Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1995-08-08
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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This book is designed to stimulate student interest in social work and to provide an experiential 'flavor' of what the fields of social welfare and social work are really like.

Author Biography

Charles Zastrow, MSW and PhD, is Professor in the Social Work Department, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Table of Contents

Introduction: Social Welfare and Social Workp. 1
Social Welfare: Its Business, History, and Futurep. 3
Goal of Social Welfarep. 4
Social Welfare as an Institution and as a Disciplinep. 5
Social Welfare's Relationship to Sociology and to Other Academic Disciplinesp. 6
Social Welfare's Relationship to Social Workp. 7
Social Welfare's Relationship to Other Institutionsp. 10
Social Welfare's Relationship to Human Servicesp. 10
Residual View versus Institutional View of Social Welfarep. 11
Liberalism versus Conservatismp. 12
Developmental View of Social Welfarep. 14
History of Social Welfarep. 16
Early European Historyp. 16
The Elizabethan Poor Lawp. 16
The Industrial Revolutionp. 17
Turn of the 20th Centuryp. 18
The Great Depression and the Social Security Actp. 18
The Great Society and War on Povertyp. 20
Conservatism in the 1970s and 1980sp. 22
A Move Toward Liberalism--and Back--in the 1990sp. 23
The Devolution Revolutionp. 23
Where Do We Stand Today?p. 24
The Futurep. 25
Dramatic Changes Foreseen in the American Familyp. 26
Biomedical Technologyp. 26
New Family Formsp. 34
Concluding Commentsp. 40
Social Work as a Profession and a Careerp. 44
A Multiskilled Professionp. 48
A Problem-Solving Approachp. 48
Generalist Social Work Practicep. 49
Micro-, Mezzo-, and Macropracticep. 49
Social Caseworkp. 49
Case Managementp. 49
Group Workp. 53
Group Therapyp. 53
Family Therapyp. 54
Community Organizationp. 54
Administrationp. 54
A Medical versus a Systems Model of Human Behaviorp. 55
An Ecological Model of Human Behaviorp. 56
Goals of Social Work Practicep. 58
Enhance the Problem-Solving, Coping, and Developmental Capacities of Peoplep. 58
Link People with Systems That Provide Them with Resources, Services, and Opportunitiesp. 58
Promote the Effectiveness and Humane Operation of Systems That Provide People with Resources and Servicesp. 58
Develop and Improve Social Policyp. 58
Empower Groups at Risk and Promote Social and Economic Justicep. 59
Develop and Test Professional Knowledge and Skills in Social Workp. 59
The Strengths Perspectivep. 60
Social Work Stereotypesp. 61
Employment Settings and Opportunities in Social Workp. 61
Private Practice of Social Workp. 63
International Social Workp. 63
Self-Awareness and Identity Developmentp. 64
Identity Formationp. 64
Questions for Arriving at a Sense of Identityp. 66
Generalist Social Work Practicep. 69
The Change Processp. 71
Defining Issuesp. 71
Collecting and Assessing Datap. 72
Planning and Contractingp. 72
Identifying Alternative Interventionsp. 72
Selecting and Implementing Appropriate Courses of Actionp. 73
Using Appropriate Research to Monitor and Evaluate Outcomesp. 73
Applying Appropriate Research-Based Knowledge and Technological Advancesp. 73
Terminationp. 74
A Variety of Rolesp. 74
Social Work with Individualsp. 76
Social Work with Familiesp. 77
Family Problemsp. 77
Satir's Family Therapy Approachp. 78
Social Work with Groupsp. 80
Social Work with Organizationsp. 89
Social Work with the Communityp. 94
A Brief History of Community Practicep. 95
Models of Community Practicep. 95
Knowledge, Skills, and Values for Social Work Practicep. 100
Knowledge Basep. 100
Skill Basep. 104
