Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare Empowering People

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-08-06
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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Zastrow's bestselling Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People, 10e offers a comprehensive overview of the profession as it examines contemporary society with a realistic view of social problems. By presenting positive strategies in the context of the core values, ethics, skills, and knowledge base of today's professional social worker, Zastrow encourages readers to think about new and realistic ways to solve problems and empower clients. Completely up to date, it also includes new coverage of human rights, the housing crisis and recession, President Obama's social welfare agenda, and much more.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
Social Welfare: Its Business, History, and Futurep. 1
Goal of Social Welfarep. 2
Social Welfare as an Institution and as a Disciplinep. 3
Social Welfare's Relationship to Sociology and to Other Academic Disciplinesp. 4
Social Welfare's Relationship to Social Workp. 5
Social Welfare's Relationship to Other Institutionsp. 5
Social Welfare's Relationship to Human Servicesp. 6
Residual View versus Institutional View of Social Welfarep. 6
Liberalism versus Conservatismp. 8
Developmental View of Social Welfarep. 9
History of Social Welfarep. 10
Early European Historyp. 10
The Elizabethan Poor Lawp. 10
The Industrial Revolutionp. 11
Turn of the 20th Centuryp. 12
The Great Depression and the Social Security Actp. 12
The Great Society and War on Povertyp. 15
Conservatism in the 1970s and 1980sp. 15
A Move toward Liberalism-and Back-in the 1990sp. 17
The Devolution Revolutionp. 17
Compassionate Conservatismp. 18
Barack Obama-Will Change Come?p. 18
Where Do We Stand Today?p. 19
The Futurep. 20
Dramatic Changes Foreseen in the American Familyp. 20
Biomedical Technologyp. 21
New Family Formsp. 28
Concluding Commentsp. 35
Summaryp. 36
Social Work as a Profession and a Careerp. 39
A Brief History of Social Workp. 40
A Multiskilled Professionp. 42
A Problem-Solving Approachp. 43
Generalist Social Work Practicep. 44
Micro-, Mezzo-, and Macropracticep. 45
Social Caseworkp. 45
Case Managementp. 45
Group Workp. 45
Group Therapyp. 46
Family Therapyp. 46
Community Organizationp. 47
Administrationp. 48
A Medical versus a Systems Model of Human Behaviorp. 48
An Ecological Model of Human Behaviorp. 49
Goals of Social Work Practicep. 51
Enhance the Problem-Solving, Coping, and Developmental Capacities of Peoplep. 51
Link People with Systems That Provide Them with Resources, Services, and Opportunitiesp. 51
Promote the Effectiveness and Humane Operation of Systems That Provide People with Resources and Servicesp. 51
Develop and Improve Social Policyp. 51
Promote Human and Community Well-Beingp. 51
The Strengths Perspective and Empowermentp. 52
Social Work Stereotypesp. 54
Employment Settings and Opportunities in Social Workp. 54
Private Practice of Social Workp. 55
International Social Workp. 56
Self-Awareness and Identity Developmentp. 59
Identity Formationp. 59
Questions for Arriving at a Sense of Identityp. 60
Summaryp. 61
Generalist Social Work Practicep. 64
Generalist Social Work Practice Definedp. 65
The Change Processp. 66
Educational Policy 2.1.10(a)-Engagementp. 66
Educational Policy 2.1.10(b)-Assessmentp. 67
Educational Policy 2.1.10(c)-Interventionp. 67
Educational Policy 2.1.10(d)-Evaluationp. 67
Engaging Clients in an Appropriate Working Relationshipp. 67
Identifying Issues, Problems, Needs, Resources, and Assetsp. 67
Collecting and Assessing Informationp. 68
Planning for Service Deliveryp. 68
Using Communication Skills, Supervision, and Consultationp. 68
Identifying, Analyzing, and Implementing Empirically Based Interventions Designed to Achieve Client Goalsp. 69
Applying Empirical Knowledge and Technological Advancesp. 69
Evaluating Program Outcomes and Practice Effectivenessp. 70
A Variety of Rolesp. 70
Enablerp. 70
Brokerp. 71
Advocatep. 71
Activistp. 71
Mediatorp. 71
Negotiatorp. 71
Educatorp. 71
Initiatorp. 72
Empowererp. 72
Coordinatorp. 72
Researcherp. 72
Group Facilitatorp. 72
Public Speakerp. 72
