Introduction to Tribology

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-04-01
  • Publisher: Wiley

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A fully updated version of the popular Introduction to Tribology, this book introduces MEMS, nanotribology and magnetic surface storage technologies as well as the breakthroughs in tribology at the nano- and micro- level. Considerations of friction and wear have been fully revised to include recent analysis and data work at the nanoscale level. Friction mechanisms have also been reapproached in light of current developments. Wear mechanisms are also given particular focus and reassessed from current viewpoint. Since the publication of the first edition, Micro- and Nano-tribology has grown substantially and so significant new work on friction, wear and lubrication on nanoscale using atomic force microscopy is approached. Readers are also given an introduction to new significant modeling work in these areas. Furthermore, tribological components and applications and details on micro- nano-components and their applications in bio- and nano-technology give the book an additional dimension.

Author Biography

Dr Bhushan is Ohio Eminent Scholar and The Howard D. Winbigler Professor as well as Director of the Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics at The Ohio State University. During his career he has received a number of awards and accolades as well as being central to teaching and formulating the curriculum in Tribology-related topics.  He is a Fellow and Life Member of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, as well as various other professional societies.

Table of Contents



1. Introduction

1.1 Definition and History of Tribology

1.2 Industrial Significance of Tribology

1.3 Origins and Significance of Micro/Nanotribology

1.4 Organization of the Book

2. Solid Surface Characterization

2.1 The Nature of Surfaces

2.2 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Surface Layers

2.2.1 Deformed Layer

2.2.2 Chemically Reacted Layer

2.2.3 Physisorbed Layer

2.2.4 Chemisorbed Layer

2.2.5 Methods of Characterization of Surface Layers

2.3 Analysis of Surface Roughness

2.3.1 Average Roughness Parameters

2.3.2 Statistical Analyses

2.3.3 Fractal Characterization

2.3.4 Practical Considerations in Measurement of Roughness Parameters

2.4 Measurement of Surface Roughness

2.4.1 Mechanical Stylus Method

2.4.2 Optical Methods

2.4.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) Methods

2.4.4 Fluid Methods

2.4.5 Electrical Method

2.4.6 Electron Microscopy Methods

2.4.7 Analysis of Measured Height Distribution

2.4.8 Comparison of Measurement Methods

2.5 Closure


3. Contact Between Solid Surfaces

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Analysis of the Contacts

3.2.1 Single Asperity Contact of Homogeneous and Frictionless Solids

3.2.2 Single Asperity Contact of Layered Solids in Frictionless and Frictional


3.2.3 Multiple Asperity Dry Contacts

3.3 Measurement of the Real Area of Contact

3.3.1 Measurement Techniques

3.3.2 Typical Measurements

3.4 Closure


4. Adhesion

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Solid-Solid Contact

4.2.1 Covalent Bond

4.2.2 Ionic or Electrostatic Bond

4.2.3 Metallic Bond

4.2.4 Hydrogen Bonds

4.2.5 van der Waals Bond

4.2.6 Free Surface Energy Theory of Adhesion

4.2.7 Polymer Adhesion

4.3 Liquid-Mediated Contact

4.3.1 Idealized Geometries

4.3.2 Multiple – Asperity Contacts

4.4 Closure


5. Friction

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Solid-Solid Contact

5.2.1 Rules of Sliding Friction

5.2.2 Basic Mechanisms of Sliding Friction

5.2.3 Other Mechanisms of Sliding Friction

5.2.4 Friction Transitions During Sliding

5.2.5 Static Friction

5.2.6 Stick-slip

5.2.7 Rolling Friction

5.3 Liquid Mediated Contact

5.4 Friction of Materials

5.4.1 Friction of Metals and Alloys

5.4.2 Friction of Ceramics

5.4.3 Friction of Polymers

5.4.4 Friction of Solid Lubricants

5.5 Closure


6. Interface Temperature of Sliding Surfaces

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Thermal Analysis

6.2.1 Fundamental Heat Conduction Solutions

6.2.2 High Contact-Stress Condition (Ar/Aa ~ 1) (Individual Contact)