Value Basep. 107
Social Work Educationp. 118
Two-Year Associate Programsp. 118
Undergraduate Educationp. 118
Graduate Educationp. 119
Social Problems and Social Servicesp. 125
Poverty and Public Welfarep. 127
The Problemp. 128
A Brief History of Our Response to the Poorp. 128
The Rich and the Poorp. 132
Defining Poverty Is a Policy Problemp. 133
Who Are the Poor?p. 136
Causes of Povertyp. 138
The Culture of Povertyp. 138
Functions of Povertyp. 140
Social Insurance Programsp. 141
Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI)p. 141
Medicarep. 141
Unemployment Insurancep. 142
Workers' Compensation Insurancep. 142
Public Assistance Programsp. 142
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)p. 144
General Assistancep. 144
Medicaidp. 144
Food Stampsp. 145
Housing Assistancep. 145
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)p. 145
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Actp. 148
Proposed Welfare Alternativesp. 152
Offer Family Allowancesp. 152
Guarantee a Basic Annual Incomep. 152
Eliminate or Reduce the Causes of Povertyp. 153
Social Work and Public Welfarep. 154
Working with Discouraged Peoplep. 155
The Futurep. 156
Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Counselingp. 160
A Perspective on Emotional and Behavioral Problemsp. 161
Nature and Extent of Emotional and Behavioral Problemsp. 164
What Is Mental Illness?p. 164
Medical Modelp. 164
Interactional Modelp. 167
Labeling as the Cause of Chronic "Mental Illness"p. 172
Other Issuesp. 174
The Homelessp. 174
Civil Rightsp. 175
Plea of Innocent by Reason of Insanityp. 176
Use of Psychotropic Drugsp. 177
Managed Mental Health Carep. 177
Social Structure and Mental Illnessp. 179
Treatmentp. 180
Brief Historyp. 180
Current Trendsp. 182
Treatment Facilities: Community Mental Health Centersp. 182
Social Work and Mental Healthp. 183
Counselingp. 184
How to Counselp. 185
Comprehensive and Specialized Counseling Approachesp. 189
Family Problems and Services to Familiesp. 198
Diverse Family Formsp. 199
The American Family: Past and Presentp. 200
The Family in Preindustrial Societyp. 200
The Family in Industrial Societyp. 201
Problems in the Familyp. 203
Divorcep. 203
Empty-Shell Marriagesp. 209
Violence in Familiesp. 211
Births Outside of Marriagep. 226
Sexual Orientation, Sex Variances, and Sex Counselingp. 236
Sex in History and in Other Culturesp. 237
Formal Study of Sexp. 241
Sigmund Freudp. 241
Alfred Kinseyp. 242
William Masters and Virginia Johnsonp. 243
Variances Rather Than Sexual Problemsp. 243
Types of Sexual Variancesp. 244
Tolerated Sex Variancep. 244
Structural Sex Variance: Homosexualityp. 245
Asocial Sex Variancep. 253
Personal Sexual Concernsp. 263
Sex Counseling and Sex Therapyp. 263
Drug Abuse and Drug Treatment Programsp. 269
Drugs and Drug Abusep. 270
A Brief History of Our Drug-Taking Societyp. 271
Sociological Theories of Drug Abusep. 272
Anomie Theoryp. 272
Labeling Theoryp. 273
Differential Associationp. 274
Drug Subculturesp. 274
Facts About and Effects of Commonly Used Drugsp. 275
Depressantsp. 275
Stimulantsp. 286
Narcoticsp. 289
Hallucinogensp. 292
Tobaccop. 293
Marijuanap. 294
Anabolic Steroidsp. 295
Rehabilitation Programsp. 295
Alcohol Treatment Programsp. 295
Other Drug Treatment Programsp. 300
Understanding and Treating Codependencyp. 302
Suggestions for Curbing Drug Abuse in the Futurep. 302
Educational Programsp. 303
Prevention of Illegal Drug Trafficking Across Bordersp. 304
Employee Drug-Testing Programsp. 304
Stricter Laws and Enforcementp. 305
Decriminalization of Drug Usep. 305
The British Approachp. 306
Crime, Juvenile Delinquency, and Correctional Servicesp. 310
Nature and Extent of Crimep. 311
What Is Crime?p. 311