Social Work with Individualsp. 73
Social Work with Familiesp. 73
Family Problemsp. 73
Satir's Family Therapy Approachp. 74
Social Work with Groupsp. 76
Therapy Groupsp. 79
Social Work with Organizationsp. 81
Social Work with the Communityp. 87
A Brief History of Community Practicep. 88
Models of Community Practicep. 89
Knowledge, Skills, and Values for Social Work Practicep. 92
Educational Policy 2.1-Core Competenciesp. 92
Educational Policy B2.2-Generalist Practicep. 96
Educational Policy M2.2-Advanced Practicep. 96
Educational Policy 2.3-Signature Pedagogy: Field Educationp. 96
Social Work Valuesp. 96
Respect for the Dignity and Uniqueness of the Individualp. 97
Clients' Right to Self-Determinationp. 98
Confidentialityp. 99
Advocacy and Social Action for the Oppressedp. 102
Accountabilityp. 102
The Institutional Orientationp. 102
Respect for the Spiritual and Religious Beliefs of Othersp. 103
Promoting Social and Economic Justice, and Safeguarding Human Rightsp. 104
Social Work Educationp. 108
Two-Year Associate Programsp. 108
Undergraduate and Graduate Educationp. 108
Summaryp. 110
Social Problems and Social Services
Poverty and Public Welfarep. 113
The Problemp. 114
A Brief History of Our Response to the Poorp. 115
The Rich and the Poorp. 118
Defining Poverty Is a Policy Problemp. 120
Who Are the Poor?p. 122
Causes of Povertyp. 123
The Culture of Povertyp. 123
Functions of Povertyp. 125
Social Insurance Programsp. 126
Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI)p. 126
Medicarep. 127
Unemployment Insurancep. 127
Workers' Compensation Insurancep. 127
Public Assistance Programsp. 127
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)p. 129
General Assistancep. 129
Medicaidp. 129
Food Stampsp. 129
Housing Assistancep. 130
Temporary Assistance to Needy Familiesp. 131
Proposed Welfare Alternative Program: Family Allowance Programp. 132
Social Work and Public Welfarep. 132
Working with Discouraged Peoplep. 134
President Obama's Proposals to Combat Povertyp. 135
Summaryp. 136
Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Counselingp. 139
A Perspective on Emotional and Behavioral Problemsp. 140
Nature and Extent of Emotional and Behavioral Problemsp. 141
What Is Mental Illness?p. 141
Medical Modelp. 141
Interactional Modelp. 143
Labeling as the Cause of Chronic ""Mental Illness""p. 147
Other Issuesp. 150
The Homelessp. 150
Civil Rightsp. 151
Plea of Innocent by Reason of Insanityp. 152
Use of Psychotropic Drugsp. 153
Managed Mental Health Carep. 153
Social Structure and Mental Illnessp. 156
Treatmentp. 158
Brief Historyp. 158
Current Trendsp. 159
Treatment Facilities: Community Mental Health Centersp. 160
Social Work and Mental Healthp. 160
Counselingp. 162
How to Counselp. 162
Comprehensive and Specialized Counseling Approachesp. 166
Changing Unwanted Emotionsp. 168
Meaningful Activityp. 168
Changing Self-Talkp. 169
Changing the Distressing Eventp. 172
Destructive Ways of Dealing with Unwanted Emotionsp. 172
Summaryp. 172
Family Problems and Services to Familiesp. 176
Diverse Family Formsp. 177
The American Family: Past and Presentp. 178
The Family in Preindustrial Societyp. 178
The Family in Industrial Societyp. 179
Problems in the Familyp. 181
Divorcep. 181
Empty-Shell Marriagesp. 185
Violence in Familiesp. 187
Sexual Abuse of Childrenp. 201
Births Outside of Marriagep. 205
Rapep. 211
Summaryp. 216
Sexual Orientation and Services to GLBT Individualsp. 221
Sex in History and in Other Culturesp. 222
Formal Study of Sexp. 226
Sigmund Freudp. 226
Alfred Kinseyp. 226
William Masters and Virginia Johnsonp. 227
Variances Rather Than Sexual Problemsp. 228
Sexual Orientationp. 229
Some Definitionsp. 229
Myths and Facts about Gays and Lesbiansp. 230
Incidence of Homosexualityp. 234
Causes of Sexual Orientationp. 234
Life Experiences of Gays and Lesbiansp. 235
Current Issues for Gays and Lesbiansp. 240
A Brief Introduction to Transgenderismp. 242
Social Work with GLBT Individualsp. 242
Summaryp. 243
Drug Abuse and Drug Treatment Programsp. 247
Drugs and Drug Abusep. 248
A Brief History of Our Drug-Taking Societyp. 249
Sociological Theories of Drug Abusep. 250
Anomie Theoryp. 250
Labeling Theoryp. 251
Differential Associationp. 251
Drug Subculturesp. 252
Facts about and Effects of Commonly Used Drugsp. 252
