(1)
32 Point Groups
14(3)
Steno's Law
15(2)
Measurement of Crystal Angles
17(1)
Determining Crystal System and Crystal Class
17(1)
Space Groups
17(2)
Crystal Faces
19(4)
Laws of Hauy and Bravais
19(1)
Miller Indices
19(1)
Indices and Crystal Axes in the Hexagonal Crystal System
20(2)
Determining Miller Index
22(1)
Assigning Miller Indexes by Inspection
23(1)
Crystallographic Directions
23(1)
Zones
23(1)
Crystal Forms
24(5)
Isometric Forms
24(1)
Nonisometric Forms
25(3)
Combining Crystal Forms
28(1)
Enantiomorphous Forms and Crystals
28(1)
Positive and Negative Forms
29(1)
Forms in the Six Crystal Systems
29(5)
Triclinic Crystal System
29(1)
Monoclinic Crystal System
30(1)
Orthorhombic Crystal System
30(1)
Tetragonal Crystal System
31(1)
Hexagonal Crystal System
31(2)
Isometric Crystal System
33(1)
Crystal Habit
34(4)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
38(1)
Crystal Chemistry
39(18)
Introduction
39(1)
The Nature of Chemical Elements
39(6)
Nucleus
39(1)
Electrons
39(2)
Formation of Ions
41(4)
Abundance of the Elements
45(1)
Chemical Bonding
46(7)
Valence-Related Bonding
46(5)
Relation among the Valence-Dependent Bonds
51(1)
Bonds Not Involving Valence Electrons
52(1)
Size of Atoms and Ions
53(3)
Oxidation State
54(1)
Coordination
55(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
56(1)
Crystal Structure
57(17)
Introduction
57(1)
Controls of Crystal Structure
57(8)
Structure Controls with Metallic Bonding
57(1)
Structure Controls with Covalent Bonding
58(1)
Structure Controls with Molecular Crystals
58(1)
Structure Controls with lonic Bonding
59(5)
Application of Pauling's Rules
64(1)
Illustrating Mineral Structures
65(1)
Isostructural Minerals
65(1)
Polymorphism
66(3)
Reconstructive Polymorphism
67(1)
Displacive Polymorphism
68(1)
Order-Disorder Polymorphism
68(1)
Polytypism
69(1)
Mineral Classification
69(1)
Compositional Variation in Minerals
69(2)
Substitutional Solid Solution
70(1)
Mineral Formulas
71(1)
Graphic Representation
72(1)
Binary Diagrams
72(1)
Ternary Diagrams
72(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
73(1)
Crystal Growth
74(23)
Introduction
74(1)
Mineral Stability
74(3)
Stability
74(1)
Gibbs Free Energy
75(1)
Mineral Reactions
75(2)
Mineral Nucleation
77(2)
Homogeneous Nucleation
77(2)
Heterogeneous Nucleation
79(1)
Crystal Growth
79(5)
Rate of Growth
80(1)
Zoned Crystals
81(3)
Structural Defects
84(6)
Point Defects
84(1)
Line Defects
84(2)
Planar Defects
86(1)
Twinning
87(3)
Postcrystallization Processes
90(4)
Ordering
90(1)
Twinning
90(1)
Recrystallization
91(1)
Exsolution
91(1)
Pseudomorphism
92(1)
Radioactivity and Minerals
93(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
94(3)
PART II: MINERAL PROPERTIES, STUDY, AND IDENTIFICATION
Physical Properties of Minerals
97(17)
Introduction
97(1)
Mass-Dependent Properties
97(2)
Density
97(1)
Specific Gravity
97(2)
Properties Related to Mechanical Cohesion
99(3)
Hardness
99(1)
Tenacity
100(1)
Cleavage
100(1)
Fracture
101(1)
Parting
101(1)
Color and Luster
102(6)
Light
102(1)
Perception of Color
102(1)
Mineral Luster
103(1)
Mineral Color
103(3)
Color from Mechanical Causes
106(1)
Consistency of Mineral Color
107(1)
Streak
107(1)
Luminescence
107(1)
Magnetism
108(2)
Diamagnetism
108(1)
Paramagnetism
108(2)
Ferromagnetism
110(1)
Ferrimagnetism
110(1)
Electrical Properties
110(2)
Electrical Conductivity
110(1)
