Introduction to Physics in Modern Medicine, Second Edition

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2009-04-30
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Fully updated, this volume builds on the bestselling original to provide medical and physics students with an exploration of the physics-related applications found in state-of-the-art medical centers. Requiring very little physics, biology, or chemistry and keeping mathematics to a minimum, the application-dedicated chapters adhere to simple and self-contained qualitative explanations that make use of examples and illustrations. With an enhanced emphasis on digital imaging and computers in medicine, the text gives readers a fundamental understanding of the practical application of each. Supporting material includes an author-maintained website, and a solutions manual for qualifying instructors.

Table of Contents

Instructor's prefacep. xi
Student prefacep. xiii
Preface to the second editionp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Introduction and overviewp. 1
Suggested readingp. 8
Telescopes for inner space: Fiber optics and endoscopesp. 11
Introductionp. 11
Optics: The science of lightp. 15
How to see around cornersp. 15
Reflecting and bending lightp. 18
Why does light bend? The index of refractionp. 19
Optional: How lenses form imagesp. 23
Making pipes for lightp. 26
Fiber optics applications in medicine: Endoscopes and laparoscopesp. 33
Different types of endoscopes and their typical constructionp. 33
Some advantages and disadvantagesp. 42
Laparoscopic gallbladder removalsp. 43
New and future directionsp. 44
Robotic surgery and virtual reality in the operating roomp. 44
Telemedicine and military applicationsp. 46
Innovations on the horizonp. 48
Resourcesp. 49
Questionsp. 50
Problemsp. 50
Reflection and refractionp. 50
Total internal reflection and fiber opticsp. 50
Advanced problemsp. 53
Lasers in medicine: Healing with lightp. 55
Introductionp. 55
What is a laser?p. 56
More on the science of light: Beyond the rainbowp. 59
How lasers workp. 63
How light interacts with body tissuesp. 70
Laser beams and spatial coherencep. 72
Cooking with light: Photocoagulationp. 77
Trade-offs in photocoagulation: Power density and heat flowp. 78
Cutting with light: Photovaporizationp. 80
More power: Pulsed lasersp. 81
Lasers and colorp. 84
The atomic origins of absorptionp. 87
How selective absorption is used in laser surgeryp. 91
Lasers in dermatologyp. 95
Laser surgery on the eyep. 97
New directions: Lasers in dentistryp. 101
Advantages and drawbacks of lasers for medicinep. 102
New directions: Photodynamic therapy-Killing tumors with lightp. 103
New directions: Diffusive optical imagingp. 106
Suggested readingp. 108
Questionsp. 109
Problemsp. 110
Seeing with sound: Diagnostic ultrasound imagingp. 115
Introductionp. 115
Soundwavesp. 118
What is ultrasound?p. 121
Ultrasound and energyp. 124
How echoes are formedp. 125
How to produce ultrasoundp. 129
Images from echoesp. 132
Ultrasound scanner designp. 139
Ultrasound is absorbed by the bodyp. 143
Limitations of ultrasound: Image quality and artifactsp. 151
How safe is ultrasound imaging?p. 157
Obstetrical ultrasound imagingp. 161
Echocardiography: Ultrasound images of the heartp. 165
Origins of the Doppler effectp. 166
Using the Doppler effect to measure blood flowp. 171
Color flow imagesp. 173
Three-dimensional ultrasoundp. 174
Portable ultrasound-Appropriate technology for the developing worldp. 176
Suggested readingp. 178
Questionsp. 180
Problemsp. 181
Basic physics of sound wavesp. 181
Echo ranging and echo intensityp. 181
Absorption of ultrasoundp. 183
Sources of distortionp. 183
Doppler ultrasoundp. 184
Another useful source of problems on ultrasound imagingp. 185
X-ray vision: Diagnostic X-rays and CT scansp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Diagnostic x-rays: The body's x-ray shadowp. 190
Types of x-ray interactions with matterp. 191
Basic issues in x-ray image formationp. 198
Contrast media make soft tissues visible on an x-rayp. 206
How x-rays are generatedp. 210
X-ray detectorsp. 217
Mammography: X-ray screening for breast cancerp. 225
Digital radiographyp. 231
Computed tomography (CT)p. 238
Application: Spotting brittle bones-Bone mineral scans for osteoporosisp. 249
Suggested readingp. 252
Questionsp. 253
Problemsp. 255
Interaction of x-rays with matterp. 255
Contrast, contrast media, and x-ray absorptionp. 255
X-ray sources and detectorsp. 256
Images from radioactivity: Radionuclide scans, SPECT, and PETp. 259
Introduction: Radioactivity and medicinep. 259
Nuclear physics basicsp. 261
Radioactivity fades with time: The concept of half-livesp. 264
Gamma camera imagingp. 270
Emission tomography with radionuclides: SPECT and PETp. 278
Application: Emission computer tomography studies of the brainp. 290
Hybrid scannersp. 293
Suggested readingp. 295
Questionsp. 296
Problemsp. 297
Useful sources of problemsp. 298
Radiation therapy and radiation safety in medicinep. 299
Introductionp. 299
Measuring radioactivity and radiationp. 300
Origins of the biological effects of ionizing radiationp. 308
The two regimes of radiation damage: Radiation sickness and cancer riskp. 315
Radiation therapy: Killing tumors with radiationp. 329
New directions in radiation therapyp. 340
Suggested readingp. 343
Questionsp. 344
Problemsp. 344
Useful sources of more advanced problemsp. 345
Magnetic resonance imagingp. 347
Introductionp. 347
The Science of magnetismp. 350
Nuclear magnetismp. 356
Contrast mechanisms for MRIp. 367
Listening to spin echoesp. 374
How MRI maps the bodyp. 380
How safe is MRI?p. 386
Creating better contrastp. 390
Sports medicine and MRIp. 393
Magnetic resonance breast imagingp. 394
Mapping body chemistry with MR spectroscopyp. 396
Brain mapping and functional MRIp. 397
Suggested readingp. 401
Questionsp. 401
Problemsp. 402
Indexp. 405
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