6.2.3 Low Contact-Stress Condition (Ar/Aa << 1) (Multiple Asperity Contact)

6.3 Interface Temperature Measurements

6.3.1 Thermocouple and Thin-Film Temperature Sensors

6.3.2 Radiation Detection Techniques

6.3.3 Metallographic Techniques

6.3.4 Liquid Crystals

6.4 Closure


7. Wear

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Types of Wear Mechanisms

7.2.1 Adhesive Wear

7.2.2 Abrasive Wear (by Plastic Deformation and Fracture)

7.2.3 Fatigue Wear

7.2.4 Impact Wear

7.2.5 Chemical (Corrosive) Wear

7.2.6 Electrical-Arc-Induced Wear

7.2.7 Fretting and Fretting Corrosion

7.3 Types of Particles Present in Wear Debris

7.3.1 Plate-Shaped Particles

7.3.2 Ribbon-Shaped Particles

7.3.3 Spherical Particles

7.3.4 Irregularly Shaped Particles

7.4 Wear of Materials

7.4.1 Wear of Metals and Alloys

7.4.2 Wear of Ceramics

7.4.3 Wear of Polymers

7.5 Closure


8. Fluid Film Lubrication

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Regimes of Fluid Film Lubrication

8.2.1 Hydrostatic Lubrication

8.2.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication

8.2.3 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

8.2.4 Mixed Lubrication

8.2.5 Boundary Lubrication

8.3 Viscous Flow and Reynolds Equations

8.3.1 Viscosity and Newtonian Fluids

8.3.2 Fluid Flow

8.4 Hydrostatic Lubrication

8.5 Hydrodynamic Lubrication

8.5.1 Thrust Bearings

8.5.2 Journal Bearings

8.5.3 Squeeze Film Bearings

8.5.4 Gas-Lubricated Bearings

8.6 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

8.6.1 Forms of Contacts

8.6.2 Line Contact

8.6.3 Point Contact

8.6.4 Thermal Correction

8.6.5 Lubricant Rheology

8.7 Closure


9. Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Boundary Lubrication

9.2.1 Effect of Adsorbed Gases

9.2.2 Effect of Monolayers and Multilayers

9.2.3 Effect of Chemical Films

9.2.4 Effect of Chain Length (or Molecular Weight)

9.3 Liquid Lubricants

9.3.1 Principal Classes of Lubricants

9.3.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Lubricants

9.3.3 Additives

9.4 Greases

9.5 Closure


10. Nanotribology

10.1 Introduction

10.2 SFA Studies

10.2.1 Description of an SFA

10.2.2 Static (Equilibrium), Dynamic and Shear Properties of Molecularly Thin

Liquid Films

10.3 AFM/FFM Studies

10.3.1 Description of AFM/FFM and Various Measurement Techniques

10.3.2 Surface Imaging, Friction and Adhesion

10.3.3 Wear, Scratching, Local Deformation, and Fabrication/Machining

10.3.4 Indentation

10.3.5 Boundary Lubrication

10.4 Atomic-Scale Computer Simulations

10.4.1 Interatomic Forces and Equations of Motion

10.4.2 Interfacial Solid Junctions

10.4.3 Interfacial Liquid Junctions and Confined Films

10.5 Closure


11. Friction and Wear Screening Test Methods

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Design Methodology

11.2.1 Simulation

11.2.2 Acceleration

11.2.3 Specimen Preparation

11.2.4 Friction and Wear Measurements

11.3 Typical Test Geometries

11.3.1 Sliding Friction and Wear Tests

11.3.2 Abrasion Tests

11.3.3 Rolling-Contact Fatigue Tests

11.3.4 Solid-Particle Erosion Test

11.3.5 Corrosion Tests

11.4 Closure


12. Tribological Components and Applications

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Common Tribological Components

12.2.1 Sliding-Contact Bearings

12.2.2 Rolling-Contact Bearings

12.2.3 Seals

12.2.4 Gears

12.2.5 Cams and Tappets

12.2.6 Piston Rings

12.2.7 Electrical Brushes


12.3.1 MEMS

12.3.2 NEMS

12.3.3 BioMEMS

12.3.4 Microfabrication Processes

12.4 Material Processing

12.4.1 Cutting Tools

12.4.2 Grinding and Lapping

12.4.3 Forming Processes

12.4.5 Cutting Fluids

12.5 Industrial Applications

12.5.1 Automotive Engines

12.5.2 Gas Turbine Engines

12.5.3 Railroads

12.5.4 Magnetic Storage Devices

12.6 Closure


13. Green Tribology and Biomimetics

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Green Tribology

13.2.1 Twelve Principles of Green Tribology

13.2.2 Areas of Green Tribology

13.3 Biomimetics

13.3.1 Lessons from Nature

13.3.2 Industrial Significance

13.4 Closure



Appendix A. Units, Conversions and Useful Relations

A.1 Fundamental Constants

A.2 Conversion of Units

A.3 Useful Relations

Subject Index (To be prepared by Wiley)

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