Piezoelectricity
111(1)
Pyroelectricity
112(1)
Miscellaneous Properties
112(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
113(1)
Optical Mineralogy
114(46)
Introduction
114(1)
Light
114(2)
Light Waves
114(1)
Polarized Light
115(1)
Interaction of Light and Matter
116(2)
Optically Isotropic versus Anisotropic Materials
116(1)
Reflection and Refraction
117(1)
Dispersion
118(1)
Petrographic Microscope
118(3)
Illuminator
118(1)
Substage Assembly
118(1)
Microscope Stage
119(1)
Objective Lenses
119(1)
Upper Polarizer
120(1)
Bertrand Lens
120(1)
Oculars
120(1)
Focusing Mechanism
121(1)
Accessories
121(1)
Direction Conventions
121(1)
Isotropic Materials
121(1)
Anisotropic Minerals
122(8)
Interference Phenomena
122(4)
Use of the Interference Color Chart
126(1)
Extinction
127(1)
Function of Accessory Plates
127(3)
Optical Indicatrix
130(6)
Isotropic Indicatrix
130(1)
Uniaxial Indicatrix
131(2)
Biaxial Indicatrix
133(3)
Mineral Color and Pleochroism
136(1)
Isotropic Minerals
136(1)
Uniaxial Minerals
136(1)
Biaxial Minerals
137(1)
Extinction Angle and Sign of Elongation
137(2)
Extinction Angle
137(1)
Sign of Elongation
138(1)
Categories of Extinction
138(1)
Extinction in Uniaxial Minerals
139(1)
Extinction in Biaxial Minerals
139(1)
Interference Figures
139(12)
Uniaxial Interference Figures
140(3)
Biaxial Interference Figure
143(8)
Refractometry: Measurement of Index of Refraction
151(5)
Immersion Method
151(4)
Refractometry in Thin Section
155(1)
Isotropic Minerals
156(1)
Uniaxial Minerals
156(1)
Biaxial Minerals
156(1)
Reflected Light Optics
156(1)
Observation in Plane Polarized Light
157(1)
Observations with Crossed Polarizers
157(1)
Tactics for Mineral Identification
157(2)
Thin Section Identification
158(1)
Grain Mount Identification
158(1)
Polished Section Identification
159(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
159(1)
Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography
160(9)
Introduction
160(1)
X-Rays
160(2)
X-Ray Generation
160(2)
X-Ray Detection
162(1)
X-Ray Diffraction
162(1)
Powder Method
163(5)
Sample Preparation
163(1)
Instrumental Output
163(1)
Data Reduction
164(1)
Powder Diffraction File
165(1)
Bragg Reflection Indices
166(1)
Mineral Identification
166(1)
Mixed Samples
167(1)
Estimation of Relative Mineral Abundance
168(1)
Estimation of Composition
168(1)
Determining Unit Cell Parameters
168(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
168(1)
Chemical Analysis of Minerals
169(6)
Introduction
169(1)
Analytical Methods
169(3)
Wet Chemical
169(1)
Electron Probe Microanalysis
169(1)
X-Ray Fluorescence
170(1)
Mass Spectrometry
171(1)
Conventions in Reporting Chemical Analyses
171(1)
Conversion of Chemical Analyses to Structural Formulas
172(2)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
174(1)
Strategies for Study
175(8)
Introduction
175(1)
Mineral Identification Tactics
175(4)
Mineral Separation
175(2)
Hand Sample Identification
177(1)
Thin Section Identification
178(1)
Grain Mount Identification
179(1)
Polished Section Identification
179(1)
X-Ray Diffraction
179(1)
Mineral Association
179(1)
Problems in Paradise
180(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
180(3)
PART III: MINERAL DESCRIPTIONS
Silicates
183(18)
Introduction
183(1)
Silicate Structure and Classification
183(3)
Mafic versus Felsic
186(1)
Igneous Rocks
186(4)
Magmatic Processes
189(1)
Igneous Environments