Depressantsp. 252
Stimulantsp. 261
Hallucinogensp. 265
Tobaccop. 266
Marijuanap. 267
Anabolic Steroidsp. 268
Rehabilitation Programsp. 269
Alcohol Treatment Programsp. 269
Other Drug Treatment Programsp. 270
Understanding and Treating Codependencyp. 275
Suggestions for Curbing Drug Abuse in the Futurep. 276
Educational Programsp. 276
Prevention of Illegal Drug Trafficking across Bordersp. 277
Employee Drug-Testing Programsp. 278
Stricter Laws and Enforcementp. 278
Decriminalization of Drug Usep. 279
Summaryp. 280
Crime, Juvenile Delinquency, and Correctional Servicesp. 283
Nature and Extent of Crimep. 284
What Is Crime?p. 284
How Extensive Is Crime?p. 284
Who Is Arrested?p. 286
How Accurate Are Official Crime Statistics?p. 287
Crime Causation Theoriesp. 288
Early Theoriesp. 289
Physical and Mental Trait Theoriesp. 289
Psychological Theoriesp. 290
Sociological Theoriesp. 291
Usefulness of Theoriesp. 295
Types of Crimep. 295
Organized Crimep. 295
White-Collar Crimep. 297
Computer Crimep. 299
Hate Crimep. 300
Public-Order Crimesp. 300
Sex Offensesp. 301
Human Traffickingp. 301
Homicide and Assaultp. 302
Theftp. 302
Juvenile Delinquencyp. 304
The Criminal Justice Systemp. 306
The Policep. 306
The Courtsp. 307
Correctional Systemsp. 308
How to Reduce Crime and Delinquencyp. 313
Increasing or Decreasing Sentencesp. 313
Reforming the Correctional Systemp. 315
Preventing Crimep. 317
Social Work and the Criminal Justice Systemp. 319
Role of Social Workp. 319
Factors Influencing Treatmentp. 319
Summaryp. 321
Problems in Education and School Social Workp. 325
Problematic Areas in Educationp. 326
The Question of Qualityp. 327
Equal Access to Quality Educationp. 327
Confusion about the Goals of Educationp. 330
Intolerable Working Conditions for Some Teachersp. 331
Strategies to Improve Educationp. 333
Increase Incentives for Teachersp. 333
Improve the Curriculump. 334
Allow Parental Choice of Schoolsp. 334
Expand Preschool Programsp. 337
Toward Equal Educational Opportunityp. 338
Reform of School Financingp. 338
Compensatory Educationp. 339
Effective Integrationp. 340
President Obama's Proposals to Improve Educationp. 341
School Social Workers: A Response to Crisisp. 341
The Nature of Behaviorp. 342
Traditional School Social Work Rolesp. 343
Newer School Social Work Rolesp. 346
Summaryp. 352
Work-Related Problems and Social Work in the Workplacep. 355
A Brief History of Workp. 356
Trends in the American Workforcep. 357
Increase in White-Collar Workersp. 358
Emergence of an Employee Societyp. 358
Specializationp. 358
Increase in Women in the Workforcep. 359
Emphasis on Intrinsic Rewardsp. 359
Emphasis on High Technologyp. 359
The Growth of Low-Paying Jobsp. 360
Outsourcing in a Global Factoryp. 360
Problems in the Work Settingp. 361
Alienationp. 361
Unemploymentp. 364
Occupational Health Hazardsp. 370
Social Work in the Workplacep. 372
A Brief Historyp. 372
The Status of Social Work in the Workplacep. 373
Employee Assistance Programsp. 374
Summaryp. 376
Racism, Ethnocentrism, and Strategies for Advancing Social and Economic Justicep. 379
Ethnic Groups and Ethnocentrismp. 380
Race and Racismp. 381
Prejudice, Discrimination, and Oppressionp. 381
Racial and Ethnic Stereotypesp. 382
Racial and Ethnic Discriminationp. 383
Race as a Social Conceptp. 383
Institutional Racism and Institutional Discriminationp. 385
Immigration Statusp. 387
White Privilegep. 388
Causes of Racial Discrimination and Oppressionp. 388
The Effects and Costs of Discrimination and Oppressionp. 390
Stereotyping and Multiculturalism: A Perspectivep. 391
Background of Racial Groupsp. 392
African Americansp. 392
Latinosp. 396
Native Americansp. 399
Asian Americansp. 400
Strategies for Advancing Social and Economic Justicep. 402
Mass Media Appealsp. 402
Greater Interaction among the Racesp. 402
Civil Rights Lawsp. 402
Activismp. 403
School Busingp. 404
Affirmative Action Programsp. 405
Confrontation of Racist and Ethnic Remarks and Actionsp. 406
Minority-Owned Businessesp. 407
Grassroots Approaches to Improving Deteriorating Neighborhoodsp. 407
Ethnic-Sensitive Social Work Practicep. 409
Empowermentp. 409
Strengths Perspectivep. 409
Culturally Competent Practicep. 410
The Future of American Race and Ethnic Relationsp. 412
Summaryp. 414