How Extensive Is Crime?p. 311
Who Is Arrested?p. 313
How Accurate Are Official Crime Statistics?p. 314
Crime Causation Theoriesp. 315
Early Theoriesp. 316
Physical and Mental Trait Theoriesp. 317
Psychological Theoriesp. 317
Sociological Theoriesp. 319
Usefulness of Theoriesp. 323
Types of Crimep. 323
Organized Crimep. 323
White-Collar Crimep. 325
Victimless Crimesp. 328
Sex Offensesp. 329
Homicide and Assaultp. 329
Theftp. 330
Juvenile Delinquencyp. 332
The Criminal Justice Systemp. 333
The Policep. 334
The Courtsp. 335
Correctional Systemsp. 337
How to Reduce Crime and Delinquencyp. 342
Increasing or Decreasing Sentencesp. 342
Reforming the Correctional Systemp. 345
Preventing Crimep. 347
Social Work and the Criminal Justice Systemp. 347
Role of Social Workp. 347
Factors Influencing Treatmentp. 349
Problems in Education and School Social Workp. 356
Problematic Areas in Educationp. 357
The Question of Qualityp. 357
Equal Access to Quality Educationp. 359
Confusion About the Goals of Educationp. 362
Intolerable Working Conditions for Some Teachersp. 363
Strategies to Improve Educationp. 364
Increase Incentives for Teachersp. 365
Improve the Curriculump. 365
Allow Parental Choice of Schoolsp. 368
Extend the School Yearp. 368
Toward Equal Educational Opportunityp. 369
Reform of School Financingp. 369
Compensatory Educationp. 370
Effective Integrationp. 371
School Social Workers: A Response to Crisisp. 372
The Nature of Behaviorp. 372
Traditional School Social Work Rolesp. 373
Newer Social Work Rolesp. 376
Work-Related Problems and Social Work in the Workplacep. 385
A Brief History of Workp. 386
Trends in the American Work Forcep. 387
Increase in White-Collar Workersp. 388
Emergence of an Employee Societyp. 388
Specializationp. 388
Changes in the Sex and Age of the Labor Forcep. 390
Emphasis on Intrinsic Rewardsp. 390
Emphasis on High Technologyp. 390
The Growth of Low-Paying Jobsp. 391
Problems in the Work Settingp. 392
Alienationp. 392
Unemploymentp. 398
Occupational Health Hazardsp. 404
Social Work in the Workplacep. 406
A Brief Historyp. 407
The Present Status of Social Work in the Workplacep. 408
Employee Assistance Programsp. 409
Racism, Ethnocentrism, and Strategies for Advancing Social and Economic Justicep. 414
Ethnic Groups and Ethnocentrismp. 415
Race and Racismp. 415
Prejudice, Discrimination, and Oppressionp. 416
Racial and Ethnic Stereotypesp. 417
Racial and Ethnic Discriminationp. 418
Race as a Social Conceptp. 418
Institutional Racism and Institutional Discriminationp. 419
Causes of Racial Discrimination and Oppressionp. 421
The Effects and Costs of Discrimination and Oppressionp. 423
Background of Racial Groupsp. 424
African Americansp. 425
Latinosp. 429
Native Americansp. 432
Asian Americansp. 434
Strategies for Advancing Social and Economic Justicep. 435
Mass Media Appealsp. 435
Greater Interaction Among the Racesp. 435
Civil Rights Lawsp. 436
Activismp. 436
School Busingp. 436
Affirmative Action Programsp. 438
Confrontation of Racist and Ethnic Remarks and Actionsp. 440
Minority-Owned Businessesp. 440
Confrontation of the Problems in Inner Citiesp. 440
Grassroots Organizationsp. 442
Ethnic-Sensitive Social Work Practicep. 442
Empowermentp. 444
Strengths Perspectivep. 445
The Future of American Race and Ethnic
Relationsp. 447
Sexism and Efforts for Achieving Equalityp. 452
History of Sex Roles and Sexismp. 453
Sexual Harassmentp. 458
Traditional Sex-Role Expectationsp. 460
Is There a Biological Basis for Sexism?p. 461
Sex-Role Socializationp. 462
Consequences of Sexismp. 465
Effects on Occupation and Incomep. 466
Effects on Human Interactionsp. 467
Recent Developments and a Look to the Futurep. 470