189(1)
Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks
190(4)
Sedimentary Processes
191(2)
Sedimentary Environments
193(1)
Metamorphic Rocks
194(6)
Metamorphic Variables
194(2)
Metamorphic Processes
196(1)
Metamorphic Grade, Facies, Mineral Zone Boundaries and Isograds
196(2)
Major Compositional Groups of Metamorphic Rocks
198(1)
Metamorphic Environments
199(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
200(1)
Framework Silicates
201(34)
Introduction
201(1)
Silica Group
201(7)
Quartz
202(4)
Tridymite
206(1)
Cristobalite
207(1)
Opal
208(1)
Feldspar Group
208(17)
Composition
208(1)
Structure
209(1)
Al/Si Order/Disorder
210(2)
Exsolution in the Feldspars
212(1)
Other Feldspar Intergrowths
213(1)
Twinning
213(2)
Plagioclase
215(5)
K-Feldspar
220(5)
Feldspathoids
225(3)
Nepheline
225(2)
Leucite
227(1)
Sodalite
227(1)
Zeolite Group
228(4)
Scapolite
232(2)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
234(1)
Sheet Silicates
235(26)
Introduction
235(1)
Structure and Classification
235(4)
Layer Silicates
237(1)
Layer Silicates
237(2)
Polytypism
239(1)
TO Structures (1:1)
239(3)
Serpentine (Antigorite, Chrysotile, Lizardite)
239(3)
Kaolinite
242(1)
TOT Structures (2:1)
242(2)
Talc
242(1)
Pyrophyllite
243(1)
TOT + c Structures: Mica Minerals (2:1)
244(5)
Muscovite
244(2)
Biotite
246(2)
Glauconite
248(1)
TOT + c Structures: Brittle Micas (2:1)
249(2)
Margarite
249(1)
Clintonite
250(1)
TOT + O Structure
251(1)
Chlorite
251(1)
Clay Minerals
252(5)
Structure and Classification
253(2)
Geology of Clay
255(1)
Identification
256(1)
Uses
256(1)
Clay in the Environment
257(1)
Other Sheet Silicates
257(3)
Stilpnomelane
257(2)
Prehnite
259(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
260(1)
Chain Silicates
261(30)
Introduction
261(1)
Pyroxene Group
261(13)
Structure and Classification
261(2)
Geology of Pyroxenes
263(2)
Orthopyroxene
265(2)
Low-Ca-Clinopyroxene
267(1)
Calcic Clinopyroxene
268(1)
Aegirine (Acmite), Aegirine-Augite
269(2)
Jadeite
271(2)
Omphacite
273(1)
Spodumene
273(1)
Pyroxenoid Group
274(3)
Introduction
274(1)
Wollastonite
274(1)
Rhodonite
274(2)
Pectolite
276(1)
Amphibole Group
277(12)
Structure and Classification
277(2)
Geology of Amphiboles
279(1)
Orthoamphibole
280(2)
Cummingtonite-Grunerite
282(1)
Tremolite-Ferro-actinolite
283(2)
Hornblende
285(2)
Glaucophane-Riebeckite
287(1)
Other Amphiboles
288(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
289(2)
Disilicates and Ring Silicates
291(15)
Disilicates
291(9)
Structure and Classification
291(2)
Zoisite
293(1)
Clinozoisite-Epidote
294(3)
Alianite
297(1)
Lawsonite
298(1)
Pumpellyite
299(1)
Ring Silicates
300(5)
Structure and Classification
300(1)
Beryl
300(2)
Cordierite
302(1)
Tourmaline
303(2)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
305(1)
Orthosilicates
306(20)
Introduction
306(4)
Olivine Group
306(4)
Garnet Group
310(4)
Zircon
312(2)
Aluminum Silicates
314(11)
Andalusite
316(2)
Sillimanite
318(1)
Kyanite
319(1)
Staurolite
319(2)
Chloritoid
321(1)
Titanite
322(1)
Topaz
323(2)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
325(1)
Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Tungstates, Molybdates, and Borates
326(30)
Structure and Classification
326(1)
Carbonates
326(1)
Rhombohedral Carbonates (Calcite and Dolomite Groups)
327(8)
Calcite
329(2)
Magnesite
331(1)
Siderite
332(1)
Rhodochrosite
333(1)
