An Introduction to Student-Involved Assessment FOR Learning

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-01-25
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Written for pre-service teacher candidates who have little or no classroom experience, Rick Stigginsrs" multiple award-winning and market-leading text focuses squarely on preparing new teachers to assess students in classrooms, providing them with their initial orientation to classroom assessment and to the challenges they will face in monitoring student learning, in using the assessment process, and its results to benefit their students. The text clearly instructs teaching candidates on how to gather dependable evidence of student learning using quality assessments and how to use those assessments to support and to certify student learning. The book has an exceptionally strong focus on integrating assessment with instruction through student involvement in the assessment process; it is clearly the most non-technical and hands on practical orientation to assessment validity and reliability yet developed. It offers five easy-to-understand keys to effective classroom assessment practice that any teacher can learn to apply. The presentation covers the full range of classroom assessment methods, when and how to use them and how to communicate results in ways that support learning. Examples and models are offered across grade levels and schools subjects to assist candidates in learning these things. The treatment of student-involved assessment, record keeping, and communication as an instructional intervention is a unique entity of the text. Specific assessment strategies are offered throughout for helping students see the learning target from the beginning and then watch themselves move progressively close over time until they achieve ultimate learning success. Showing how to use assessment to accurately reflect student achievement and how to benefitnot merely gradestudent learning, the text examines the full spectrum of assessment topics, from articulating targets, through developing quality assessments and communicating results effectively.

Author Biography

Rick Stiggins founded the Assessment Training Institute (ATI) in 1992 to provide much-needed professional development in assessment for teachers and school leaders. ATI can help assessment users at all levels learn how to (a) create high-quality assessments, and (b) use them in the service of student success. The most unique feature of the ATI philosophy remains our advocacy of and professional development in "assessment for learning"; that is, the use of student-involved classroom assessment, record keeping and communication to promote success for all students. The ATI programs, materials and services in classroom assessment for student learning are specifically designed to draw teachers and administrators into local learning teams to master principles of balanced assessment and assessment for learning. Rick is the author of numerous books, articles and papers on assessment practices in the classroom and its impact on students and student success.

Table of Contents

Brief Contents


Part I                Introduction to Student-Involved Assessment FOR Learning    

Chapter 1                   Classroom Assessment for Student Success    

Chapter 2                   Understanding Why We Assess    

Chapter 3                   Defining Achievement Standards for Assessment    

Chapter 4                   Designing Quality Assessments    


Part II               Understanding Assessment Methods    

Chapter 5                   Selected Response Assessment    

Chapter 6                   Essay Assessment    

Chapter 7                   Performance Assessment    

Chapter 8                   Personal Communication as Assessment    

Chapter 9                   Assessing Dispositions    


Part III              Communicating Assessment Results    

Chapter 10                 Managing and Communicating Achievement Information    

Chapter 11                 Report Cards: Assessments OF Learning    

Chapter 12                 Portfolios and Conferences Involve Students in Communication    

Chapter 13                 Communicating with Standardized Test Scores    

Appendix A            Derivation of Common Norm-Referenced Scores    

Appendix B             Rubrics for Evaluating Assessment Quality    




Detailed Contents

Part I          Introduction to Student-Involved Assessment FOR Learning    

Become a Reflective Learner    

Keep a Journal to Watch Yourself Grow    

Form a Learning Team or Study Group    

Companion Website    

Chapter 1            Classroom Assessment for Student Success    

Chapter Focus    

Our Classroom Assessment Responsibilities    

A Story of Assessment for Student Success    

Success from the Student’s Point of View    

The Keys to Success    

Some Students Aren’t So Lucky    

Other Potential Problems    

Anticipating and Avoiding Assessment Problems    

Understanding Assessment Validity    

Understanding Assessment Reliability    

The Changing Role of Assessment    

Your Assignment in Standards-Driven Schools    

Important Benefits to You    

A Fundamental Assessment Belief    

Assessment and Student Motivation    

Guides to Valid and Reliable Assessment    

Guiding Principle 1: Classroom Assessments Can Both Promote and Verify Student Learning    

