Introductory Chemistry : A Foundation

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2008-01-01
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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The Sixth Edition ofIntroductory Chemistry: A Foundationoffers unparalleled teaching and learning resources, with a robust technology package, in addition to the superior problem-solving pedagogy, engaging writing style, and strong emphasis on everyday applications that comprise the hallmarks of this best-selling text. Chemical reactions are covered early, to capture student interest, leaving more abstract material for later chapters. The authors explain chemical concepts by starting with the basics, using symbols or diagrams, and concluding by encouraging students to test their own comprehension of the solution. This step-by-step approach helps students develop critical problem-solving skills. Also, the accessible explanations and visualizations throughout the text motivate students and engage them in the material by helping them to connect abstract chemical principles to real-life experiences. The pedagogy includes chapter-opening discussions that introduce students to relevant applications andChemistry in Focusboxes that describe everyday applications of chemistry such as artificial sweeteners, foaming chewing gum, and fake fats. Current applications appear throughout the text with easy-to-understand explanations and analogies. New!Co-author Donald DeCoste brings experience as an author and as an instructor at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign to this new edition. New!HM Asses within Eduspace, Houghton Mifflin's Online Learning Tool, provides a diagnostic assessment tool to test students' understanding of core concepts and track student progress. New!A Multimedia eBook within Eduspace offers a one-stop resource for students to link from textbook content to study resources, including video lessons from Thinkwell, tutorials, flashcards, and ACE quizzes. New!Chapter 10, Energy, combines all the content on energy from Chapter 3 in the Fifth Edition with material on enthalpy, Hess's Law, the difference between the quality and quantity of energy, energy resources in the world, and entropy. Exercises and models such as worked-out examples, self-check exercises, and skill development boxes support the step-by-step problem-solving method. End-of-chapter material covers key terms, a summary of important facts, questions and problems arranged in matched pairs and keyed to chapter sections, additional problems that incorporate material from multiple sections, in-class discussion questions, and "Cumulative Reviews" that tests concepts from preceding chapters. The text builds and refreshes fundamental math skills such as scientific notation, rounding, and rearranging equations. In addition, Math Tips indicated by icons throughout, help students as they perform calculations. Math Review Tutorials on the Online Study Center provide practice for critical math skills. Basic Chemistry,6/e, in paperback, includes chapters 1-16 and provides basic coverage of chemical concepts and applications through acids and bases Introductory Chemistry,6/e, available in hardcover or paperback, includes chapters 1-18 and expands coverage with the addition of equilibrium, oxidation-reduction reactions, electrochemistry, radioactivity, and nuclear energy.

