9780521634939

The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521634939

  • ISBN10:

    0521634938

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-11-13
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Summary

In order to distinguish between those who may and may not enter or leave, states everywhere have developed extensive systems of identification, central to which is the passport. This innovative book argues that documents such as passports, internal passports and related mechanisms have been crucial in making distinctions between citizens and non-citizens. It examines how the concept of citizenship has been used to delineate rights and penalties regarding property, liberty, taxes and welfare. It focuses on the US and Western Europe, moving from revolutionary France to the Napoleonic era, the American Civil War, the British industrial revolution, pre-World War I Italy, the reign of Germany's Third Reich and beyond. This innovative study combines theory and empirical data in questioning how and why states have established the exclusive right to authorize and regulate the movement of people.

Author Biography

John Torpey is an Assistant Professor of Sociology and Chair of the International Studies Faculty Board at the University of California, Irvine.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xi
Introduction 1(3)
Coming and Going: On the State Monopolization of the Legitimate ``Means of Movement''
4(17)
Monopolizing the legitimate means of movement
6(4)
Modern states: ``penetrating'' or ``embracing''?
10(4)
Getting a grip: institutionalizing the nation-state
14(4)
The prevalence of passport controls in absolutist Europe
18(3)
``Argus of the Patrie'': The Passport Question in the French Revolution
21(36)
The passport problem at the end of the Old Regime
21(4)
The flight of the King and the revolutionary renewal of passport controls
25(4)
The Constitution of 1791 and the elimination of passport controls
29(3)
The debate over passport controls of early 1792
32(4)
A detailed examination of the new passport law
36(8)
Passports and freedom of movement under the Convention
44(7)
Passport concerns of the Directory
51(6)
Sweeping Out Augeas's Stable: The Nineteenth-Century Trend Toward Freedom of Movement
57(36)
From the emancipation of the peasantry to the end of the Napoleonic era
58(8)
Prussian backwardness? A comparative look at the situation in the United Kingdom
66(5)
Freedom of movement and citizenship in early nineteenth-century Germany
71(4)
Toward the relaxation of passport controls in the German lands
75(6)
The decriminalization of travel in the North German Confederation
81(7)
Broader Significance of the 1867 law
88(5)
Toward the ``Crustacean Type of Nation'': The Proliferation of Identification Documents From the Late Nineteenth Century to the First World War
93(29)
Passport controls and state development in the United States
93(3)
Paper walls: Passports and Chinese exclusion
96(5)
The ``nationalization'' of immigration restriction in the United States
101(2)
Sovereignty and dependence: The Italian passport law of 1901
103(2)
The spread of identification documents for foreigners in France
105(3)
The resurrection of passport controls in late nineteenth-century Germany
108(3)
The First World War and the ``temporary'' reimposition of passport controls
111(5)
``Temporary'' passport controls become permanent
116(1)
The United States and the end of the laissez faire era in migration
117(5)
From National to Postnational? Passports and Constraints on Movement from the Interwar to the Postwar Era
122(36)
The emergence of the international refugee regime in the early interwar period
124(7)
Passports, identity papers, and the Nazi persecution of the Jews
131(12)
Loosening up: Passport controls and regional integration in postwar Europe
143(15)
Conclusion: A Typology of ``Papers'' 158(1)
International passports 159(5)
Internal passports 164(1)
Identity cards 165(3)
Notes 168(23)
References 191(12)
Index 203

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