Guiding Principle 2: Clear and Appropriate Achievement Targets Are Essential    

Guiding Principle 3: Accurate Classroom Assessment Is Essential    

Guiding Principle 4: Sound Assessments Communicate Results Effectively    

The Power of Student Involvement    

Summary: The Importance of Sound Assessment    

Practice with Chapter 1 Ideas    

Chapter 2            Understanding Why We Assess    

Chapter Focus    

The Big Assessment Picture    

Classroom Users and Uses    

Program-Level Users   

Institutional- or Policy-Level Users    

Generalizations Across Users and Uses    

Therefore, the Keys to Assessment FOR Learning    

Summary: Assessment for Many Purposes    

Practice with Chapter 2 Ideas    

Chapter 3            Defining Achievement Standards for Assessment    

Chapter Focus    

Validity from a Different Perspective    

Defining Achievement Targets    

The Benefits of Clear and Appropriate Targets    

Control Over Your Professional Success    

Student Academic Self-Efficacy    

Greater Efficiency    

Accurate Classroom Assessments    

Sources of Information About Achievement Standards    

State and Local Standards    

Your Local Written Curriculum    

Professional Networking    

Types of Achievement Targets    

Knowing and Understanding Targets    

Reasoning Targets    

Performance Skill Targets    

Product Development Targets    

Dispositional Targets    

Summary of Targets    

The Critical Standards—Classroom Targets Connection    

Deconstructing Standards    

Student-Friendly Targets    

Summary: Clear Targets Are Essential for Sound Assessment    

Practice with Chapter 3 Ideas    

Chapter 4            Designing Quality Assessments    

Chapter Focus    

The Assessment Options    

Selected Response Assessment    

Essay Assessment    

Performance Assessment    

Personal Communication as Assessment    

Keep the Options in Balance    

Design Feature 1: Matching Methods with Targets    

Important Things to Remember    

Assessing Knowledge and Understanding    

Assessing Reasoning Proficiency    

Assessing Mastery of Performance Skills    

Assessing Proficiency at Creating Products    

Assessing Dispositions    

The Other Key Features of Quality Assessments    

Design Feature 2: Build the Assessment of Quality Ingredients    

Design Feature 3: Sample Achievement Appropriately    

Design Feature 4: Minimize Bias    

Assessment FOR Learning    

Summary: A Vision of Excellence in Classroom Assessment    

Practice with Chapter 4 Ideas    

Part II         Understanding Assessment Methods    

Chapter 5            Selected Response Assessment    

Chapter Focus    

The Most Traditional Assessment Methods    

The Foundations of Assessment Quality    

Matching Methods to Targets    

Assessing Knowledge Mastery    

Assessing Reasoning    

Assessing Performance Skills    

Assessing Products    

Summary of Target Matches    

The Steps in Assessment Development    

Step 1: Preparing a Blueprint    

Step 2: Selecting the Specific Material to Assess    

Additional Thoughts on Steps 1 and 2    

Step 3: Building Test Items from Propositions    

Fine Tuning Assessment Applications    

Mix Formats    

Use Interpretive Exercises    

Format the Test Carefully    

Work Backwards to Verify Test Quality    

Some Final Issues and Reminders    

Barriers to Sound Selected Response Assessment    

Student Involvement in Selected Response Assessment    

Summary: Productive Selected Response Assessment    

Practice with Chapter 5 Ideas    

Chapter 6            Essay Assessment    

Chapter Focus    

Assessment Based on Subjective Judgment    

Essay Assessment at Work in the Classroom    

The Foundations of Assessment Quality    

When to Use Essay Assessment    

Understanding Reliability: The Role of Judgment in Scoring    

Matching Method to Targets    

Assessing Knowledge and Understanding    

Assessing Reasoning    

Assessing Performance Skills    

Assessing Product Development Capabilities    

Summary of Target Matches    

Developing Essay Assessments    

Practice Exercise    

Assessment Planning    

Exercise Development    

Developing Essay Scoring Procedures    

Barriers to Sound Essay Assessment    

Student Involvement in Essay Assessment    

Summary: Tapping the Potential of Essay Assessment    

Practice with Chapter 6 Ideas    

Chapter 7            Performance Assessment    

Chapter Focus    

Assessment Based on Observation and Professional   Judgment    

The Promise and Perils of Performance Assessment    

The Foundations of Quality    

When to Use Performance Assessment    

Performance Assessment Is a Matter of Judgment    

Understanding Reliability: Inter-Rater Agreement    

Matching Method to Targets    

Assessing Knowledge    

Assessing Reasoning    

Assessing Performance Skills    

Assessing Products    

Summary of Target—Performance Assessment Matches    

Developing Performance Assessments    

Never Lose Track of Your Purpose    

Defining Performance    

Devising Performance Tasks    

Fine Tuning Your Use of Performance Assessments    

Checking for Bias or Errors in Judgment    

Barriers to Sound Performance Assessment    

Think Assessment FOR Learning: Involve Students in Performance Assessment    

Summary: Thoughtful Development Yields Sound Assessments   and Energized Students    