Sexism and Efforts for Achieving Equalityp. 418
History of Sex Roles and Sexismp. 419
Sexual Harassmentp. 423
Traditional Sex-Role Expectationsp. 425
Is There a Biological Basis for Sexism?p. 426
Sex-Role Socializationp. 428
Consequences of Sexismp. 430
Effects on Occupation and Incomep. 430
Effects on Human Interactionsp. 432
Maternal Wallp. 434
Recent Developments and a Look to the Futurep. 434
President Obama's Proposals to Advance the Status of Womenp. 435
Sexism and Social Workp. 435
Social Work's Response to Women's Issuesp. 435
The Feminist Perspective on Therapyp. 438
Future Directions of the Women's Movementp. 442
Summaryp. 443
Aging and Gerontological Servicesp. 448
An Overviewp. 449
A ""Recently Discovered"" Minority Groupp. 449
A New View of Agingp. 450
Definitions of Later Adulthoodp. 451
An Increasing Older Adult Populationp. 452
The ""Old Old"" - The Fastest-Growing Age Groupp. 453
Problems Faced by Older Adultsp. 453
Low Statusp. 453
Early Retirementp. 455
Societal Emphasis on Youthp. 457
Health Problems and Costs of Health Carep. 457
Financial Problemsp. 459
Loss of Family and Friendsp. 461
Substandard Housingp. 462
Transportationp. 462
Crime Victimizationp. 462
Sexuality in Later Adulthoodp. 462
Malnutritionp. 463
Depression and Other Emotional Problemsp. 463
Deathp. 464
Parent Abusep. 465
Current Servicesp. 467
Older Americans Act of 1965p. 467
Nursing Homesp. 467
Social Work and Older Adultsp. 470
The Emergence of Older Adults as a Powerful Political Forcep. 471
Development of Social Roles for Older Adultsp. 472
Preparation for Later Adulthoodp. 474
Summaryp. 475
Health Problems and Medical Social Servicesp. 478
Physical Illnesses and the Health Care Systemp. 479
Problems in Health Carep. 480
Service Orientation versus Profit Orientationp. 480
Emphasis on Treatment Rather Than on Preventionp. 481
Unequal Access to Health Servicesp. 484
Low-Quality Health Care for Older Adultsp. 486
AIDSp. 486
Controversy over the Use of Life-Sustaining Equipmentp. 491
The High Cost of Medical Carep. 492
Financing Medical Carep. 493
Medicaidp. 494
State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)p. 494
Medicarep. 494
Private Insurancep. 495
Improving the Current Systemp. 495
Holding Down Costsp. 495
Preventive Medicine and Managed Carep. 495
Additional Health Care Proposalsp. 497
Establishing a National Health Insurance Program in the United Statesp. 497
President Obama's Proposals to Improve Health Carep. 498
Medical Social Workp. 498
Counseling the Terminally Illp. 502
Summaryp. 506
Physical and Mental Disabilities and Rehabilitationp. 509
History of Rehabilitation Practicesp. 510
Developmental Disabilitiesp. 513
Autismp. 513
Cognitive Disabilityp. 514
Society's Reactions to Disabilitiesp. 517
Current Servicesp. 518
Rehabilitation Centersp. 519
Educational Programsp. 520
Residential Programsp. 521
Day-Care Centersp. 521
Hospital Servicesp. 521
Home Servicesp. 521
Federal and State Assistance Programsp. 521
Roles of Social Workersp. 522
Counseling Clientsp. 522
Counseling Familiesp. 523
Taking Social Historiesp. 523
Serving as Case Managerp. 523
Serving as Liaison between the Family and the Agencyp. 523
Being a Brokerp. 523
Doing Discharge Planningp. 523
Empowering Consumers of Servicesp. 525
Summaryp. 527
Overpopulation, Misuse of the Environment, and Family Planningp. 530
The Population Crisisp. 531
Doubling Time and Population Growthp. 531
Doubling Time and Developing Countriesp. 532
An Optimal Population Sizep. 533
Problems of Overpopulationp. 534
The Theory of Demographic Transitionp. 539
Problem Attitudes and Valuesp. 540
Two Countries with Severe Population Problemsp. 540
Environmental Problemsp. 543
Despoilment of the Landp. 543
Waste Disposalp. 544
Global Warmingp. 544
Air Pollutionp. 545
Radioactive Leaks from Nuclear Power Plantsp. 546
Nuclear Warp. 546
Water Pollutionp. 547
Acid Rainp. 548
General Pollutantsp. 548
What Needs to Be Donep. 549
Confronting Overpopulationp. 549
The Abortion Controversyp. 551
Providing Family Planning Servicesp. 554
Confronting Environmental Problemsp. 556
Social Work and Family Planningp. 561
Summaryp. 562
Epiloguep. 567
Appendixp. 569
Glossaryp. 583
Name Indexp. 599
Subject Indexp. 603
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