Sexism and Social Workp. 472
Social Work's Response to Women's Issuesp. 473
The Feminist Perspective on Therapyp. 474
Future Directions of the Women's Movementp. 480
Aging and Gerontological Servicesp. 485
A "Recently Discovered" Minority Groupp. 486
Definitions of Later Adulthoodp. 488
An Increasing Elderly Populationp. 490
The "Old Old"--The Fastest-Growing Age Groupp. 490
Problems Faced by the Elderlyp. 491
Low Statusp. 491
Early Retirementp. 495
Societal Emphasis on Youthp. 497
Health Problems and Costs of Health Carep. 498
Financial Problemsp. 498
Loss of Family and Friendsp. 499
Substandard Housingp. 502
Transportationp. 503
Crime Victimizationp. 503
Sexuality in Later Adulthoodp. 503
Malnutritionp. 504
Depression and Other Emotional Problemsp. 504
Deathp. 505
Parent Abusep. 508
Current Servicesp. 509
Older Americans Act of 1965p. 510
Nursing Homesp. 510
Social Work and the Elderlyp. 512
The Emergence of the Elderly as a Powerful Political Forcep. 513
Development of Social Roles for the Elderlyp. 514
Preparation for Later Adulthoodp. 515
Health Problems and Medical Social Servicesp. 519
Physical Illnesses and the Health-Care Systemp. 520
Problems in Health Carep. 521
Service Orientation versus Profit Orientationp. 521
Emphasis on Treatment Rather Than on Preventionp. 522
Unequal Access to Health Servicesp. 526
Low-Quality Health Care for the Elderlyp. 526
AIDSp. 528
Unnecessary or Harmful Carep. 534
Controversy over the Use of Life-Sustaining Equipmentp. 535
The High Cost of Medical Carep. 536
Financing Medical Carep. 537
Medicaidp. 537
Medicarep. 538
Private Insurancep. 538
Improving the Current Systemp. 539
Holding Down Costsp. 539
Preventative Medicine and Managed Carep. 539
Additional Health-Care Proposalsp. 541
Establishing a National Health Insurance Program in the United Statesp. 541
Medical Social Workp. 543
Counseling the Terminally Illp. 547
Physical and Mental Disabilities and Rehabilitationp. 553
History of Rehabilitation Practicesp. 554
Developmental Disabilitiesp. 557
Autismp. 557
Cognitive Disabilityp. 558
Society's Reactions to Disabilitiesp. 562
Current Servicesp. 563
Rehabilitation Centersp. 563
Educational Programsp. 564
Residential Programsp. 564
Home Servicesp. 565
Federal and State Assistance Programsp. 565
Roles of Social Workersp. 566
Counseling Clientsp. 567
Counseling Familiesp. 567
Taking Social Historiesp. 567
Serving as Case Managerp. 567
Serving as Liaison Between the Family and the Agencyp. 567
Being a Brokerp. 571
Doing Discharge Planningp. 571
Reactions to Having a Disabilityp. 571
The Grieving Processp. 571
Facilitating the Grieving Processp. 576
Overpopulation, Misuse of the Environment, and Family Planningp. 580
The Population Crisisp. 581
Doubling Time and Population Growthp. 581
Doubling Time and Developing Countriesp. 581
An Optimal Population Sizep. 583
Problems of Overpopulationp. 584
The Theory of Demographic Transitionp. 589
Problem Attitudes and Valuesp. 590
Two Countries with Severe Population Problemsp. 590
Environmental Problemsp. 593
Despoilment of the Landp. 593
Waste Disposalp. 595
Air Pollutionp. 595
Radioactive Leaks from Nuclear Power Plantsp. 597
Nuclear Warp. 597
Water Pollutionp. 599
Acid Rainp. 599
General Pollutantsp. 599
What Needs to Be Donep. 600
Confronting Overpopulationp. 601
The Abortion Controversyp. 602
Providing Family Planning Servicesp. 606
Confronting Environmental Problemsp. 609
Social Work and Family Planningp. 611
Your Future in Combating Human Problemsp. 614
Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workersp. 618
Photo Creditsp. 635
Indexp. 636
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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