Practice with Chapter 7 Ideas    

Chapter 8            Personal Communication as Assessment    

Chapter Focus    

Classroom Interaction as Evidence of Learning    

The Unique Power of Personal Communication    

The Foundations of Quality Assessment    

When to Use Personal Communication    

Understanding Validity and Reliability Issues    

Matching Method to Targets    

Assessing Knowledge and Understanding    

Assessing Reasoning    

Assessing Performance Skills and Products    

Summary of Target Matches    

The Many Forms of Personal Communication as Assessment    

Instructional Questions and Answers    

Conferences and Interviews    

Class Discussions    

Oral Examinations    

Journals and Logs: Naturals as Assessments FOR Learning    

Student-Involved Assessment FOR Learning    

Summary: Person-to-Person Assessment    

Practice with Chapter 8 Ideas    

Chapter 9            Assessing Dispositions    

Chapter Focus    

School Is Not Just About Academic Achievement    

Assessment FOR Learning Involves Student Dispositions    

Dispositions as Means to an End    

Remain Mindful of Standards of Assessment Quality    

But There Is One Critical Difference    

Two Very Important Ground Rules    

Ground Rule 1: Remember, This Is Personal    

Ground Rule 2: Stay in Bounds    

Defining Affect as It Relates to Dispositions    

School-Related Attitudes    

School-Related Values    

Academic Self-Efficacy    


Academic Aspirations    

Assessment Anxiety    

Dispositions, Student Confidence, and Assessment FOR Learning    

Variations in Dispositions    

Exploring the Assessment Options    

Matching Method to Targets    


Performance Observations as Assessments of Dispositions    

Personal Communication as a Window to Student Feelings    

Summary: Dispositions Can Help Us Boost Achievement    

Practice with Chapter 9 Ideas    

Part III        Communicating Assessment Results    

Chapter 10          Managing and Communicating Achievement Information    

Chapter Focus    

The Information Management Challenges    

The Conditions Underpinning Effective Information Management    

The Information Management Options    

When Planning for Information Management, Context Is Everything    

Information Management in Assessment FOR   Learning Contexts    

Informing Students About Themselves    

Diagnosing Student Needs    

Information Management in Assessment OF Learning Contexts    

Assigning Report Card Grades    

Other Assessment OF Learning Contexts    

The Challenges to Effective Information Sharing    

The Risk of Accountability    

The Challenge of Too Little Time    

What if the Receiver Can’t or Won’t Hear the Message?    

Removing the Barriers    

The Communication Options    

Report Cards    

Portfolios of Student Work    

Conferences About Student Achievement    

Test Scores    

Summary of Options    

The Conditions Underpinning Effective Information Sharing    

Agreeing on the Focus of the Communication    

Gathering Accurate Evidence    

Using Symbols with Shared Meaning    

Managing the Communication Environment    

Customs to Rethink    

Think Communication FOR Learning    

Summary: Communication Is Key to Achievement    

Practice with Chapter 10 Ideas    

Chapter 11          Report Cards: Assessments OF Learning    

Chapter Focus    

Report Card Grading    

Understanding Our Current Grading Environment    

Communicate About What?    

Achievement as a Grading Factor    

Aptitude as a Grading Factor    

Effort as a Grading Factor    

Compliance as a Grading Factor    

Attitude as a Grading Factor    

Summary of Grading Factors    

Gathering Achievement Information for Grading Purposes    

Step 1: Spelling Out the Big Achievement Picture    

Step 2: Turning Your Big Picture into an Assessment Plan    

Step 3: From a Plan to Actual Assessments    

Step 4: Summarizing the Resulting Information    

Step 5: Converting Composite Achievement Scores to a Grade    

Report Cards That Deliver Greater Detail    

Standards-Based Reporting    

Narrative Reporting    

Continuous-Progress Reporting    

Summary: Communicating with Report Cards    

Practice with Chapter 11 Ideas    

Chapter 12          Portfolios and Conferences Involve Students in Communication    

Chapter Focus    

Student-Involved Communication Part 1: Portfolios    

Portfolios Provide the Details    

Benefits for Teachers and Students    

Maintaining Perspective    

Keys to Successful Use    

Portfolios as Assessment FOR Learning Tools    

Dealing with Some Practicalities    

Student-Involved Communication Part 2: Conferences    

A Productive Experience for All    

Necessary Conditions    

Conference Formats That Enhance Communication and Learning    

Student-Teacher Conferences    

Parent-Teacher Conferences    

Student-Led Parent Conferences    

Communication FOR Learning    

Summary: Student-Involved Communication    

Practice with Chapter 12 Ideas    

Chapter 13          Communicating with Standardized Test Scores    

Chapter Focus    

Tests That Produce Comparable Results    

The Meaning of Scores    

The Various Layers of Standardized Testing    

The Result: Troubling Contradictions    

Addressing the Contradictions: A Guiding Philosophy    

Standardized Test Development    

Step 1: Clarify Targets    

Step 2: Translate Targets into Assessments    

Step 3: Develop Test Items    

Step 4: Assemble Test and Evaluate for Appropriateness    

Step 5: Administer Test to Establish Norms (Norm-Referenced Tests)    

Setting Standards of Acceptable Performance (Criterion-Referenced Tests)    

Interpretation of Commonly Used Test Scores    

Scores Reported on State Assessments    

Scores Reported on Commercial Norm-Referenced Tests    

Real-World Test Score Interpretation    

Implications for Teachers    

Above All, Protect the Well-Being of Your Students!    

Also, Build Community Awareness    

Finally, Maintain Perspective    

Summary: Meeting the Challenges of Standardized Testing    

The End of Our Studies Together    

Practice with Chapter 13 Ideas    

Appendix A            Derivation of Common Norm-Referenced Scores    

Appendix B             Rubrics for Evaluating Assessment Quality    




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Excellent text on assessment August 17, 2011
This is a great textbook that truly opens one's eyes to the world of [censored]sment. The format of the textbook is approachable and the information is immediately useful. Stiggins does a great job of breaking different types of [censored]sment down into his chapters. I would definitely recommend this textbook to any educator!
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An Introduction to Student-Involved Assessment FOR Learning: 4 out of 5 stars based on 1 user reviews.

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