Dolomite-Ankerite
334(1)
Aragonite Group
335(4)
Aragonite
336(1)
Witherite
337(1)
Strontianite
338(1)
OH-Bearing Carbonates
339(1)
Malachite
339(1)
Azurite
340(1)
Sulfates
340(6)
Gypsum
341(3)
Anhydrite
344(1)
Barite
345(1)
Phosphates
346(6)
Apatite
346(3)
Monazite
349(1)
Xenotime
350(1)
Tourquoise
351(1)
Tungstates and Molybdates
352(1)
Borates
353(2)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
355(1)
Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halides
356(22)
Introduction
356(1)
Oxides
356(1)
X2O Group
356(2)
Cuprite
356(1)
Ice
357(1)
XO Group
358(1)
XY2O4 Minerals
358(5)
Spinel Group
358(2)
Magnetite
360(1)
Chromite
361(1)
Spinel Series
362(1)
Chrysoberyl
363(1)
X2O3 Group
363(4)
Hematite
364(1)
Corundum
365(1)
Ilmenite
366(1)
XO2 Group
367(3)
Rutile
367(1)
Cassiterite
368(1)
Uraninite
369(1)
Hydroxides
370(4)
Brucite
371(1)
Iron Hydroxide Minerals
371(1)
Aluminum Hydroxide Minerals
372(1)
Manganese Oxide and Hydroxide Minerals
372(2)
Halides
374(3)
Halite
374(2)
Sylvite
376(1)
Fluorite
376(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
377(1)
Sulfides and Related Minerals
378(19)
Introduction
378(1)
Crystal Chemistry and Classification
378(1)
Sulfide Paragenesis
379(3)
Hydrothermal Deposits
379(1)
Supergene Processes
380(2)
Sulfide Minerals
382(12)
Sphalerite
382(3)
Galena
385(1)
Pyrrhotite
386(1)
Chalcopyrite
387(1)
Cinnabar
388(1)
Pyrite
389(1)
Marcasite
390(1)
Molyedenite
391(1)
Bornite
392(1)
Chalcocite
392(1)
Covellite
393(1)
Sulfarsenides
394(1)
Arsenopyrite
395(1)
Arsenides
395(1)
Tellurides
395(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
396(1)
Native Elements
397(30)
Introduction
397(1)
Metals
397(3)
Gold
398(1)
Silver
399(1)
Copper
400(1)
Semimetals
400(1)
Nonmetals
401(3)
Sulfur
401(1)
Graphite
402(1)
Diamond
403(1)
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
404(1)
APPENDICES
Appendix A. Effective Ionic Radii of the Elements
405(5)
Appendix B. Determinative Tables
410(13)
Table B.1. Determinative Table for Nonmetallic Minerals with White, Gray, or Other Pale Colored Streak
410(4)
Table B.2. Nonmetallic Minerals with Distinctly Colored Streak
414(1)
Table B.3. Minerals with Metallic and Submetallic Luster
414(1)
Table B.4. Specific Gravity
415(1)
Table B.5. Minerals That May Flouresce
416(1)
Table B.6. Color of Minerals in Thin Section and Grain Mount
416(1)
Table B.7. Indices of Refraction of Isotropic Minerals
417(1)
Table B.8. Indices of Refraction of Uniaxial Minerals
418(1)
Table B.9. Indices of Refraction of Biaxial Negative Minerals Arranged in Order of Increasing nβ
419(1)
Table B.10. Indices of Refraction of Biaxial Positive Minerals Arranged in Order of Increasing nβ
420(1)
Table B.11. Minerals That Produce Pleochroic Halos in Surrounding Minerals
421(1)
Table B.12. Colors Exhibited by Opaque Minerals in Polished Section Viewed in Air
421(1)
Table B.13. Opaque or Nearly Opague Minerals That Display Internal Reflections with Reflected Light
422(1)
Crystal Drawing Conventions
422(1)
Appendix C. Mineral Associations
423(4)
Table C.1. Mineralogy of Common Igneous Rocks
423(1)
Table C.2. Mineralogy of Sedimentary Rocks
423(1)
Table C.3. Mineralogy of Common Metamorphic Rocks
424(1)
Table C.4. Mineralogy of Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits
425(2)
Mineral Index 427(6)
Subject Index 433


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