Table of Contents

Chemistry: An Introduction
Chemistry: An Introduction Chemistry in Focus
Dr. Ruth--Cotton Hero
What Is Chemistry?
Solving Problems Using a Scientific Approach Chemistry in Focus: A Mystifying Problem
The Scientific Method
Learning Chemistry Chemistry in Focus: Chemistry
An Important Component of Your Education
Measurements and Calculations
Scientific Notation
Units Chemistry in Focus: Critical Units!
Measurements of Length, Volume, and Mass Chemistry in Focus: Measurement
Past, Present, and Future
Uncertainty in Measurement
Significant Figures
Problem Solving and Dimensional Analysis Temperature Conversions: An Approach to Problem Solving Chemistry in Focus
Tiny Thermometers
Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes
Elements and Compounds
Mixtures and Pure Substances Chemistry in Focus
Concrete--An Ancient Material Made New
Separation of Mixtures Cumulative Review for Chapters 1-3
Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions
The Elements Chemistry in Focus: Trace Elements
Small but Crucial
Symbols for the Elements
Dalton's Atomic Theory Chemistry in Focus: No Laughing Matter
Formulas of Compounds
The Structure of the Atom Chemistry in Focus: Glowing Tubes for Signs, Television Sets, and Computers
Introduction to the Modern Concept of Atomic Structure
Isotopes Chemistry in Focus: Isotope Tales
Introduction to the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: Putting the Brakes on Arsenic
Natural States of the Elements
Compounds That Contain Ions
Naming Compounds Chemistry in Focus: Sugar of Lead
Naming Binary Compounds That Contain a Metal and a Nonmetal (Types I and II)
Naming Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Type III)
Naming Binary Compounds: A Review
Naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions
Naming Acids
Writing Formulas from Names Cumulative Review for Chapters 4-5
Chemical Reactions: An Introduction
Evidence for a Chemical Reaction
Chemical Equations
Balancing Chemical Equations Chemistry in Focus: The Beetle That Shoots Straight
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur
Reactions in Which a Solid Forms
Describing Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
Reactions That Form Water: Acids and Bases
Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals (Oxidation-Reduction)
Ways to Classify Reactions Chemistry in Focus: Do We Age by Oxidation?
Chemistry in Focus: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Launch the Space Shuttle
Other Ways to Classify Reactions Cumulative Review for Chapters 6-7
Chemical Composition
Counting by Weighing Chemistry in Focus: Plastic That Talks and Listens!
Atomic Masses: Counting Atoms by Weighing
The Mole
Molar Mass
Percent Composition of Compounds
Formulas of Compounds
Calculation of Empirical Formulas
Calculation of Molecular Formulas
Chemical Quantities
Information Given by Chemical Equations
Mole--Mole Relationships
Mass Calculations Chemistry in Focus: Methyl Alcohol
Fuel with a Future?
Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant
Percent Yield Cumulative Review for Chapters 8-9
The Nature of Energy
Temperature and Heat
Exothermic and Endothermic Processes
Measuring Energy Changes Chemistry in Focus: Coffee
Hot and Quick(lime) Chemistry in Focus: Nature Has Hot Plants Chemistry in Focus
Firewalking: Magic or Science?
Thermochemistry (Enthalpy) Chemistry in Focus: Methane
An Important Energy Source
Hess's Law
Quality Versus Quantity of Energy
Energy and Our World Chemistry in Focus: Veggie Gasoline?
Energy as a Driving Force
Modern Atomic Theory
Rutherford's Atom
Electromagnetic Radiation Chemistry in Focus: Light as a Sex Attractant Chemistry in Focus
Atmospheric Effects 307
Emission of Energy by Atoms
The Energy Levels of Hydrogen
The Bohr Model of the Atom
The Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom
The Hydrogen Orbitals
The Wave Mechanical Model: Further Development
Electron Arrangements in the First Eighteen Atoms on the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: A Magnetic Moment
Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: The Chemistry of Bohrium
Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: Fireworks
Chemical Bonding
Types of Chemical Bonds
Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
Stable Electron Configurations and Charges on Ions Chemistry in Focus: Composite Cars
Ionic Bonding and Structures of Ionic Compounds
Lewis Structures
Lewis Structures of Molecules with Multiple Bonds Chemistry in Focus: Hiding Carbon Dioxide Chemistry in Focus
Broccoli--Miracle Food?
Molecular Structure
Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model Chemistry in Focus
Taste--It's the Structure That Counts
Molecular Structure: Molecules with Double Bonds Chemistry in Focus: Minimotor Molecule Cumulative Review for Chapters 10-12
Pressure and Volume: Boyle's Law
Volume and Temperature: Charles's Law
Volume and Moles: Avogadro's Law
The Ideal Gas Law Chemistry in Focus: Snacks Need Chemistry, Too!
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Laws and Models: A Review
The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory
Gas Stoichiometry
Liquids and Solids
Water and Its Phase Changes
Energy Requirements for the Changes of State Chemistry in Focus: Whales Need Changes of State
Intermolecular Forces
Evaporation and Vapor Pressure
The Solid State: Types of Solids
Bonding in Solids Chemistry in Focus: Metal with a Memory
Solubility Chemistry in Focus: Green Chemistry
Solution Composition: An Introduction
Solution Composition: Mass Percent
Solution Composition: Molarity
Stoichiometry of Solution Reactions
Neutralization Reactions
Solution Composition: Normality Cumulative Review for Chapters 13-15
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases Chemistry in Focus: Gum That Foams
Acid Strength Chemistry in Focus: Carbonation--A Cool Trick Chemistry in Focus
Plants Fight Back
Water as an Acid and a Base
The pH Scale Chemistry in Focus: Airplane Rash Chemistry in Focus: Garden-Variety Acid-Base Indicators
Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions
Buffered Solutions
How Chemical Reactions Occur
Conditions That Affect Reaction Rates Chemistry in Focus: Protecting the Ozone
The Equilibrium Condition
Chemical Equilibrium: A Dynamic Condition
The Equilibrium Constant: An Introduction
Heterogeneous Equilibria
Le Ch?telier's Principle
Applications Involving the Equilibrium Constant
Solubility Equilibria Cumulative Review for Chapters 16-17
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Electrochemistry
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation States
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Between Nonmetals
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions by the Half-Reaction Method
Electrochemistry: An Introduction
Corrosion Chemistry in Focus: Stainless Steel
It's the Pits
Electrolysis Chemistry in Focus: Water-Powered Fireplace
Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy
Radioactive Decay
Nuclear Transformations
Detection of Radioactivity and the Concept of Half-life
Dating by Radioactivity Chemistry in Focus: Dating Diamonds
Medical Applications of Radioactivity
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Reactors Chemistry in Focus: Future Nuclear Power
Nuclear Fusion
Effects of Radiation Chemistry in Focus: Nuclear Waste Disposal
Organic Chemistry
Carbon Bonding
Structural Formulas and Isomerism
Naming Alkanes
Reactions of Alkanes
Alkenes and Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Naming Aromatic Compounds Chemistry in Focus: Termite Mothballing
Functional Groups
Properties and Uses of Alcohols
Aldehydes and Ketones
Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Polymers Chemistry in Focus: The Chemistry of Music Chemistry in Focus
Polymers Are Tacky
Primary Structure of Proteins
Secondary Structure of Proteins
Tertiary Structure of Proteins
Functions of Proteins
Enzymes Chemistry in Focus: Urine Farming
Carbohydrates Chemistry in Focus: Great Expectations?
The Chemistry of Placebos
Nucleic Acids
Using Your Calculator Basic Algebra Scientific (Exponential)
Notation Graphing Functions
SI Units and Conversion Factors
Solutions to Self-Check
Answers to Even-Numbered
Questions and Exercises
Answers to Even-Numbered Cumulative
Review Exercises
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